Get Megalopolis essential facts below. View Videos or join the Megalopolis discussion. Add Megalopolis to your topic list for future reference or share this resource on social media.

A megalopolis , sometimes called a megapolis; also megaregion, city cluster or supercity,[1] is typically defined as a group of two or more roughly adjacent metropolitan areas, which may be somewhat separated or may merge into a continuous urban region. The megalopolis concept became highly influential as it introduced a new, larger scale in thinking about urban patterns and urban growth.[2]


The term was coined by Patrick Geddes in his 1915 book Cities in Evolution,[3][4] and used by Oswald Spengler in his 1918 book The Decline of the West, and Lewis Mumford in his 1938 book The Culture of Cities, which described it as the first stage in urban overdevelopment and social decline. Later, it was used by Jean Gottmann in his landmark 1961 study, Megalopolis: The Urbanized Northeastern Seaboard of the United States, to describe what is now commonly known as the Northeast megalopolis a.k.a. BosWash.[5][6][7] The term has been interpreted as meaning "supercity".[1] In 1994 the magazine National Geographic (Vol 186, No.1 July 1994) featured a "Double Map Supplement: Megalopolis" of Boston to Washington Circa 1830 and on the flip-side a contemporary (1994) map of the same region to coincide with the 33 page feature article "Breaking New Ground: Boston" by William S. Ellis Photographs Joel Sartore. The contemporary 1994 map cites the term Megalopolis being first used in 1961 to refer to the BosWash region.


Megalopolis is often spelled Megapolis. Both are derived from (mégas) in Ancient Greek meaning 'great' and (pólis) meaning 'city', therefore literally a 'great city' (compare "megacity"). Because in Greek, is feminine, the etymologically correct term is megalopolis. Literally, megalopolis in Greek means a city of exaggerated size where the prefix megalo- represents a quantity of exaggerated size.[8] The Ancient Greek city of Megalopolis was formed by the Arcadian League by bringing together smaller communities.

A megalopolis, also known as a megaregion, is a clustered network of cities. Gottmann defined its population as 25 million.[9] Doxiadis defined a small megalopolis a similar cluster with a population of about 10 million.[10][11][12] America 2050,[13] a program of the Regional Plan Association, lists 11 megaregions in the United States and Canada.[10]Megaregions of the United States were explored in a July 2005 report by Robert E. Lang and Dawn Dhavale of the Metropolitan Institute at Virginia Tech.[14] A later 2007 article by Lang and Nelson uses 20 megapolitan areas grouped into 10 megaregions.[15] The concept is based on the original Megalopolis model.[12]

Modern interlinked ground transportation corridors, such as rail and highway, often aid in the development of megalopolises. Using these commuter passageways to travel throughout the megalopolis is informally called megaloping. This term was coined by Davide Gadren and Stefan Berteau.[16]

In Brazil, the term megarregião has a legal meaning, different from the English word megaregion: Mesoregions of Brazil (mesorregião) and Microregions of Brazil (microrregião).

In China, the official term corresponding to the meaning of "megalopolis" is (chéngshì qún), which literally means "city cluster". In Standard for basic terminology of urban planning (GB/T 50280--98) issued in 1998, is defined as "An area in which cities are relatively densely distributed in a certain region" but wrongly translated as "agglomeration". In addition, there used to be no clear distinction between "megalopolis" and "metropolitan area" () in Chinese context until National Development and Reform Commission issued Guidelines on the Cultivation and Development of Modern Metropolitan Areas on 19 February 2019 and clarified the definition of a metropolitan area.


North America



Megalopolis name Population
in millions
in millions
2025 (projected)
percent growth 2011 - 2025 (projected)
Major cities Related articles
Quebec City-Windsor Corridor 18.4 21 14.1% Hamilton, Kingston, Kitchener, London, Mississauga, Montreal, Oshawa, Ottawa, Peterborough, Quebec City, Toronto, Trois-Rivières, Vaughan, Windsor Southern Ontario
Calgary-Edmonton Corridor 2.7 4 48.1% Calgary, Edmonton, Red Deer, St. Albert, Airdrie Calgary Region, Edmonton Capital Region, Central Alberta


