Media of Japan
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Media of Japan

The communications media of Japan include numerous television and radio networks as well as newspapers and magazines in Japan. For the most part, television networks were established based on capital investments by existing radio networks. For the most part, variety shows, serial dramas, and news constitute a large percentage of Japanese evening shows.

Western movies are also shown, many with a subchannel for English. There are all-English television channels on cable and satellite (with Japanese subtitles).

TV networks

There are 6 nationwide television networks, as follows:

  1. NHK is a public service broadcaster. The company is financed through "viewer fees," similar to the licence fee system used in the UK to fund the BBC. NHK deliberately maintains neutral reporting as a public broadcast station, even refusing to mention commodity brand names.[1] NHK has 2 terrestrial TV channels, unlike the other TV networks (in the Tokyo region--channel 1 (NHK General TV) and channel 3 (NHK Educational TV).
  2. Nippon Television Network System (NNS)/Nippon News Network (NNN) headed by Nippon Television (NTV). In the Tokyo region, channel 4. Affiliated with the Yomiuri Shimbun newspaper.
  3. The Tokyo Broadcasting System holding company owns the Tokyo Broadcasting System (TBS) station (which is broadcast nationally) and the Japan News Network (JNN) which supplies news programming to TBS and other affiliates. In the Tokyo region, channel 6. Affiliated with[how?] the Mainichi Shimbun newspaper.
  4. Fuji Network System (FNS) and the Fuji News Network (FNN) share the flagship station Fuji Television. In the Tokyo region, channel 8. Part of the Fujisankei Communications Group, a keiretsu, which also has the Sankei Shimbun newspaper.
  5. TV Asahi Network/All-Nippon News Network (ANN) headed by TV Asahi. Affiliated with[how?] the Asahi Shimbun newspaper. In the Tokyo region, channel 10.
  6. TV Tokyo Network (TXN) headed by TV Tokyo. Owned by Nikkei, Inc.. In the Tokyo region, channel 12.

Radio networks

AM radio

  1. NHK Radio 1, NHK Radio 2
  2. Japan Radio Network (JRN)--Flagship Station: TBS radio (TBS)
  3. National Radio Network (NRN)--Flagship Stations: Nippon Cultural Broadcasting (?) and Nippon Broadcasting System ()
  4. Radio Nikkei is an independent shortwave station broadcasts nationwide in two content channels.

FM radio

  1. NHK-FM
  2. Japan FM Network (JFN)--Tokyo FM Broadcasting Co.,ltd.
  3. Japan FM League--J-Wave Inc.
  4. MegaNet--FM Interwave (InterFM)

See also

Social Media

Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and Line, are the leading used media platforms in the Japanese industry.[2]Line is an app used for instant communication on electronic devices. Statistics show that Facebook use in Japan is at 47.75%, Twitter use is at 19.33%, YouTube use is at 13.9%, Pinterest use is at 10.69%, Instagram use is at 4.93%, and Tumblr use is at 2.29%.[3] In Japan during 2017 nearly 100% of residents are online, smartphone use is reaching 80%, and some form of social media is being used by over half of the population.[4]


Weekly magazines

  1. Aera () - Left-wing
  2. Friday () - photo magazine
  3. Josei Jishin (?) - for women
  4. Nikkei Business () - economic
  5. Sh?kan Asahi (?). Liberal.
  6. Sh?kan Economist (). Economic
  7. Sh?kan Kinyoubi (). Far-left.
  8. Sh?kan Bunshun (?). Conservative
  9. Sh?kan Diamond (). Economic
  10. Sh?kan Gendai (?) Liberal.
  11. Sh?kan Josei (?). For women
  12. Sh?kan Post (). Conservative
  13. Sh?kan Shinchou (?). Conservative
  14. Sh?kan Toyo Keizai (). Economic
  15. Spa! (!).
  16. Sunday Mainichi (). Liberal

Monthly magazines

  1. Bungei Shunjuu (?). Conservative.
  2. Chuuou Kouron (?). Affiliated with the Yomiuri Shimbun. Conservative.
  3. Seiron (). Published by the Sankei Shimbun Company. Conservative.
  4. Sekai (). Progressive.

See also


National papers

  1. Yomiuri Shimbun (?). Conservative. First ranked in daily circulation at around 10 million per day. The Yomiuri exchanged a special contract with The Times. Affiliated with Nippon Television.
  2. Asahi Shimbun (?). Liberal. Second ranked in daily circulation at around 7 million copies per day. Known for being the main opposition newspaper. Affiliated with TV Asahi.
  3. Mainichi Shimbun (?). Centre-left. Third ranked in daily circulation--around 4 million per day. Affiliated with Tokyo Broadcasting System.
  4. Nikkei Shimbun (). Conservative with more centre-right. Fourth ranked in daily circulation at around 3 million copies per day. Economic paper in the style of The Wall Street Journal. Affiliated with TV Tokyo.
  5. Sankei Shimbun (?).Conservative, pro-American and anti-Chinese communist party newspaper. Sixth ranked in daily circulation at around 2 million copies per day. Affiliated with Fuji Television.

Regional papers

The Tokyo Shimbun (?) in Kanto and Chunichi Shimbun (?) in Ch?bu are both owned by the Chunichi company and have a cumulative circulation that places them fourth nationally. Other nationally known regional papers include Nishinippon Shimbun () in Kyushu, Hokkaido Shimbun () in Hokkaido, Kahoku Shimpo (?) in Tohoku.

