A media conglomerate, media group, or media institution is a company that owns numerous companies involved in mass media enterprises, such as television, radio, publishing, motion pictures, theme parks, or the Internet. According to the magazine The Nation, "Media conglomerates strive for policies that facilitate their control of the markets around the world."
Some media conglomerates use their access in multiple areas to share various kinds of content such as: news, video and music, between users. The media sector's tendency to consolidate has caused formerly diversified companies to appear less diverse to prospective investors in comparison with similar companies that are traded publicly and privately. Therefore, the term media group may also be applied, however, it has not yet replaced the more traditional term.
Critics have accused the large media conglomerates of dominating the media and using unfair practices. During a protest in November 2007, critics such as Jesse Jackson spoke out against consolidation of the media. This can be seen in the news industry, where corporations refuse to publicize information that would be harmful to their interests. Because some corporations do not publish any material that criticizes them or their interests, media conglomerates have been criticized for limiting free speech or not protecting free speech. These practices are also suspected of contributing to the merging of entertainment and news (sensationalism) at the expense of the coverage of serious issues. They are also accused of being a leading force behind the standardization of culture (see globalization,Americanization) and are frequently criticized by groups that perceive news organizations as being biased toward special interests of the owners.
Because these conglomerates have so much power and influence, critics[who?] bring up the question of whether that amount of power is justifiable. It can and is easily abused. Some[who?] wonder if it's better to lessen the amount of conglomerates to reduce the likeliness of unfair practices.
There is also criticism[according to whom?] that the concentration of media ownership reduces diversity in both ownership and programming of TV shows and radio programs. Because there are fewer independent media, there is less diversity in news and entertainment and therefore less competition. This can result in the reduction of different points of view as well as vocalization about different issues. There is also a lack of ethnic and gender diversity as a majority of those in media[where?] are white, middle-class men. There is a concern that their views are being shared disproportionately more than other groups, such as women and ethnic minorities[which?]. Women and minorities also have less ownership of media. Women have less than 7 percent of TV and radio licenses, and minorities have around 7 percent of radio licenses and 3 percent of TV licenses.
In the 2020 Forbes Global 2000 list, AT&T was America's largest media conglomerate, in terms of revenue, with Comcast, The Walt Disney Company, & ViacomCBS (controlled by National Amusements through supervoting shares) completing the top four.
In 1984, fifty independent media companies owned the majority of media interests within the United States. By 2011, 90% of the United States's media was controlled by six media conglomerates: GE/Comcast (NBC, Universal), News Corp (Fox News, Wall Street Journal, New York Post), Disney (ABC, ESPN, Pixar), Viacom (MTV, BET, Paramount Pictures), Time Warner (CNN, HBO, Warner Bros.), and CBS (Showtime, NFL.com).
Between 1941 and 1975, several laws that restricted channel ownership within radio and television were enacted in order to maintain unbiased and diverse media. However under the Reagan administration, Congress and the Federal Communications Commission, then led by FCC Chairman Mark S. Fowler, began a concerted deregulation over the years 1981 and 1985. The number of television stations a single entity can own increased from seven to 12 stations.
The industry continued to deregulate with enactment of the Telecommunications Act of 1996. Signed by President Bill Clinton on 8 February 1996, it was considered by the FCC to be the "first major overhaul of telecommunications law in almost 62 years". In the radio industry, the 40-station ownership cap was lifted, leading to an unprecedented amount of consolidation. Since this period, Clear Channel Communications grew from 40 stations to 1200 stations, in all 50 states, while Viacom grew to owning 180 stations across 41 markets.
As media consolidation grew, some in the nation began to speculate how it might negatively impact society at large. In the case of Minot, North Dakota, the concerns regarding media consolidation is realized. On 18 January 2002, a train containing hazardous chemicals derailed in the middle of the night, exposing countless Minot residents to toxic waste. Upon trying to get out an emergency broadcast, the Minot police were unable to reach anyone. They were instead forwarded to the same automated message, as all the broadcast stations in Minot were single-handedly owned by Clear Channel Communications. As the FCC reviews media ownership rules, broadcasters continued to petition it for the elimination of all rules, while those who are against this easing would often cite the incident in Minot as how consolidation could be harmful.