Mexico City megalopolis
Megalopolis name Population
in millions
Major cities Related articles
Mexico City megalopolis 28 Mexico City, Puebla, Cuernavaca, Toluca, Pachuca, Tula, Tlaxcala, Cuautla, Tulancingo Mexico City megalopolis
Bajío 11 León, Querétaro, Aguascalientes, Celaya, Irapuato, San Juan del Río, Salamanca Bajío
Monterrey-Saltillo-Monclova megalopolis 5.3 Monterrey, Saltillo, Monclova
Guadalajara-Puerto Vallarta-Ocotlán megalopolis 5 Guadalajara, Puerto Vallarta, Ocotlán
Veracruz-Xalapa-Córdoba megalopolis 1.8 Veracruz, Xalapa, Córdoba
San Luis Potosí-Rioverde-Ciudad Fernández megalopolis 1.2 San Luis Potosí, Rioverde, Ciudad Fernández
Matamoros-Nuevo Laredo megalopolis 0.87 Matamoros, Nuevo Laredo
Acayucan-Coatzacoalcos-Minatitlán megalopolis 0.81 Acayucan, Coatzacoalcos, Minatitlán

Note: Tijuana, Mexico is part of the Southern California megalopolis.

United States

Downtown Dallas, the largest metro of the Texas Triangle
Aerial view of Seattle with Lake Union in the foreground, part of Cascadia

Constituent urban areas of each megalopolis are based on reckoning by a single American organization, the Regional Plan Association (RPA). The RPA definition of the Great Lakes Megalopolis includes some Canadian metropolitan areas with the United States including some but not all major urban centres in the Windsor-Quebec City Corridor. Note that one city, Houston, is listed in two different Megalopolis regions as defined by the RPA, (the Gulf Coast and Texas Triangle).[10][21]

Megalopolis name Population
in millions
Percent of U.S. Population (2010) Population
in millions
2025 (projected)
percent growth 2010 - 2025 (projected)
Major cities
Arizona Sun Corridor[22][23] 5.6 2% 7.8 39.3% Mesa, Phoenix, Tucson, Prescott, Scottsdale
Northern California 14 5% 16.4 17.1% Fresno, Modesto, Oakland, San Francisco, San Jose, Stockton, Berkeley, Cupertino, Fremont, Reno, Sacramento, Santa Rosa
Southern California 24.4 8% 29 18.9% Los Angeles, San Diego, Santa Barbara, San Bernardino, Riverside, Bakersfield, Las Vegas, Long Beach, Tijuana
Cascadia 12.4 3% 13.5 8.2% Abbotsford, Boise, Eugene, Portland (OR), Salem, Seattle, Tacoma, Spokane, Tri-Cities, Vancouver (BC), Vancouver (WA), Victoria
Florida 17.3 6% 21.5 24.3% Jacksonville, Fort Lauderdale, Miami, Tampa, St. Petersburg, Sarasota, Fort Myers, Orlando, Gainesville, Palm Bay, Pensacola
Front Range 5.5 2% 6.9 26% Albuquerque, Cheyenne, Colorado Springs, Denver, Pueblo, Salt Lake City, Santa Fe
Great Lakes 59.1 18% 65.7 10% Buffalo, Chicago, Cincinnati, Cleveland, Columbus, Detroit, Indianapolis, Kansas City, Louisville, Milwaukee, Minneapolis, Montreal, Ottawa, Pittsburgh, Rochester, St. Louis, Toronto
Gulf Coast 13.4 4% 16.3 21.6% Baton Rouge, Corpus Christi, Houston, McAllen, Brownsville, Mobile, Gulfport, Biloxi, New Orleans, Pensacola
Northeast 52.3 17% 58.4 11.7% Allentown-Bethlehem, Atlantic City, Baltimore, Boston, Harrisburg, Hazleton, Knowledge Corridor (Springfield and Hartford), Manchester (NH), Nashua, New Haven, New York, Newark, Norfolk, Ocean City, Philadelphia, Portland (ME), Pottsville, Providence, Richmond, Scranton/Wilkes-Barre, Trenton, Virginia Beach, Washington, Waterbury, Wilmington, Worcester
Piedmont Atlantic 17.6 6% 21.7 23.3% Atlanta, Charlotte, Research Triangle, Raleigh, Durham, Chapel Hill, Greensboro, Winston-Salem, Greenville, Huntsville, Nashville, Chattanooga, Knoxville, Memphis, Birmingham, Montgomery, Clarksville, Murfreesboro, Tuscaloosa
Texas Triangle 19.7 6% 24.8 25.9% Austin, Dallas, Fort Worth, Houston, San Antonio

