Megalopolises in China
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Megalopolises in China
"Megalopolis" or "City Cluster"
Chinese
Literal meaningCity Group
Hanyu PinyinChéngshì Qún
JyutpingSing4 Si5 Kwan4

In China, a City Cluster (Chinese: ; pinyin: Chéngshì Qún) is an officially defined type of megalopolis,[1] whereby government policy is to knit the area together more tightly and promote development through transportation and communication links. The Economist Intelligence Unit in 2012 identified 13 megalopolises: Chang-Zhu-Tan (Greater Changsha), Chengdu, Chongqing, Greater Beijing i.e. Jing-Jin-Ji, Greater Shanghai (incl. Suzhou), Greater Xi'an, Greater Zhengzhou, Greater Guangzhou, Hefei economic circle (incl. Lu'an, Huainan, Chaohu), Shandong Peninsula, Greater Shenyang, Shenzhen and Wuhan.[2]

Up to 2018, there are nine officially approved megalopolises in China. In 2017, the National Development and Reform Commission stated that plans for six city clusters had been completed in 2016, five in 2017, with eight more forthcoming for a total of 19 city cluster plans by 2020. The new city clusters identified in 2017 were Lanzhou-Xining, Hohhot-Baotou-Ordos-Yulin, Guanzhong Plain, Western Taiwan Straits Economic Zone, and the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macau Greater Bay Area.[3]

Major Chinese megalopolises

Megalopolises Metropolitan Areas Cities (Bold means Major Metropolises) Area / km2 Population Approval
Issuance
Yangtze River Delta Megalopolis ()[4]

Shanghai (National Central City and global city), Nanjing Metropolitan Area (), Hangzhou Metropolitan Area (), Hefei Metropolitan Area (), Suzhou-Wuxi-Changzhou Metropolitan Area (), Ningbo Metropolitan Area ()

Municipality: Shanghai
Jiangsu: Nanjing, Wuxi, Changzhou, Suzhou, Nantong, Yancheng, Yangzhou, Zhenjiang, Taizhou
Zhejiang: Hangzhou, Ningbo, Jiaxing, Huzhou, Shaoxing, Jinhua, Zhoushan, Taizhou
Anhui: Hefei, Wuhu, Ma'anshan, Tongling, Anqing, Chuzhou, Chizhou, Xuancheng
211,700 150,000,000 (2014) 2016-05-22
2016-06-01
[5]
Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macau Greater Bay Area ()
a.k.a Pearl River Delta Megalopolis ()[6]
Guangzhou-Foshan-Zhaoqing Metropolitan Area (), Shenzhen-Dongguan-Huizhou Metropolitan Area (), Zhuhai-Zhongshan-Jiangmen Metropolitan Area ()[7] Guangdong: Guangzhou, Foshan, Zhaoqing, Shenzhen, Dongguan, Huizhou, Zhuhai, Jiangmen, Zhongshan
SARs: Hong Kong, Macau
56,000 70,000,000 (2017) (2019-02-18)
[8][9]
Jing-Jin-Ji Megalopolis () Beijing Metropolitan Area (), Tianjin Metropolitan Area () Municipalities: Beijing, Tianjin
Hebei: Xiong'an New Area, Tangshan, Baoding, Shijiazhuang, Langfang, Zhangjiakou, Chengde, Cangzhou, Qinhuangdao, Xingtai, Handan, Hengshui
217,156 130,000,000 Pending approval
Shandong Peninsula Megalopolis (?) Jinan Metropolitan Area (), Qingdao Metropolitan Area () Shandong: Jinan, Qingdao, Yantai, Weihai, Zibo, Binzhou, Dongying, Tai'an, Weifang, Rizhao, Linyi 28,000,000 Pending approval
Mid-Southern Liaoning Megalopolis () Shenyang Metropolitan Area (), Dalian Metropolitan Area () Liaoning: Shenyang, Dalian, Benxi, Liaoyang, Anshan, Yingkou, Pulandian, Gaizhou 27,000,000 Pending approval
Yangtze River Midstream Megalopolis (?) Wuhan Metropolitan Area (), Circum-Changzhutan City Cluster (?), Circum-Poyang Lake City Cluster (?) Hubei: Wuhan, Huangshi, Ezhou, Huanggang, Xiaogan, Xianning, Xiantao, Qianjiang, Tianmen, Xiangyang, Yichang, Jinzhou
Hunan: Changsha, Zhuzhou, Xiangtan, Yueyang, Yiyang, Changde, Hengyang, Loudi
Jiangxi: Nanchang, Jiujiang, Jingdezhen, Yingtan, Xinyu, Yichun, Pingxiang, Shangrao, Fuzhou, Ji'an
317,000 121,000,000 (2014) 2015-03-26
2015-04-13
[10]
Harbin-Changchun Megalopolis () Harbin Metropolitan Area (), Changchun-Jilin Metropolitan Area () Heilongjiang: Harbin, Daqing, Qiqihar, Suihua, Mudanjiang
Jilin: Changchun, Jilin, Siping, Liaoyuan, Songyuan, Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture
51,100 20,000,000 (2015) 2016-02-23
2016-03-07
[11]
Chengyu Megalopolis () Chengdu Metropolitan Area (), Chongqing Metropolitan Area () Municipality: Chongqing
Sichuan: Chengdu, Leshan, Luzhou, Mianyang, Nanchong, Yibin, Meishan, Ziyang, Deyang, Suining, Neijiang, Zigong, Yongchuan, Dazhou, Guang'an
185,000 90,940,000 (2014) 2016-04-12
2016-04-27
[12]
Central Plain Megalopolis () Greater Zhengzhou Metropolitan Area () Henan: Zhengzhou, Kaifeng, Luoyang, Nanyang, Shangqiu, Anyang, Xinxiang, Pingdingshan, Xuchang, Jiaozuo, Zhoukou, Xinyang, Zhumadian, Hebi, Puyang, Luohe, Sanmenxia, Jiyuan
Shanxi: Changzhi, Jincheng, Yuncheng
Hebei: Xingtai, Handan
Anhui: Liaocheng, Heze
Shandong: Huaibei, Bengbu, Suzhou, Fuyang, Bozhou
287,000 2016-12-28
2016-12-29
[13]
Beibu Gulf Megalopolis () One core (Nanning), two axes (Nanning-Beihai-Qinzhou-Fangchenggang, Zhanjiang-Maoming-Yangjiang), two poles (Haikou, Zhanjiang) Guangxi: Nanning, Beihai, Qinzhou, Fangchenggang, Yulin, Chongzuo
Guangdong: Zhanjiang, Maoming, Yangjiang
Hainan: Haikou, Zhangzhou, Dongfang, Chengmai, Lingao, Changjiang
116,600 2017-01-20
2017-02-10
[14]
Guanzhong Plain Megalopolis (?) Greater Xi'an Metropolitan Area () Shaanxi: Xi'an, Baoji, Xianyang, Tongchuan, Weinan, Yangling Agricultural Hi-tech Industries Demonstration Zone, Shangluo (Shangzhou District, Luonan County, Danfeng County and Zhashui County)
Shanxi: Yuncheng (Pinglu County and Yuanqu County excluded) , Linyi (Yaodu District, Houma City, Xiangfen County, Huozhou, Quwo County, Yicheng County, Hongtong County and Fushan County)
Gansu: Tianshui, Pingliang (Kongtong District, Huating County, Jingchuan County, Chongxin County and Lingtai County), downtown Qingyang
107,100 38,630,000 (2016) 2018-01-09
2018-02-02
[15]
Hohhot-Baotou-Ordos-Yulin Megalopolis (?) - (Underdeveloped) Inner Mongolia: Hohhot, Baotou, Ordos

