Mazovia
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Mazovia
Mazovia

Mazowsze
POL województwo mazowieckie IRP COA.svg
Coat of arms
Three historical Mazovian voivodeships in comparison with contemporary Polish voivodeships
Three historical Mazovian voivodeships in comparison with contemporary Polish voivodeships
Country Poland
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 o Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)

Mazovia (Polish: Mazowsze) is a historical region in mid-north-eastern Poland. It spans the North European Plain, roughly between Lodz and Bialystok, with Warsaw being the unofficial capital and largest city. Throughout the centuries, Mazovia developed a separate sub-culture featuring diverse folk songs, architecture, dress and traditions different from those of other Poles.

Historical Mazovia existed from the Middle Ages until the partitions of Poland and consisted of three voivodeships with the capitals in Warsaw, P?ock and Rawa. The main city of the region was P?ock;[1] however, in Early Modern Times P?ock lost its importance to Warsaw, which became the capital of Poland. From 1138, Mazovia was governed by a separate branch of the Piast dynasty and when the last ruler of the independent Duchy of Mazovia died, it was fully incorporated to the Polish Crown in 1526. During the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth over 20% of Mazovian population was categorized as petty nobility. Between 1816 and 1844, the Mazovian Governorate was established, which encompassed the south of the region along with czyca Land and south-eastern Kuyavia. The former inhabitants of Mazovia are the Masurians, who, as Protestants, took refuge in neighboring East Prussia in the later so-called region of Masuria.

The borders of contemporary Mazovian Voivodeship (province), which was created in 1999, do not exactly reflect the original size of Mazovia, as they do not include the historically Mazovian cities of ?om?a and ?owicz, but include the historically Lesser Polish cities of Radom and Siedlce.

Geography

Historical lands of Mazovia

Mazovia has a landscape without hills (in contrast to Lesser Poland) and without lakes (in contrast to Greater Poland). It is spread over the Mazovian Lowland, on both sides of the Vistula river and its confluence with Narew and Bug. Forests (mainly coniferous) cover one-fifth of the region, with the large Kampinos Forest, Puszcza Bia?a and Puszcza Zielona.

In the north Mazovia borders on the Masurian subregion of former Prussia, in the east on Podlachia, in the south on Lesser Poland and in the west on Greater Poland (subregions of czyca Land, Kujawy and Dobrzy? Land). The area of Mazovia is 33,500 km2. It has population of 5 million (3 million of them inhabit the metropolis of Warsaw).

History

When the Slavs came to this region from the surrounding area of Polesie, they mingled with the descendants of Vistula Veneti[2][3] and with other people who had settled here such as the Wielbark people.[4] This created a Lechitic tribe: Mazovians.

The historical region of Mazovia (Mazowsze) in the beginning encompassed only the territories on the right bank of Vistula near P?ock and had strong connections with Greater Poland (through W?oc?awek and Kruszwica). In the period of the rule of the first monarchs of the Piast State, P?ock was one of their seats, and on the Cathedral Hill (Wzgórze Tumskie) they raised palatium. In the period 1037-1047 it was the capital of the independent, Mazovian state of Mas?aw. Between 1079 and 1138 this city was de facto the capital of Poland. Since 1075 it has been the seat of the diocese encompassing northern Mazovia; the south formed the archdeaconate of Czersk belonging to Pozna?, and the Duchy of ?owicz was part of the Gniezno archdiocese (this division remained as long as until the Partitions of Poland).

Tombstone of Janusz III and his brother Stanis?aw in St. John's Archcathedral, Warsaw

During the 9th century Mazovia was perhaps inhabited by the tribe of Mazovians, and it was incorporated into the Polish state in the second half of 10th century under the Piast ruler Mieszko I. In 1138 the duchy of Mazovia was established, and during the 12th and 13th centuries it joined temporarily various adjacent lands and endured invasions of Prussians, Yotvingians, and Ruthenians. To protect its northern section Conrad I of Mazovia called in the Teutonic Knights in 1226 and granted them the Che?mno Land.