South America


Satellite image of Greater Buenos Aires at night. Urban sprawl created a vast conurbation of 12,801,365 inhabitants including the City of Buenos Aires, a third of the total population of Argentina.
Megalopolis Name Population
Major cities Other cities
Greater Buenos Aires 13,641,973 Buenos Aires; Merlo, Moreno; Quilmes; Florencio Varela, La Matanza Lanús; Lomas de Zamora, San Martin; and Avellaneda


Megalópole Rio SP
Megalopolis Name Population
Major cities Other cities
Rio de Janeiro-São Paulo Megalopolis +51,500,000 São Paulo Macrometropolis and Greater Rio de Janeiro Região Geográfica Intermediária de Pouso Alegre and Região Geográfica Intermediária de Varginha and Região Geográfica Intermediária de Juiz de Fora
São Paulo Macrometropolis +34,500,000 Metropolitan Region of São Paulo and Metropolitan Region of Campinas and Metropolitan Region of Vale do Paraíba e Litoral Norte Metropolitan Region of Sorocaba, Jundiaí Urban Agglomeration, Regional Unit of Bragança Paulista city, Piracicaba Urban Agglomeration and Metropolitan Region of Baixada Santista
Greater Rio de Janeiro +13,000,000 Rio de Janeiro and São Gonçalo Nova Iguaçu, Duque de Caxias, Niterói, Belford Roxo and São João de Meriti
Greater Belo Horizonte +5,800,000 Belo Horizonte and Contagem Betim, Nova Lima and Sete Lagoas
Greater Porto Alegre +4,200,000 Porto Alegre and Canoas São Leopoldo, Novo Hamburgo and Gravataí
Recife metropolitan area +3,900,000 Recife and Jaboatão dos Guararapes Olinda, Paulista, Cabo de Santo Agostinho, Camaragibe, Igarassu, São Lourenço da Mata, Abreu e Lima, Ipojuca, Moreno, Itapissuma, Ilha de Itamaracá, Araçoiaba and Goiana
Salvador metropolitan area +3,900,000 Salvador and Camaçari São Francisco do Conde, Lauro de Freitas, Simões Filho, Candeias, Dias d'Ávila, Mata de São João, Pojuca, São Sebastião do Passé, Vera Cruz, Madre de Deus and Itaparica
Greater Curitiba + 3,500,000 Curitiba and São José dos Pinhais Araucária, Colombo, Fazenda Rio Grande, Lapa and Pinhais


The following megaregions in Colombia are expected to have nearly 93% (55 Million people) of its population by 2030, up from the current 72%[]. There are currently 4 major megaregions in Colombia.

Megalopolis name Population in 2015 Population in 2030 (projected) Major cities
Bogota National Capital Metropolis 17,000,000 26,500,000 Bogotá, Soacha, Facatativá, Chía, Tunja, Fusagasugá, Zipaquirá, Madrid, Funza, Cajicá, Ubaté, Sibaté, Guaduas, Villa de Leyva and Tocancipá
Pacific Belt 9,000,000 14,000,000 Medellín, Cali, Bello, Pereira, Manizales, Armenia, Itagüí, Yumbo, and Palmira
Northeast Atlantic Region 6,000,000 10,500,000 Barranquilla, Cartagena, Santa Marta, Ciénaga, Malambo, Baranoa and Turbaco
Santander Belt 3,000,000 5,200,000 Bucaramanga, Cúcuta, Ocaña, and Pamplona

Other sources[25] show that another megaregion may be considered:

Megalopolis name Population in 2015 Population in 2030 (projected) Major cities
Golden Triangle 29,500,000 41,000,000 Bogotá, Soacha, Medellín, Cali, Bello, Manizales, Armenia


Megalopolis name Population
Major cities Other cities
Lima-Callao Megalopolis 10,523,796 Lima and Callao -


Megalopolis name Population
Major cities Other cities
Caracas-Valencia Megalopolis +9,000,000 Caracas, Valencia, and Maracay Cagua, Maiquetía, and Guatire

East Asia


Jingjinji Metropolitan Region is the central part of Bohai Economic Rim

In July 2012, the Economist Intelligence Unit brought out a report entitled; Supersized cities: China's 13 megalopolises, which pinpoints the 13 emerging megalopolises in China, and highlights the demographic and income trends that are shaping their development.


Japan is made up of overlapping megapolises. The Taiheiy? Belt megapolis itself includes both the Greater Tokyo Area and Keihanshin megapoles.

South Korea


Skyline of Taipei, capital city of Taiwan in 2016.

