Midlothian (; Scottish Gaelic: Meadhan Lodainn) is a historic county, registration county, lieutenancy area and one of 32 council areas of Scotland used for local government. Midlothian lies in the east- central Lowlands, bordering the City of Edinburgh, East Lothian and the Scottish Borders.
Midlothian emerged as a county in the
Middle Ages under larger boundaries than the modern council area, including Edinburgh itself - and also known as Edinburghshire until 1921. It bordered West Lothian to the west, Lanarkshire, Peeblesshire and Selkirkshire to the south, and East Lothian, Berwickshire and Roxburghshire to the east. Traditional industries included mining, agriculture and fishing - although the modern council area is now landlocked.
Under local government reforms in 1975, Midlothian became a district council within the
Lothian region and in 1996 the current unitary council area was created. It contains the towns of Dalkeith, Bonnyrigg and Penicuik, as well as a portion of the Pentland Hills Regional Park, Rosslyn Chapel and Dalkeith Palace.
The former Midlothian County Council chambers in Edinburgh, now home to the city's
Following the end of the
Roman occupation of Britain, Lothian was populated by Brythonic-speaking ancient Britons and formed part of Gododdin, within the Hen Ogledd or Old North. In the 7th century, Gododdin fell to the Angles, with Lothian becoming part of the kingdom of Bernicia. Bernicia united into the Kingdom of Northumbria which itself became part of the early Kingdom of England. Lothian came under the control of the Scottish monarchy in the 10th century.
In the Middle Ages, Lothian was the scene of several historic conflicts between the kingdoms of Scotland and England. The
Battle of Roslin took place in 1303 at Roslin as part of the First War of Scottish Independence. A Scottish army led by Simon Fraser and John Comyn defeated an army led by English commander John Segrave.
Along with other parts of the Lothians, the county was involved in the
Rough Wooing when Roslin Castle, seat of the Earl of Caithness, was destroyed in 1544 by forces of Henry VIII of England.
In the 17th century, the county featured in the
War of the Three Kingdoms, where General George Monck had his base at Dalkeith Castle as the Commonwealth's Commander in Scotland. . Following the Restoration of the monarchy, the "Pentland Rising" in the region culminated with the  Battle of Rullion Green in 1666, a decisive victory for the Government forces against Covenanter rebels.
Oliver Cromwell's army came to Dalkeith. His officer General George Monck, was Commander in Scotland, and the government of the country was based out of Dalkeith castle. 
Midlothian campaign by British Liberal politician William Ewart Gladstone entered history as an early example of modern political campaigning, resulting in Gladstone taking the Midlothian constituency from the long-time Conservative Member of Parliament William Montagu Douglas Scott and going on to become Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.
Boundaries and governance
Map contrasting the area comprising Midlothian council (dark blue) within the historic county of Midlothian (light blue).
The historic county of Midlothian remains a
lieutenancy area, excluding the city of Edinburgh where lieutenancy functions are held by the Lord Provost and a registration county for which purposes Edinburgh is included. 
Midlothian County Council ceased to exist in 1975 under the
Local Government (Scotland) Act 1973 with Midlothian becoming a district and then a unitary council area in 1996. Consequent boundary changes removed the burgh of Musselburgh and the parish of Inveresk (which included the villages of Inveresk, Wallyford and Whitecraig) to East Lothian; the Calders ( East Calder, Midcalder and West Calder) and the Midlothian part of Livingston to West Lothian; Heriot and Stow parishes to the Ettrick and Lauderdale district of the Scottish Borders, and Currie, Balerno, Ratho and Newbridge to Edinburgh.
There is a
Midlothian constituency of the House of Commons.
There was a
Midlothian constituency of the Scottish Parliament up to the 2011 elections when it was divided between Midlothian North and Musselburgh and Midlothian South, Tweeddale and Lauderdale.