After the reunification of the Polish state by W?adys?aw I in the early 14th century, Mazovia became its fief in 1351. In the second half of 15th century western Mazovia and in 1526/1529 the main part (with its capital in Warsaw) was incorporated into the Polish state. In the 15th century the eastern part of the region (?om?a) was settled, mainly by the yeomanry (drobna szlachta). Mazovia was considered underdeveloped in comparison with Greater Poland and Lesser Poland, with the lowest urban population.

In the Early Modern Times Mazovia was known for exporting grain, timber, and fur. It was also distinct because there was no reformation here. Mazovia was divided into three voivodeships, each of them divided into lands (Polish: ziemie, Latin: terrae), each of them divided into counties (Polish: powiaty, Latin: districtus). The Polish-Lithuanian Union of Lublin (1569) established Mazovia as the central region of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, with Warsaw rising to prominence as the seat of the state legislature (sejm). In 1596 King Sigismund III Vasa moved the Polish capital from Kraków to Warsaw. During the 17th and 18th centuries Swedish, Transylvanian, Saxon, and Russian invasions wreaked havoc on the region.

In 1793 western Mazovia, and two years later the rest of the region became part of Prussia (only the south-eastern portion was annexed by Austria). In 1807 it became part of the Duchy of Warsaw. In 1815 the region was incorporated into the Congress Kingdom of Poland, which was dependent on Russia. In the 19th century Mazovia was the site of Polish rebellions against Russian rule. In that era pre-partition Mazovia was divided among Warsaw, P?ock and Augustów (the last one replaced later by ?om?a).

Since 1918 Mazovia has been a part of the resurrected Poland, being roughly equivalent to the Warsaw Voivodeship. Under the German occupation of Warsaw during World War II, the city's population decreased sharply as a result of executions, the extermination of the city's Jews, the deaths of some 200,000 inhabitants during the Warsaw Uprising of 1944, and the deportation of the city's left-bank population following the uprising. Shortly after the uprising, Adolf Hitler ordered German troops to destroy the city. The rebuilding of the Polish capital was the main task of the postwar period.[5] Those times Warsaw Voivodeship was still roughly similar to historical Mazovia and used to be informally called so, but in 1975 it was divided into several little voivodeships. However, in 1999 Mazovian Voivodeship was created as one of 16 administrative regions of Poland.

Culture

Folk costumes from ?owicz sub-region

Mazovian dialect

The Mazovian language probably existed as a separate dialect until the 20th century.[6][7][8][9][10] The ethnonym Mazur has given the name for a phonetic phenomenon known as mazurzenie (although it is common in the Lesser Polish dialect as well).

Local cuisine

There is no specific regional cuisine of Mazovia. Formerly, dairy foods dominated the peasant cuisine. Nobles used poultry, geese, chickens and ducks. The most separate Mazovian culinary region's is Kurpie and ?owicz, where traditional dishes survive to the present day. In Kurpie, traditional dishes are prepared with ingredients collected in the forest: berries, honey and mushrooms. There are several traditional Polish dishes like flaki, kluski, which are prepared in different way than in other parts of Poland.[11][12]

Economy

Mazovian Voivodeship is ranked decidedly first in Poland according to the Gross Domestic Product.[13] This is thanks to Warsaw, which is a financial centre of East-Central Europe.[14][15] The majority of state enterprises are headquartered in this metropolis. It is a hub for both rail and vehicular traffic, with access throughout Poland and across Europe. Warsaw Chopin Airport is the nation's busiest. There are many branches of industry and services well developed in this city. The other eonomical center is P?ock, where large petrochemical plants PKN Orlen operate. The rest of Mazovia belongs to the poorest parts of Poland. In the agriculture the most typical Mazovian crops are potatoes and rye, but the most popular (as in whole Poland) is wheat. Others are barley, sugar beets, fruits (with their biggest Polish basin in the south of the region), and vegetables. Pigs are commonly bred, often also cows and chickens.