Like the United States, Canada, Australia, the Philippines, and New Zealand also experience the concentration of multiple media enterprises in a few companies. This concentration is an ongoing concern for the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission, the Australian Communications and Media Authority, the Philippine National Telecommunications Commission, and New Zealand's Broadcasting Standards Authority. Other countries that have large media conglomerates with impacts on the world include: Japan, Germany, the United Kingdom, Italy, France, China, and Brazil. Media conglomerates outside of the United States include Yomiuri Shimbun Holdings, ProSiebenSat.1, Hubert Burda Meda, Fuji Media Holdings, ITV, Mediaset, Axel Springer, JCDecaux, China Central Television, ABS-CBN Corporation, GMA Network, Inc., Asahi Shimbun Company, Grupo Globo, Baidu, and Bertelsmann.
|Comcast||The Walt Disney Company||ViacomCBS||AT&T||Access Industries||Discovery, Inc.||Hasbro|
|Movie production||Universal Filmed Entertainment Group||Walt Disney Studios, UTV Motion Pictures (India)||Paramount Motion Pictures Group||Warner Bros. Pictures Group, New Line Cinema||AI Film (UK), RatPac-Dune Entertainment (controlling stake), Access Entertainment (US)||Lionsgate Films (3%)||Allspark Pictures, Entertainment One Films|
|TV production||NBCUniversal Content Studios, Sky Studios, DWA Television||Disney TV Studios, It's a Laugh Productions, Disney TV Animation, FX Productions, Freeform Productions, Marvel TV||Paramount TV Studios, Nickelodeon Animation Studio, CBS Films, CBS TV Studios||WB TV Group, WB Animation, WBITVP, Cartoon Network Studios||Amedia (majority stake) (RU)||Discovery Studios, All3Media (50%), Lionsgate Television (3%)||Allspark, Allspark Animation (US), Boulder Media (IE), Entertainment One Television|
|Broadcast TV network||NBC, Cozi TV, Sky,
|ABC, LWN (US); Super RTL (50%), RTL2 (15.75% DE)||CBS, The CW (50%), Decades (JV)||Chilevision, The CW (50%)||R.G.E. Group (33%) (IL)||Discovery International|
|Cable channels||NBCUniversal Cable, Sky||Disney Channels, UTV net, A&E Networks (50%), Fox Nets Group, Freeform, FX Networks, NatGeo Net (73%)||ViacomCBS Domestic Media Networks, ViacomCBS Networks International||TBS, TNT, TruTV, Cartoon Network, HBO||Discovery Networks U.S., Discovery International||Discovery Family (40%)|
|News, business channels/
|NBCUniversal News Group, Sky News||ABC News, ABC News Radio||CBS News, CBSN||CNN, HLN|
|National sports networks/
|NBC Sports Group, Sky Sports, NHL Network (15.6%)||ESPN Inc. (80%)||CBS Sports||Turner Sports, AT&T SportsNet, MLB Network (16%), NBA TV||Sports Channel (IL)||Eurosport (Europe), DSport (India)|
|Back Lot Music||ABC Audio, Disney Music Group, Fox Music, Marvel New Media, Radio Disney Networks||Comedy Central Records, Nick Records, CBS Records||WaterTower Music||Warner Music Group||eOne Music|
|Publishing||Marvel Comics, National Geographic (73%), Disney Publishing Worldwide||Simon & Schuster||DC Comics, MAD Magazine||Golf Digest, Golf World; Motor Trend Group (joint-venture)|
|OTT||Peacock, Now TV, Sky Go, Xumo||Disney+, Hulu,[a]ESPN+, Hotstar, Marvel Unlimited||CBS All Access, Pluto TV, BET+, Noggin, Showtime||HBO Max, AT&T TV Now, HBO Now, DC Universe, Boomerang, Crunchyroll,||DAZN (85%)||GolfTV|
|Internet||Fandango (70%)||Disney Online, Disney Digital Network||MTV New Media, CNET||Fandango (30%), Otter Media||Deezer||Group Nine Media (35%)|
|Telecommunications||Xfinity, Sky Broadband||Walt Disney DTCI Inc.||AT&T Communications||ICE Group|
|Video games||Universal Brand Development||Disney Games and Interactive Experiences, Marvel Games, LucasArts||Paramount Digital Entertainment||Warner Bros. Interactive Entertainment, Rooster Teeth Games||Archetype Entertainment, Tuque Games|