South Asia

Dhaka, Bangladesh; part of the emerging chain of cities in the Bengal region



Southeast Asia


Java island (population 145,013,573) - At over 1,100 people per km² in 2014, it is also one of the most densely populated parts of the world, on par with Bangladesh. Every region of the island has numerous volcanoes, leaving people to share the remaining flatter land. Because of this, many coasts are heavily populated and cities ring around the valleys surrounding volcanic peaks.

The population growth rate more than doubled in economically depressed Central Java in the latest 2010-2015 period vs 2000-2010, indicative of migration or other issues; there were significant volcanic eruptions during the earlier period. Approximately 45% of the population of Indonesia is ethnically Javanese, while Sundanese make a large portion of Java's population as well.

Jakarta metropolitan area is made up of several regencies and cities:

total area 7,062.47 km2 and population 33,430,285 in 2015[43]

Surabaya metropolitan area or Greater Surabaya

total area 5,925.84 km2 and population 9,570,870 in 2015[44] and having population about 10,500,000 in 2020 estimates


Mega Manila area 50,525.48 km2 is made up of 4 Regions:

(Regional Centers) San Fernando-Manila-Calamba-Calapan

Total Population of Mega Manila as of 2015: (40,624,035)[45]

Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore and Vietnam

West Asia


  • Greater Tehran: A region located in Iranian Tehran and Alborz Province in central Northern Iran with its influence expanding in Qom Province, Qazvin Province and Mazandaran Province, home for at least 15 million people, it is one of the most populous urban areas in the Greater Middle East and the surrounding regions. Tehran was a small village 200 years ago when it was first chosen as the Capital city and it has been growing at a very fast rate.



The Blue Banana, the Golden Banana and the Green Banana.

Transnational (Europe)



Megalopolis Name Population
in millions
Major cities
Greater Southeast Megalopolis[56] 15.68[57] Greater Sydney (including Central Coast and Blue Mountains) (4.97 million), Newcastle and Lake Macquarie (501,000), Illawarra (300,000), Greater Melbourne (including Mornington Peninsula) (4.7 million), Greater Geelong (233,429), Greater Adelaide (1.3 million), South West Victoria (120,718)Brisbane City (1.21 million), Gold Coast (591,300), Tweed Heads (8,200), Logan City (320,500), Redland City (139,600), Moreton Bay Region (450,000), Sunshine Coast (311,000), Noosa (54,600), Ipswich (206,000), Lockyer Valley (40,000), Toowoomba (166,000), Somerset (25,500), Note (not including Scenic Rim)

New Zealand

See talk section for discussion on long-term projections for North Island and far long-term South Island.



Metropolis is a 1927 German expressionist science-fiction drama film directed by Fritz Lang. Written by Thea von Harbou in collaboration with Lang,[58][full ][59][full ] it stars Gustav Fröhlich, Alfred Abel, Rudolf Klein-Rogge and Brigitte Helm. Erich Pommer produced it in the Babelsberg Studios for Universum Film A.G. (Ufa). The silent film is regarded as a pioneering science-fiction movie, being among the first feature-length movies of that genre.[60] Filming took place over 17 months in 1925-26 at a cost of over five million Reichsmarks.[61]

Judge Dredd

Judge Dredd (1977) Mega-City One is a huge fictional megalopolis-size city-state covering much of what is now the Eastern United States and some of Canada in the Judge Dredd comic book series and its spinoff series. The exact geography of the city depends on which writer and artist has done which story, but from its first appearance it has been associated with New York City's urban sprawl; originally it was presented as a future New York, which was retconned as the centre of a "Mega-City One" in the very next story.[62] The Architects' Journal placed it at No. 1 in their list of "comic book cities".[63]

Blade Runner

Blade Runner (1982 Film) - Blade Runner is a 1982 neo-noir science fiction film directed by Ridley Scott, written by Hampton Fancher and David Peoples, and starring Harrison Ford, Rutger Hauer, Sean Young, and Edward James Olmos. It is a loose adaptation of Philip K. Dick's novel Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? (1968). The film is set in a dystopian future Los Angeles of 2019, in which synthetic humans known as replicants are bio-engineered by the powerful Tyrell Corporation to work on off-world colonies. When a fugitive group of replicants led by Roy Batty (Hauer) escapes back to Earth, burnt-out cop Rick Deckard (Ford) reluctantly agrees to hunt them down.