Tourism

Kampinos National Park is one of Poland's largest national parks and is popular with tourists making day trips from Warsaw to hike among the park's primeval forests, sand dunes, and marshland. The main cultural centre of the region, and, alongside Kraków, in all of Poland, is Warsaw, which is home to dozens of theatres, the National Philharmonic, the National Opera House, the National Library, the National Museum, Centrum Nauki Kopernik, Muzeum Powstania Warszawskiego, Temple of Divine Providence, and the Sanctuary of Blessed Jerzy Popie?uszko. Warsaw has many magnificent historic buildings and monuments, including those in the Old Town and the New Town, both of which were almost completely demolished during World War II but were meticulously restored and were designated UNESCO World Heritage sites in 1980. Several important edifices has been built at the adjacent street Krakowskie Przedmie?cie. There are also royal palaces and gardens of ?azienki and Wilanów. The most interesting building from post-war period is Pa?ac Kultury i Nauki.

Historical monuments elsewhere include the manor house in ?elazowa Wola where composer Frédéric Chopin was born and his museum is located nowadays. P?ock, once the seat of the Mazovian princes, and ?owicz, the residence of the archbishops of Gniezno, are noted for their cathedrals. There are also palaces and parks in Nieborów and Arkadia, the Modlin Fortress, castles in Czersk, Pu?tusk, Ciechanów, Opinogóra, Rawa Mazowiecka, Sochaczew and Liw, as well as churches in Niepokalanów, Góra Kalwaria, Warka, Skierniewice, Czerwi?sk, Wyszogród, Zakroczym, Szre?sk, Przasnysz, Ostroka, ?om?a, Szczuczyn, Wizna, Brok, Zuzela, Rostkowo, and Boguszyce. Interesting folklore is found in the subregion of Kurpie; another skansen has been established in Sierpc.[16]

Main cities and towns

Warsaw Old Town
P?ock Castle
?om?a Cathedral
Sokó? Palace in Pruszków
Castle in Rawa Mazowiecka
Regional museum in Ostroka
Market Square in Pu?tusk

The following table lists the cities in Mazovia with a population greater than 20,000 (2015):