|2018 Revenues||NBCUniversal: US$33 billion
||US$59.4 billion||Viacom: US$13 billion
CBS Corporation: US$14.5 billion
|WarnerMedia: US$31.5 billion||US$17 billion||US$10.6 billion||US$4.7 billion|
|Sony (Japan)||Bertelsmann (Germany)||Vivendi (France)||Liberty Global (UK/US/NL)||Essel Group (India)||CT Corp (Indonesia)||Televisa (Mexico)||Grupo Globo (Brazil)||ABS-CBN Corporation (Philippines)||The Times Group (India)||PLDT (Philippines)|
|Movie production||Sony Pictures Motion Picture Group, Sony Pictures Entertainment Japan (Japan)||UFA||Eagle Rock Entertainment (UK), StudioCanal (FR), Polygram (US)||Lionsgate Films (US, 3.5%)||Zee Studios||Transinema Pictures||Videocine||Globo Filmes||Star Cinema, Skylight Films||Mirchi Movies Limited, Junglee Pictures Limited||Cignal Entertainment|
|TV production||Sony Pictures Television (US), Syco (US & UK)||Fremantle (UK)||Banijay Entertainment, Zodiak Media (26.2%), Endemol, Endemol Shine Group||All3Media (UK, 50%), Lionsgate Television (US, 3.5%)||Essel Vision Productions||Estúdios Globo||ABS-CBN Entertainment, Dreamscape Entertainment, Star Creatives TV||Metropolitan Media Company Limited|
|Broadcast TV network||GetTV (US)||Buzzr (US)
RTL Group (LU)
|Canal+ Group||Telenet (BE, 58%), Ziggo (NL, 50%), ITV plc (UK, minority), Virgin Media Television (IRL)||Zee Media Corporation, Zee Entertainment Enterprises||Trans TV, Trans7||Las Estrellas, Canal 5, Canal 9, FOROtv||Rede Globo, Globosat (Brazil), Globo TV International||ABS-CBN||Times Global Broadcasting and Zoom Entertainment Network||5|
|Cable channels||Sony Pictures Television Networks||SBS-in (JV)||Televisa Networks||Creative Programs, ABS-CBN Global||Times Music, Movies Now, Romedy Now||Colours, One Screen, PBA Rush, Sari-Sari Channel|
|News, business channels/
|CNews||Zee News||CNN Indonesia (JV)||GloboNews||ABS-CBN News, ABS-CBN News Channel||ET Now, Lead India, Mirror Now , Times Now||News5, One News, One PH|
|National sports networks/
|Sony ESPN (India)||Sports Channel (IL)||Canal Sport||Ziggo Sport (NL, 50%)||Golf Channel Indonesia (JV), Golf+||TDN||SporTV||ABS-CBN Sports, ABS-CBN Sports+Action||One Sports, One Sports (TV channel), One Sports+|
|Sony Music Group (US), EMI Music Publishing (UK, 38%), Sony Music Entertainment Japan (Japan)||BMG||Universal Music Group||Zee Music Company||Trans Talent Management||Som Livre||MOR Philippines, Radyo Patrol, Star Music||Zoom, Radio Mirchi||Radyo5|
|Publishing||Gruner + Jahr, Penguin Random House (US, UK 53%), Bertelsmann Printing Group||Editis||Editorial Televisa, Intermex||Editora Globo||ABS-CBN Publishing||The Times of India, The Economic Times, Navbharat Times, The Illustrated Weekly of India||The Philippine Star (51%), BusinessWorld (70%)|
|OTT||FunimationNow||zee||Blim||Globoplay||iWant TFC, Sky On Demand||Gaana.com||Cignal Play|
|Internet||Dailymotion||playwin||detik Network||Comercio Más, Televisa Digital||Globo.com||ABS-CBN Digital Media||BoxTV.com, CricBuzz, TimesJobs, SimplyMarry, MagicBricks, ZigWheels|
|Telecommunications||Sony Mobile, So-net||UPC Broadband (Europe), Virgin Media (UK), Telenet (Belgium) (58%), Vodafone Netherlands (50%)||Izzi Telecom||ABS-CBN Convergence (68%), Sky Cable Corporation (59.4%)||PLDT, Smart, TNT, Sun Cellular, Cignal TV|
|Video games||Sony Interactive Entertainment, Unties||Gameloft||ABS-CBN Multimedia|
|2018 Revenues||Sony Entertainment: US$15.1 billion||US$20.30 billion||EUR14 billion||US$12 billion||US$110 million||Trans Corp: US$207.6 million||US$4.81 billion||US$4.4 billion||US$760 million||US$1.5 billion (2016)||US$3,381 million|