Sprawl Trilogy

In William Gibson's fiction, the Sprawl is a colloquial name for the Boston-Atlanta Metropolitan Axis (BAMA), an urban sprawl environment on a massive scale, and a fictional extension of the real Northeast megalopolis. The Sprawl is a visualization of a future where virtually the entire East Coast of the United States, from Boston to Atlanta, has melded into a single mass of urban sprawl.[64] It has been enclosed in several geodesic domes and merged into one megacity. The city has become a separate world with its own climate, no real night/day cycle, and an artificial sky that is always grey.

See also


  1. ^ a b Fielder, W.; Feeney, Georgiana (1976). Inquiring about Cities: Student text. Holt, Rinehart and Winston. pp. 193, 299. ISBN 9780030897849. Retrieved .
  2. ^ Caves, R. W. (2004). Encyclopedia of the City. Routledge. p. 456. ISBN 9780415252256.
  3. ^ Geddes, Patrick (1915). Cities in Evolution. London: Williams & Norgate – via Internet Archive.
  4. ^ "MEGALOPOLIS". Environmental Cloud Atlas. Syracuse University School of Architecture. Patrick Geddes coined this term in the early twentieth century that described the regional city's counter-action through the process of conurbation...
  5. ^ Gottmann, Jean (1954). L'Amerique. Paris: Hachette.
  6. ^ Gottmann, Jean (1957). "Megalopolis, or the urbanization of the Northeastern Seaboard". Economic Geography. 33 (3): 189-200. doi:10.2307/142307. JSTOR 142307.
  7. ^ Gottmann, Jean (1961). Megalopolis. The Urbanized Northeastern seaboard of the United States. New York: The Twentieth Century Fund.
  8. ^ "Definition of the prefix megalo-". The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company. 2000.
  9. ^ Gottmann, Jean (1989). Since Megalopolis. The Urban Writings of Jean Gottmann. Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 163.
  10. ^ a b c Taylor, Matt. "Megaregions". America 2050. Archived from the original on 2017-05-16. Retrieved .
  11. ^ "Who's Your City?: What Is a Megaregion?". 19 March 2008. Archived from the original on 12 June 2010. Retrieved 2014.
  12. ^ a b "Cities: Capital for the New Megalopolis". Time. 4 November 1966. Archived from the original on 27 August 2013. Retrieved 2010.
  13. ^ "About Us". America 2050. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 2014.
  14. ^ "Beyond Megalopolis: Exploring America's New "Megapolitan" Geography" (PDF). July 2005. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-03-27.
  15. ^ "America 2040: The Rise of the Megapolitans" (PDF). January 2007. Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 July 2013. Retrieved 2014.
  16. ^ Tremble, Sam (30 May 2007). "Fumbling Toward Portland". Philadelphia City Paper. Archived from the original on 7 July 2009.
  17. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2006-10-07. Retrieved .CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  18. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2006-09-24. Retrieved .CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  19. ^ "Welcome to the official South African government online site! | South African Government". Archived from the original on 2012-05-14. Retrieved .
  20. ^ "Cabinet Secretary names team to modernize Nairobi city transport :: Kenya - The Standard". 2015-02-23. Archived from the original on 2015-07-13. Retrieved .
  21. ^ Regional Plan Association (2008). America 2050: An Infrastructure Vision for 21st Century America. New York: Regional Plan Association.
  22. ^ "Megapolitan: Arizona's Sun Corridor". Morrison Institute for Public Policy. May 2008. Archived from the original on 2008-06-15. Retrieved .
  23. ^ Catherine Reagor (2006-04-09). "When Phoenix, Tucson Merge". The Arizona Republic. Retrieved .
  24. ^ 46 - Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística, Brazil, 2015, Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, 28 August 2015, archived from the original on 19 December 2016, retrieved 2016
  25. ^ Ordóñez Burbano, Luis A. (2007). Universidad del Valle 60 años 1945-2005: Atando cabos en clave de memoria. Cali, Valle del Cauca, Colombia: Universidad del Valle. p. 58. OCLC 645219600
  26. ^ John Vidal. "UN report: World's biggest cities merging into 'mega-regions' | World news". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 2017-05-08. Retrieved .
