Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques
Portrait photograph of Mehmed V by Carl Pietzner (June 1915)
|27th Ottoman Caliph|
35th Ottoman Sultan (Emperor)
|Reign||27 April 1909 - 3 July 1918|
|10 May 1909|
|Predecessor||Abdul Hamid II|
|Born||2 November 1844|
Topkap? Palace, Constantinople (now Istanbul), Ottoman Empire
|Died||3 July 1918 (aged 73)|
Y?ld?z Palace, Constantinople, Ottoman Empire
Tomb of Sultan Mehmed V Re?ad, Eyüp, Istanbul
|Issue||?ehzade Mehmed Ziyaeddin|
?ehzade Mahmud Necmeddin
?ehzade Ömer Hilmi
Mehmed V Re?âd (Ottoman Turkish ? Me?med-i ?âmis, Turkish: Be?inci Mehmet Re?at or Re?at Mehmet) (2 November 1844 - 3 July 1918) reigned as the 35th and penultimate Ottoman Sultan (r. 1909-1918). He was the son of Sultan Abdulmejid I. He was succeeded by his half-brother Mehmed VI. His nine-year reign was marked by the cession of the Empire's North African territories and the Dodecanese Islands, including Rhodes, in the Italo-Turkish War, the traumatic loss of almost all of the Empire's European territories west of Constantinople (now Istanbul) in the First Balkan War, and the entry of the Empire into World War I in 1914, which would ultimately lead to the end of the Ottoman Empire.
He was born at the Topkap? Palace, Istanbul. Like many other potential heirs to the throne, he was confined for 30 years in the Harems of the palace. For nine of those years he was in solitary confinement. During this time he studied poetry of the old Persian style and was an acclaimed poet. On his ninth birthday he was ceremoniously circumcised in the special Circumcision Room (Sünnet Odasi) of Topkap? Palace.
His reign began on 27 April 1909, but he was largely a figurehead with no real political power, as a consequence of the Young Turk Revolution in 1908 (which restored the Ottoman Constitution and Parliament) and especially the 1913 Ottoman coup d'état, which brought the dictatorial triumvirate of the Three Pashas to power.
Under his rule, the Ottoman Empire lost all its remaining territory in North Africa (Tripolitania, Cyrenaica and Fezzan) to Italy in the Italo-Turkish War and nearly all its European territories (except for a small strip of land west of Constantinople) in the First Balkan War. The Ottomans made some small gains in the following war, recapturing the peninsula comprising East Thrace up to Edirne, but this was only partial consolation for the Turks: the bulk of Ottoman territories that they had fought to keep had been lost forever.
The sudden loss of these enormous swathes of land, which had been Ottoman territory for centuries and were ceded to its opponents within a span of only two years, was deeply shocking to the Ottoman Turks and resulted in massive popular backlash against the government, culminating in the 1913 Ottoman coup d'etat.
Despite his preference that the country stayed out of further conflict, Mehmed V's most significant political act was to formally declare jihad against the Entente Powers (Allies of World War I) on 14 November 1914, following the Ottoman government's decision to join the First World War on the side of the Central Powers. He was actually said to look with disfavour on the pro-German policy of Enver Pasha, but could do little to prevent war due to the sultanate's diminished influence since the overthrow of Abdülhamit II in 1909.
This was the last genuine proclamation of jihad in history by a Caliph, as the Caliphate lasted until 1924. The proclamation had no noticeable effect on the war, despite the fact that many Muslims lived in Ottoman territories. Some Arabs eventually joined the British forces against the Ottomans with the Arab Revolt in 1916.
Mehmed V hosted Kaiser Wilhelm II, his World War I ally, in Constantinople on 15 October 1917. He was made Generalfeldmarschall of the Kingdom of Prussia on 27 January 1916, and of the German Empire on 1 February 1916.
Sultan Mehmed V together with his entourage. Manast?r (today Bitola), 1911. Photo from the Manaki Brothers (Damaged plate).
Minister of War Enver Pasha during the reign of Mehmed V.
Mehmed V died at Y?ld?z Palace on 3 July 1918 at the age of 73, only four months before the end of World War I. Thus, he did not live to see the downfall of the Ottoman Empire. He spent most of his life at the Dolmabahçe Palace and Y?ld?z Palace in Constantinople. His grave is in the Eyüp district of modern Istanbul.
Mehmed V was Grand Master of the following Ottoman Orders:
Sultan Mehmed V Re?ad had five consorts:
He had three sons:
Media related to Mehmed V at Wikimedia Commons
Mehmed VBorn: 2 November 1844 Died: 3 July 1918
Abdul Hamid II
| Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
27 Apr 1909 - 3 Jul 1918
|Sunni Islam titles|
Abdul Hamid II
| Caliph of the Ottoman Caliphate
27 Apr 1909 - 3 Jul 1918