Specialty papers

Among niche newspapers are publications like the widely circulated Nikkan Kogyo Shimbun (The Business and Technology Daily News), the Buddhist organization S?ka Gakkai's daily Seikyo Shimbun (?), and Shimbun Akahata, the daily organ of the Japanese Communist Party. Other niches include papers devoted entirely to predicting the results of horse races. One of the best-known papers in the genre is Keiba Book (). Sh?kan Go () is a weekly newspaper that covers the results of professional Go tournaments and contains hints on Go strategy.

As in other countries, surveys tend to show that the number of newspaper subscribers is declining, a trend which is expected to continue.

Bias in Japanese newspapers

Claims of media bias in Japanese newspapers and the mainstream media in general are often seen on blogs and right-leaning Internet forums, where the "mass media" (masu-komi in Japanese) are often referred to as "mass garbage" (masu-gomi). Signs with this epithet were carried by demonstrators in Tokyo on 24 October 2010, at what was reportedly the first demonstration in Japan to be organized on Twitter.[5] Among the general public, the credibility of the press suffered after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant crisis, when reporters failed to press government and industry sources for more information, and official reports turned out to be inaccurate or simply wrong.[6]Kazuo Hizumi, a journalist turned lawyer, details structural problems in his book, , "Masukomi wa naze masugomi to yobareru no ka?", ("Why is mass media called mass garbage?"), which argues that a complex network of institutions, such as elite bureaucrats, judiciary, education system, law enforcement, and large corporations, all of whom stand to gain from maintaining the status quo, shapes the mass media and communication in a way that controls Japanese politics and discourages critical thinking.[7]

Key stations: television and radio

In Japan, there are five broadcasting stations which take the lead in the network of commercial broadcasting. The five stations are Nippon Television, Tokyo Broadcasting System, Fuji Television, TV Asahi, and TV Tokyo. Their head offices are in Tokyo, and they are called zaiky? k? kyoku (, Key stations in Tokyo) or k? kyoku (, Key stations).

The key stations make news shows and entertainment programs, and wholesale them to local broadcasting stations through the networks. Although local broadcasting stations also manufacture programs, the usage of the key stations is very large, and 55.7% of the TV program total sales in the 2002 fiscal year (April 2002 to March 2003) were sold by the key stations. Furthermore, the networks are strongly connected with newspaper publishing companies, and they influence the media very strongly. For this reason, they are often criticized.[8]

In addition, there is CS broadcasting and Internet distribution by the subsidiaries of the key stations. The definition of key station has changed a little in recent years.


In Japan, every broadcasting company (except NHK and Radio Nikkei) which performs terrestrial television broadcasts has an appointed broadcast region. In Article 2 of the Japanese Broadcasting Law (), the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications defines the fixed zone where the broadcast of the same program for every classification of broadcast is simultaneously receivable. So, the broadcasting company constructs a network with other regions, and with this network establishes the exchange of news or programs. The broadcasting companies which send out many programs to these networks are called key stations.

Presently the broadcasting stations located in Tokyo send out the programs for the whole country. However, although Tokyo MX is in the Tokyo region, it is only a Tokyo region UHF independent station.

Broadcasting stations in Nagoya and other areas are older than those in Tokyo. However, in order to meet the large costs of making programs key stations were established in Tokyo to sell programs nationwide. Some local stations have a higher profit ratio since they can merely buy programs from the networks.

Sub-key stations

Since the broadcasting stations which assign the head offices in Kansai region (especially in Osaka) have a program supply frame at prime time etc. and sent out many programs subsequently to k? kyoku, they are called jun k? kyoku (?,sub-key stations).

List of key stations

Advertising agencies

  1. Dentsu (). The largest advertising agency in Japan, and the fourth-largest worldwide. Dentsu has an enormous presence in television and other media, and has strong ties to the legislative branch of government.[]
  2. Hakuhodo (). The second-largest Japanese advertising agency.
  3. Asatsu-DK (? ). The third-largest Japanese advertising agency.

Wire services

  1. Jiji Press (?).
  2. Kyodo News (?).
  3. JX PRESS (JX).

See also


  1. ^ NHK , p41
  2. ^ "Social Media Landscape in Japan | Info Cubic Japan". Info Cubic Japan Blog. 2018-01-07. Retrieved .
  3. ^ "Social Media Stats Japan | StatCounter Global Stats". StatCounter Global Stats. Retrieved .
  4. ^ "Social Media in Japan 2018: Current Stage and Upcoming Trends". 2018-01-30. Retrieved .
  5. ^ nico (26 October 2010). "1st Demonstration called for by Internet against Prosecutors & Mass Media held in Tokyo". Archived from the original on 2014-09-11.
  6. ^ Kobayashi, Ginko (March 15, 2013). "After Tsunami, Japanese Media Swept up in Wave of Distrust". European Journalism Centre. Archived from the original on 2013-04-24.
  7. ^ "A champion of independent media". Japan Times. Retrieved .
  8. ^ 7"?"? ():NBonline( )
  9. ^ *?NNS?
  10. ^ a b *1975JNN?ANN(?)JNNTBS?ANN?
  11. ^ *?FNS?
  12. ^ *?1(?!?- 2007?6?18)
  13. ^ a b *
  14. ^ *(JFNC)?
  15. ^ *?JFL(J-WAVE)
  16. ^ *

Further reading

External links

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