  27. ^ "". Archived from the original on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 2014.
  28. ^ Vidal, John (2010-03-22). "UN report: World's biggest cities merging into 'mega-regions'". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 2016-09-10. Retrieved .
  29. ^ "Foreign investment shows trend of "moving northward"". 2004-05-14. Archived from the original on 2011-06-11. Retrieved .
  30. ^ "?(?)" (PDF) (in Japanese). Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. p. 4. Archived (PDF) from the original on September 23, 2016. Retrieved 2016.
  31. ^ "2015 Population Census". Statistics Bureau, Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications. Archived from the original on August 25, 2016. Retrieved 2016.
  32. ^ United Nations (March 12, 2017). "The World's Cities in 2016" (PDF). United Nations
  33. ^ Japan Statistics Bureau - "2010 Census", retrieved August 23, 2015
  34. ^ A government publication states that on 1 November 2010, the population of "Seoul Metropolitan Area" stood at 23,616 thousand, which is the sum of the figures given for Gyeonggi-do (11,270 thousand), Seoul (9,708 thousand) and Incheon (2,638 thousand), apparently including the periphery.
    Source: "Preliminary Results of the 2010 Population and Housing Census" Archived 2012-01-31 at the Wayback Machine (PDF). Statistics Korea. 21 January 2011. Retrieved 23 July 2011.
  35. ^ Issues in Global Environment--Climate and Climate Change: 2013 Edition. May 2013. ISBN 9781490109657.
  36. ^ Kumar, Ashok (2013), "Delhi: Growing Problems of a Growing Megalopolis", in Misra, R. P. (ed.), Urbanisation in South Asia, Foundation Books, pp. 109-141, doi:10.1017/9789382993087.005, ISBN 9789382993087, retrieved
  37. ^ "Mumbai set to become next Megalopolis". The Times of India. 2001-09-03. Retrieved .
  38. ^ Kumar, K. Ram (2011-04-26). "A megalopolis with unlimited potential". @businessline. Retrieved .
  39. ^ "Golden Triangle zone a litmus test for parties in Maharashtra polls". The Economic Times. 2014-09-30. Retrieved .
  40. ^ Furumai, Hiroaki; Kurisu, Futoshi; Katayama, Hiroyuki; Satoh, Hiroyasu; Ohgaki, S.; Thanh, N. C. (Mar 2013). Southeast Asian Water Environment 2. ISBN 9781843391241.
  41. ^ "Java - Google Arts & Culture". Google Cultural Institute. Retrieved .
  42. ^ (Cugenang, Pacet, Sukaresmi and Cipanas districts)
  43. ^ "PU-net".
  44. ^ "PU-net".
  45. ^ "Google". Archived from the original on 2017-04-06. Retrieved .
  46. ^ "Population and Population Structure - Latest Data".
  47. ^
  48. ^ "Batam · Population".
  49. ^ "?". Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 2014.
  50. ^ "Chinese Cities on Beibu Gulf Increase Cooperation". Archived from the original on 13 November 2013. Retrieved 2014.
  51. ^ Ina Schmidt. "The European Blue Banana". Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 2014.
  52. ^ Pedrazzini, Luisa; Akiyama, Renata Satiko (2011). From Territorial Cohesion to the New Regionalized Europe. ISBN 9788838760341. Retrieved 2014.
  53. ^ "About | STRING". STRING. Retrieved .
  54. ^ Lois-González, Rubén C. (7 October 2004). "A Model of Spanish-portuguese Urban Growth: the Atlantic Axis". Universidad de Santiago de Compostela. p. 7(287). Archived from the original on 8 December 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  56. ^
  57. ^ 3218.0 - Regional Population Growth, Australia, 2014-15, Australian Bureau of Statistics, 30 March 2016, archived from the original on 5 October 2016, retrieved 2016
  58. ^ Magid 2006, p. 129.
  59. ^ Grant 2003, p. 14.
  60. ^ "Metropolis (1927)" Science Fiction Film History. Retrieved 15 May 2013. Quote: "Although the first science fiction film is generally agreed to be Georges Méliès' A Trip To The Moon (1902), Metropolis (1926) is the first feature length outing of the genre."
  61. ^ Hahn, Ronald M. and Jansen, Volker (1998) Die 100 besten Kultfilme [The 100 best cult movies] Munich: Heyne Filmbibliothek. p.396. ISBN 3-453-86073-X (German)
  62. ^ 2000 AD No. 2 and 3
  63. ^ Top 10 comic book cities: #1 Mega City One, Architects' Journal, July 8, 2009
  64. ^ Markoff, John (November 25, 1990). "Ideas & Trends; Art Invents A Jarring New World From Technology". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved .

External links

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.



Music Scenes