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The county terrain is formed by the folded Appalachian Mountain ridges which run from southwest to northeast across the county. The terrain slopes to the northeast, with its highest point (Broad Mtn) 1.25 mile (2 km) ENE from the county's NW corner, just south of the county's border with Centre County. It measures 2,339' (713m) ASL. The Juniata River flows northeast through the lower part of the county, exiting northeastward into Juniata County near Hawstone. The county has a total area of 415 square miles (1,070 km2), of which 411 square miles (1,060 km2) is land and 3.7 square miles (9.6 km2) (0.9%) is water.
There were 18,743 households out of which 29.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.60% were married couples living together, 8.50% had a female householder with no husband present, and 29.90% were non-families. 26.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.20% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.49 and the average family size was 2.99.
The county population contained 23.1% under the age of 18, 2.2% from 18 to 19, 5.1% from 20 to 24, 10.4% from 25 to 34, 20.1% from 35 to 49, 20.6% from 50 to 64, and 18.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. The population was 48.93% male, and 51.07% female.
The Amish community in Mifflin County, established in 1791, had a total population of 3,905 people (in 30 congregations) in 2017, or 8.5% of the county's population.
In August 2016, then County Commissioner Lisa Nancollas, a Tea Party Republican, came under fire for anti-Islamic rhetoric posted to her campaign's Facebook account. She resigned from her position in April 2017, replaced by Rob Postal.
Head Start is a federally and state funded preschool program for low income children. The program serves 3- and 4-year-olds. In order to participate the family income must be below federal poverty guidelines.
Sacred Heart provides a private, Catholic education from kindergarten through fifth grade.
Belleville Mennonite School, Beth-El Christian Day School, and Valley View Christian School provide Mennonite education through grade twelve.
Mifflin County Christian Academy located in Decatur Township provides Christian education from kindergarten through grade twelve as well as day care.
Several Old Order Amish schools provide education through grade eight.
Colleges and universities
Mifflin County Academy of Science and Technology located in Lewistown provides post high school degrees in nursing, auto mechanics and electrical services and other technology driven careers.
The Lewistown branch of the South Hills School of Business and Technology offers associate degrees and other certifications in various areas of business, technology, and some health care. (Closed 2019)
The Penn State Learning Center in Lewistown offers both two-year and four-year degrees. Recently, the Learning Center opened a state-of-the-art science lab to be used by students attending the Lewistown Hospital School of Nursing.
WLUI 670 AM- Lewistown (simulcast on W225CK, 92.9 FM)
Census-designated places and unincorporated communities
Census-designated places are geographical areas designated by the US Census Bureau for the purpose of compiling demographic data. They are not actual jurisdictions under Pennsylvania law. Other unincorporated communities are listed here as well.
Raymond Martin Bell, Mifflin County, Pennsylvania: Families and Records before 1800. Washington PA (1987)
Raymond Martin Bell, Mifflin County, Pennsylvania, in the Revolution, 1775-1783. Washington PA (1993)
Raymond Martin Bell, The Houses of Mifflin County, Pennsylvania. Washington PA (1970)
Forest K Fisher, Mifflin County. Charleston SC: Arcadia Publishing (2008)
I. Daniel Rupp, History of Mifflin County, Pennsylvania. Laughlintown PA: Southwest Pennsylvania Genealogical Services, n.d. .
John Martin Stroup, The Amish of the Kishacoquillas Valley, Mifflin County, Pennsylvania: When Did They Come, and Why? What of the Future? Lewistown PA: Mifflin County Historical Society (1965)
John Martin Stroup and Raymond Martin Bell, The Genesis of Mifflin County Pennsylvania: Its Aborigines, Explorers, Early Settlement and Development, Indian Wars and The Revolution, and Formation as a County. Lewistown PA: Mifflin County Historical Society (1957)
John Martin Stroup and Raymond Martin Bell, The People of Mifflin County, Pennsylvania, 1755-1798: Pioneer Settlers and Defenders of the Frontier During the Revolution. Lewistown, PA: Mifflin County Historical Society (1973)
John Martin Stroup and Raymond Martin Bell, The Pioneers of Mifflin County, Pennsylvania: Who's Who in the Early Records with an Account of the Growth of the County before 1790. Lewistown PA: Mifflin County Historical Society (1942)
The Cemeteries of Mifflin County, Pennsylvania. Lewistown PA: Mifflin County Historical Society (1977)
Two Hundred Years: A Chronological List of Events in the History of Mifflin County, Pennsylvania. Lewistown PA: Mifflin County Historical Society (1957)