City Population (2015)[17] Voivodeship in 1750 Voivodeship in 2016 Additional information
1. POL Warszawa COA.svg Warsaw 1 724 404 POL województwo mazowieckie IRP COA.svg Masovian Voivodeship POL województwo mazowieckie COA.svg Masovian Voivodeship Capital of Poland, former royal city of Poland.
2. POL P?ock COA.svg P?ock 122 815 POL województwo p?ockie COA.svg P?ock Voivodeship POL województwo mazowieckie COA.svg Masovian Voivodeship Historical capital of Masovia, former capital of Poland, former royal city of Poland.
3. POL ?om?a COA.svg ?om?a 62 711 POL województwo mazowieckie IRP COA.svg Masovian Voivodeship POL województwo podlaskie COA.svg Podlaskie Voivodeship Former royal city of Poland.
4. POL Pruszków COA.svg Pruszków 59 570 POL województwo mazowieckie IRP COA.svg Masovian Voivodeship POL województwo mazowieckie COA.svg Masovian Voivodeship Part of the Warsaw metropolitan area.
5. POL Legionowo COA.svg Legionowo 54 231 POL województwo mazowieckie IRP COA.svg Masovian Voivodeship POL województwo mazowieckie COA.svg Masovian Voivodeship Part of the Warsaw metropolitan area.
6. POL Ostroka COA.svg Ostroka 52 917 POL województwo mazowieckie IRP COA.svg Masovian Voivodeship POL województwo mazowieckie COA.svg Masovian Voivodeship Former royal city of Poland.
7. POL Skierniewice COA.svg Skierniewice 48 634 POL województwo rawskie IRP COA.svg Rawa Voivodeship POL województwo ?ódzkie COA.svg ?ód? Voivodeship Former private bishop town of Poland.
8. POL Otwock COA.svg Otwock 45 044 POL województwo mazowieckie IRP COA.svg Masovian Voivodeship POL województwo mazowieckie COA.svg Masovian Voivodeship Part of the Warsaw metropolitan area.
9. POL Piaseczno COA.svg Piaseczno 44 869 POL województwo mazowieckie IRP COA.svg Masovian Voivodeship POL województwo mazowieckie COA.svg Masovian Voivodeship Former royal city of Poland, part of the Warsaw metropolitan area.
10. POL Ciechanów COA.svg Ciechanów 44 797 POL województwo mazowieckie IRP COA.svg Masovian Voivodeship POL województwo mazowieckie COA.svg Masovian Voivodeship Former royal city of Poland.
11. POL ?yrardów COA.svg ?yrardów 41 096 POL województwo rawskie IRP COA.svg Rawa Voivodeship POL województwo mazowieckie COA.svg Masovian Voivodeship
12. POL Mi?sk Mazowiecki COA.svg Mi?sk Mazowiecki 39 880 POL województwo mazowieckie IRP COA.svg Masovian Voivodeship POL województwo mazowieckie COA.svg Masovian Voivodeship Part of the Warsaw metropolitan area.
13. POL Wo?omin COA 1.svg Wo?omin 37 505 POL województwo mazowieckie IRP COA.svg Masovian Voivodeship POL województwo mazowieckie COA.svg Masovian Voivodeship Part of the Warsaw metropolitan area.
14. POL Sochaczew COA.svg Sochaczew 37 480 POL województwo rawskie IRP COA.svg Rawa Voivodeship POL województwo mazowieckie COA.svg Masovian Voivodeship Former royal city of Poland.
15. POL Z?bki COA.svg Z?bki 31 884 POL województwo mazowieckie IRP COA.svg Masovian Voivodeship POL województwo mazowieckie COA.svg Masovian Voivodeship Part of the Warsaw metropolitan area.
16. POL M?awa COA.svg M?awa 30 880 POL województwo p?ockie COA.svg P?ock Voivodeship POL województwo mazowieckie COA.svg Masovian Voivodeship Former royal city of Poland.
17. POL Grodzisk Mazowiecki COA.svg Grodzisk Mazowiecki 29 907 POL województwo rawskie IRP COA.svg Rawa Voivodeship POL województwo mazowieckie COA.svg Masovian Voivodeship Former private town of the Mokronoski family, part of the Warsaw metropolitan area.
18. POL ?owicz COA.svg ?owicz 29 420 POL województwo rawskie IRP COA.svg Rawa Voivodeship POL województwo ?ódzkie COA.svg ?ód? Voivodeship Temporary de facto capital of Poland in years 1572-1573, former private bishop town.
19. POL Marki COA.svg Marki 29 032 POL województwo mazowieckie IRP COA.svg Masovian Voivodeship POL województwo mazowieckie COA.svg Masovian Voivodeship Part of the Warsaw metropolitan area.
20. POL Nowy Dwór Mazowiecki COA.svg Nowy Dwór Mazowiecki 28 287 POL województwo mazowieckie IRP COA.svg Masovian Voivodeship POL województwo mazowieckie COA.svg Masovian Voivodeship Former private town, part of the Warsaw metropolitan area.
21. POL Wyszków COA.svg Wyszków 27 222 POL województwo mazowieckie IRP COA.svg Masovian Voivodeship POL województwo mazowieckie COA.svg Masovian Voivodeship Former private bishop town of Poland.
22. POL Piastów COA 1.svg Piastów 22 826 POL województwo mazowieckie IRP COA.svg Masovian Voivodeship POL województwo mazowieckie COA.svg Masovian Voivodeship Part of the Warsaw metropolitan area.
23. POL Ostrów Mazowiecka COA.svg Ostrów Mazowiecka 22 796 POL województwo mazowieckie IRP COA.svg Masovian Voivodeship POL województwo mazowieckie COA.svg Masovian Voivodeship Former royal city of Poland.
24. POL P?o?sk COA.svg P?o?sk 22 494 POL województwo p?ockie COA.svg P?ock Voivodeship POL województwo mazowieckie COA.svg Masovian Voivodeship Former royal city of Poland.
25. POL Zambrów COA.svg Zambrów 22 451 POL województwo mazowieckie IRP COA.svg Masovian Voivodeship POL województwo podlaskie COA.svg Podlaskie Voivodeship Former royal city of Poland.
26. POL Grajewo COA.svg Grajewo 22 246 POL województwo mazowieckie IRP COA.svg Masovian Voivodeship POL województwo podlaskie COA.svg Podlaskie Voivodeship Northernmost and easternmost town of Mazovia. It borders the regions of Podlachia and Masuria.
27. POL Koby?ka COA.svg Koby?ka 20 855 POL województwo mazowieckie IRP COA.svg Masovian Voivodeship POL województwo mazowieckie COA.svg Masovian Voivodeship Part of the Warsaw metropolitan area.