The traditional county has a roughly trapezoidal shape; it consists of a fairly flat area along the
Firth of Forth, which is heavily urbanised and dominated by the Edinburgh conurbation. Off the coast lie the small islands of Inchmickery and Cramond Island. The land gradually rises to the south, with the Pentland Hills in the south-west, Moorfoot Hills in the centre-south and the Lammermuir Hills in the far south-east. Blackhope Scar on the border with Peeblesshire is the highest point in the county at 651 m (2,136 ft). The county contains no lochs of any size, though there are many reservoirs, most notably Gladhouse Reservoir, Rosebery Reservoir, Edgelaw Reservoir, Loganlea Reservoir, Glencorse Reservoir, Threipmuir Reservoir, Harlaw Reservoir, Harperrig Reservoir, Crosswood Reservoir, Morton Reservoir and Cobbinshaw Reservoir.
Settlements within both historic and modern Midlothian
Settlements historically in Midlothian but since transferred elsewhere
Transferred to the City of Edinburgh
Transferred to East Lothian
Transferred to Scottish Borders
Transferred to West Lothian
Places of interest
Civil parishes in the County of Midlothian
(Unitary authority indicated where not Midlothian. Boundaries defined by Local Government (Scotland) Act 1973)  
Midlothian or Edinburghshire Civil Parish map c.1854. Boundaries outlined in red
Former civil parishes outside Edinburgh now merged in the City of Edinburgh
Abolished 1902: 
Abolished 1920 
The above list does not include parishes which have been within the City of Edinburgh for county purposes since 19th century, namely within the "County of the City" of which the Lord Provost was and is Lord Lieutenant. 
Being home to the Scottish capital, Midlothian is well served by roads and rail lines, though more rural areas are less easily accessible. The county is also the location of
Edinburgh Airport, providing flights to a range of national and international destinations. 
Notable people associated with Midlothian
William Drummond of Hawthornden (1585-1649), Scottish poet.
Princess Margaret of Scotland (1598-1600), daughter of James VI and I of Scotland and England (born Dalkeith Palace)
John Clerk of Penicuik, 2nd Baronet (1676-1755), was a Scottish politician, lawyer, judge, composer and architect.
William Robertson (1721-1793), historian, minister in the Church of Scotland, and Principal of the University of Edinburgh
Robert Smith (1722-1777), American architect, based in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, born in Dalkeith
Hector Macneill (1746-1818), poet and songwriter, born near Roslin
John Clerk, Lord Eldin (1757-1832), Scottish judge, lived in Lasswade for several years.
Sir Walter Scott (1771-1832) wrote the novel and lived at Lasswade Cottage (now Sir Walter Scott's Cottage) in The Heart of Midlothian Lasswade from 1798 to 1804, where he wrote his Grey Brother, translation of , etc. and was visited by Goetz von Berlichingen Wordsworth.
William Tennant (1784-1848), the author of Anster Fair, was parish schoolmaster in Lasswade from 1816 to 1819.
Thomas de Quincey (1785-1859), author of (1822), lived in Man's Bush Cottage (now De Quincey Cottage), Confessions of an English Opium-Eater Polton, from 1840 until his death in 1859.
Thomas Murray (1792-1872), the Gallovidian author, died in Lasswade.
William Ewart Gladstone (1809-1898), MP for Midlothian 1880-1895 and conducted his famous Midlothian campaign across the UK in 1880
Patrick Edward Dove (1815-1873), mainly remembered for his book The Theory of Human Progression, born at Lasswade
John Lawson Johnston (1839-1900), the creator of Bovril, born at Roslin. John Pringle Burnett, (born 1846), actor and playwright, husband of English actress
Charles W. Nibley (1849-1931), Scottish-American religious leader in The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church). Nibley was served as second counselor in the First Presidency to Heber J. Grant (1925-31), and Presiding Bishop (1907-25).
Charles Thomson Rees Wilson (1869-1959) of Glencorse, Nobel prize-winning physicist.
George Forrest (1873-1932), a plant collector who gained fame with his expeditions to the far east who spent a significant part of his early years in Loanhead.
Sir William MacTaggart (1903-1981), artist, and grandson of the artist William McTaggart, he became President of the Society of Scottish Artists, President of the Royal Scottish Academy, and Trustee of the National Museum of Antiquities.
Charles Forte, Baron Forte (1908-2007), the hotelier, worked in an Italian cafe in Loanhead, on his arrival in Scotland from Italy.
