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|MiG 105-11 test vehicle at the Central Air Force Museum.|
|Primary user||Soviet Air Forces|
The Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-105, part of the Spiral program, was a crewed test vehicle to explore low-speed handling and landing. It was a visible result of a Soviet project to create an orbital spaceplane. The MiG 105 was nicknamed "Lapot" Russian: , or bast shoe (the word is also used as a slang for "shoe"), for the shape of its nose.
The program was also known as the Experimental Passenger Orbital Aircraft (EPOS). Work on this project began in 1965, with the project being halted in 1969, only to be restarted in 1974 in response to the U.S. Space Shuttle Program. The test vehicle made its first subsonic free-flight test in 1976, taking off under its own power from an old airstrip near Moscow. Flight tests, totaling eight in all, continued sporadically until 1978. The actual space plane project was cancelled when the decision was made to instead proceed with the Buran project. The MiG test vehicle itself still exists and is currently on display at the Monino Air Force Museum in Russia.
The (Russian: ?, Bespilotnyi Orbital'nyi Raketoplan, "Unpiloted Orbital Rocketplane"). Another spacecraft to use the Spiral design was the BOR series, uncrewed sub-scale reentry test vehicles. American analogs X-23 PRIME and ASSET. Several of these craft have been preserved in aerospace museums around the world.
|Image||Type||Launch date||Usage||Current status|
|BOR-1||15.07.1969||Flight test, the experimental 1:3 scale model.
Burned in the atmosphere at a height of about 60-70 km at a speed 8 000 mph (13 000 km/h). Was deployed at an altitude 328,083 ft (100 km) by 11K65
|BOR-2||1969-1972||Sub-scale model of the Spiral space plane. Four launches.||NPO Molniya, Moscow|
|BOR-3||1973-1974||Sub-scale model of the Spiral space plane. Two launches.
1. Destruction of the nose fairings after launch at a height of about five km (speed 0.94 Mach).
2. Flight program is fully implemented. Crashed on landing (Parachute failure)
|BOR-4||1980-1984||Sub-scale model of the Spiral space plane. Four launches and two unconfirmed||NPO Molniya, Moscow|
|BOR-5||1984-1988||Flight tests, the experimental sub-scale base model. Five launches. Different from Spiral spaceplane shape, data was also used in the Buran project.||Technik Museum Speyer, Germany |
Museum in Monino, Russia
|BOR-6||Sub-scale model of the Spiral space plane||NPO Molniya, Moscow|
Data from Soviet X-planes
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era