Shaanxi:Yulin

175,000 11,384,000 (2016) 2018-02-05
2018-02-27
[16]
Lanzhou-Xining Megalopolis () Lanzhou-Baiyin Metropolitan Area (--), Xining-Haidong Metropolitan Area (--) Gansu: Lanzhou, Baiyin (Baiyin District, Pingchuan District, Jingyuan County, Jingtai County), Dingxi (Anding District, Longxi County, Weiyuan County, Lintao County), Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture (Linxia City, Dongxiang Autonomous County, Yongjing County, Jishishan Bonan, Dongxiang and Salar Autonomous County)
Qinghai: Xining, Haidong, Haibei Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture (Haiyan County), Hainan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture (Gonghe County, Guide County, Guinan County), Huangnan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture (Tongren County, Jianzha County)
97,500 11,930,000 (2016) 2018-02-22
2018-03-13
[17]
  • The dates in Approval and Issuance column are the dates of the State Council's approval and the dates of the National Development and Reform Commission's issuance of the development plans of the megalopolises respectively. The plan of Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area was directly issued by the State Council as Outline Development Plan for the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area.

See also

References

  1. ^ In China, the official term corresponding to the meaning of "megalopolis" is (chéngshì qún), which literally means "city cluster". In Standard for basic terminology of urban planning (GB/T 50280--98) issued in 1998, is defined as "An area in which cities are relatively densely distributed in a certain region", but the term is mistranslated as "agglomeration".
  2. ^ "Supersized Cities". Economist Intelligence Unit. 2012. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  3. ^ . "Five city clusters planned to help boost balanced growth". www.chinadaily.com.cn. Retrieved 2018.
  4. ^ "". China.com.cn. Retrieved .
  5. ^ "" [Yangtze River City Cluster Development Plan] (PDF) (in Chinese). National Development and Reform Commission and Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development. 2016-06-01.
  6. ^ Vidal, John (2010-03-22). "UN report: World's biggest cities merging into 'mega-regions'". The Guardian. London.
  7. ^ "(2009-2020?)?" (in Chinese). ?. 2010-07-30.
  8. ^ "Outline Development Plan for the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area" (PDF).
  9. ^ "? ?". Gov.cn (in Chinese). 2019-02-18.
  10. ^ "" [Middle Yangtze River Valley City Cluster Development Plan] (PDF) (in Chinese). National Development and Reform Commission and Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development. 2015-04-13.
  11. ^ "" [Harbin-Changchun City Cluster Development Plan] (PDF) (in Chinese). National Development and Reform Commission and Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development. 2016-03-07.
  12. ^ "" [Chengyu City Cluster Development Plan] (PDF) (in Chinese). National Development and Reform Commission and Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development. 2016-04-27.
  13. ^ "" [Central Plain City Cluster Development Plan] (PDF) (in Chinese). National Development and Reform Commission and Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development. 2016-12-29.
  14. ^ "?" [Beibu Gulf City Cluster Development] (PDF) (in Chinese). National Development and Reform Commission and Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development. 2017-02-10.
  15. ^ "" [Guanzhong Plain City Cluster Development Plan] (PDF) (in Chinese). National Development and Reform Commission and Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development. 2018-02-02.
  16. ^ "" [Hohhot-Baotou-Ordos-Yulin City Cluster Development Plan] (PDF) (in Chinese). National Development and Reform Commission and Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development. 2018-02-27.
  17. ^ "--" [Lanzhou-Xining City Cluster Development Plan] (PDF) (in Chinese). National Development and Reform Commission and Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development. 2018-03-13.

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