Gallery

See also

External links

References

  1. ^ Mazowsze: Obraz Etnograficzny, Volume 1, by Wojciech Gerson and Oskar Kolberg, BiblioBazaar, 2009 - 372 pages
  2. ^ Roland Steinacher: Vandalen. Rezeptions- und Wissenschaftsgeschichte. In: Hubert Cancik (Hrsg.): Der Neue Pauly, Band 15/3. Metzler, Stuttgart 2003, S. 942-946, ISBN 3-476-01489-4
  3. ^ Roland Steinacher: Wenden, Slawen, Vandalen. Eine frühmittelalterliche pseudologische Gleichsetzung und ihre Nachwirkungen bis ins 18. Jahrhundert. In: Walter Pohl (Hrsg.): Die Suche nach den Ursprüngen. Von der Bedeutung des frühen Mittelalters (Forschungen zur Geschichte des Mittelalters; Bd. 8). Verlag der ÖAW, Wien 2004, S. 329-353, ISBN 3-7001-3296-4.
  4. ^ J. Piontek et al. "Odontological analysis of central european populations from the Roman period and the Early Middle Ages". Humanbiologia Budapestinensis. 30. 2007. pp. 77-86. [1]
  5. ^ "Mazowieckie | province, Poland | Encyclopædia Britannica". britannica.com. Retrieved 2015.
  6. ^ "Full text of "Historya Uniwersytetu Jagiello?skiego: Srednie wieki i odrodzenie. Z wstepem o Uniwersytecie ..."". archive.org. Retrieved 2015.
  7. ^ Felicyan Antoni Koz?owski (1858). Dzieje Mazows?a za panowania ksiat. Warszawa.
  8. ^ Kopernikijana czyli materyaly do pism i zycia Mikolaja Kopernika. 1873.
  9. ^ Maciejowski, W.A. (1852). Pi?miennictwo polskie, od czasów najdawniejszych a? do roku 1830: z r?kopisów i druków zebrawszy, w obrazie literatury polskiej historycznie skre?lonym. 2. Nak?adem i drukiem S. Orgelbranda. p. 327. Retrieved 2015.
  10. ^ "Mitteilungen : Literarische Gesellschaft Masovia : Free Download & Streaming : Internet Archive". archive.org. Retrieved 2015.
  11. ^ Kuchnia Mazowsza i Kurpiów - Kuchnia Polska
  12. ^ Potrawy mazowieckie - Kuron.com.pl
  13. ^ "Mazowsze jest i b?dzie najbogatsze w Polsce - Analizy rynku - Forsal.pl - Gie?da, Waluty, Finanse - forex, notowania NBP, surowce". forsal.pl. Retrieved 2015.
  14. ^ Warsaw: Central Europe's Bourse to Beat - BusinessWeek
  15. ^ Warsaw makes bid to become Central Europe's financial hub - Taipei Times
  16. ^ "Mazowieckie | province, Poland | Encyclopædia Britannica". britannica.com. Retrieved 2015.
  17. ^ http://www.polskawliczbach.pl/Miasta


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