Karl Miller (1931-2014), founding editor of the and Lord Northcliffe Professor of Modern English Literature at London Review of Books University College, London (1974-1992), born in Straiton.
Annette Crosbie (born 1934), actress, born in Gorebridge
Ishbel MacAskill (1941-2011), heritage activist and traditional Scottish Gaelic singer and teacher
Gary Naysmith from Loanhead (born 1978), Scottish International Footballer who currently plays for Sheffield United and formerly for Heart Of Midlothian and Everton. He was named Scottish PFA Young Player of the Year in 1998. He won the Scottish Cup with Hearts in 1998.
Darren Fletcher (born 1984), from Mayfield Dalkeith. Scotland International footballer and holds the record of being the youngest player to captain his national side, currently plays for West Bromwich Albion and was part of the Manchester United squad that won the UEFA Champions League in the 2007-2008 season. Steven Whittaker from Bonnyrigg, (born 1984), Scotland International footballer, ex-Hibernian F.C. and Rangers F.C. Currently plays for Norwich City F.C.
Schools in Midlothian
Bonnyrigg Primary School,
Bonnyrigg Burnbrae Primary School,
Bonnyrigg Cornbank St James Primary School,
Penicuik Cuiken Primary School,
Penicuik Danderhall Primary School,
Danderhall, Dalkeith Glencorse Primary School,
Milton Bridge, Penicuik Gorebridge Primary School,
Gorebridge Goreglen Primary School,
Gorebridge Hawthornden Primary School,
Bonnyrigg King's Park Primary School,
Dalkeith Lawfield Primary School,
Mayfield, Dalkeith Lasswade Primary School,
Bonnyrigg Loanhead Primary School,
Loanhead Mauricewood Primary School,
Penicuik Mayfield Primary School,
Mayfield, Dalkeith Moorfoot Primary School,
Gorebridge Newtongrange Primary School,
Newtongrange, Dalkeith Paradykes Primary School,
Loanhead Rosewell Primary School,
Rosewell Roslin Primary School,
Roslin Sacred Heart RC Primary School,
Penicuik St David's RC Primary School
Dalkeith St Luke's RC Primary School,
Mayfield, Dalkeith St Margaret's RC Primary School,
Loanhead St Mary's RC Primary School,
Bonnyrigg St Matthew's RC Primary School,
Rosewell Stobhill Primary School,
Gorebridge Strathesk Primary School,
Penicuik Tynewater Primary School,
Pathhead Woodburn Primary School, Dalkeith
Twin towns and sister cities
twinned with Komárom-Esztergom in Hungary and Kreis Heinsberg in Germany. It is a sister city with Midlothian, Illinois, a suburb of Chicago. 
"The History of Dalkeith House and Estate" (PDF) . Retrieved 2011.
"The History of Dalkeith House and Estate" (PDF) . Retrieved 2011.
"Land Mass Coverage Report" (PDF). Registers of Scotland . Retrieved 2015.
^ List from Contents page of the Statistical Account of Edinburghshire, published by William Blackwood and Sons, Edinburgh, 1845, including only those parishes appearing in the 2011 Census
^ Census of Scotland 2011, Table KS101SC - Usually Resident Population, published by National Records of Scotland. Website
http://www.scotlandscensus.gov.uk/ retrieved March 2016. See "Standard Outputs", Table KS101SC, Area type: Civil Parish 1930
^ Partly in West Lothian. Article on Kirkliston in Ordnance Gazetteer of Scotland, by, Francis Groome, 2nd Edition, 1896
^ Order of the Secretary State for Scotland, effective from 15 May 1902, publ. in Edinburgh Gazette 1 April 1902, p. 350
^ Edinburgh Boundaries Extension and Tramways Act 1920
^ The Statistical Account of Edinburghshire, publ by William Blackwood and Sons, Edinburgh, 1845;p.648
"Flight timetables - Edinburgh Airport". www.edinburghairport.com. Archived from the original on 11 March 2018 . Retrieved 2019.
"Illinois Member List updated June 2015 »". www.illinoissistercities.org . Retrieved 2018.