Mimulus Cardinalis
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Mimulus Cardinalis

Erythranthe cardinalis
Mimulus cardinalis flower 2003-03-12.jpg
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Lamiales
Family: Phrymaceae
Genus: Erythranthe
E. cardinalis
Binomial name
Erythranthe cardinalis
(Dougl. ex Benth.) Spach

Erythranthe cardinalis, the scarlet monkeyflower,[1][2] is a flowering perennial in the family Phrymaceae. Together with other species in Mimulus section Erythranthe, it serves as a model system for studying pollinator-based reproductive isolation. It was formerly known as Mimulus cardinalis.[3][4][5][6]


It is a fairly large, spreading, attractive plant which bears strongly reflexed, nectar-rich red or orange-red flowers and toothed, downy leaves. It is native to the West Coast and Southwestern United States and Baja California, and is generally found at low elevation in moist areas. Occasional populations of yellow-flowered Erythranthe cardinalis (which lack anthocyanin pigments in their corollas) are found in the wild.[7]


Erythranthe cardinalis is cultivated in the horticulture trade and widely available as an ornamental plant for: traditional gardens; natural landscape, native plant, and habitat gardens; and various types of municipal, commercial, and agency sustainable landscape projects. Cultivars come in a range of colors between yellow and red, including the "Santa Cruz Island Gold" variety, originally collected from Santa Cruz Island off the coast of California.


Its blooms and large nectar load attract hummingbirds, whose foreheads serve as the pollen transfer surface between flowers. In the area where it overlaps with its sister species, Erythranthe lewisii, reproductive isolation is maintained almost exclusively through pollinator preference.[8]


  1. ^ "BSBI List 2007". Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland. Archived from the original (xls) on 2015-01-25. Retrieved .
  2. ^ "Mimulus cardinalis". Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA. Retrieved 2016.
  3. ^ Barker, W.R.; Nesom, G.L.; Beardsley, P.M.; Fraga, N.S. (2012), "A taxonomic conspectus of Phrymaceae: A narrowed circumscriptions for Mimulus, new and resurrected genera, and new names and combinations" (PDF), Phytoneuron, 2012-39: 1-60CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  4. ^ Beardsley, P. M.; Yen, Alan; Olmstead, R. G. (2003). "AFLP Phylogeny of Mimulus Section Erythranthe and the Evolution of Hummingbird Pollination". Evolution. 57 (6): 1397-1410. doi:10.1554/02-086. JSTOR 3448862.
  5. ^ Beardsley, P. M.; Olmstead, R. G. (2002). "Redefining Phrymaceae: the placement of Mimulus, tribe Mimuleae, and Phryma". American Journal of Botany. 89 (7): 1093-1102. doi:10.3732/ajb.89.7.1093. JSTOR 4122195.
  6. ^ Beardsley, P. M.; Schoenig, Steve E.; Whittall, Justen B.; Olmstead, Richard G. (2004). "Patterns of Evolution in Western North American Mimulus (Phrymaceae)". American Journal of Botany. 91 (3): 474-4890. doi:10.3732/ajb.91.3.474. JSTOR 4123743.
  7. ^ Vickery 1992
  8. ^ Ramsey, Justin (2003). "COMPONENTS OF REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION BETWEEN THE MONKEYFLOWERS MIMULUS LEWISII AND M. CARDINALIS (PHRYMACEAE)". Evolution. 57: 1520-1534. doi:10.1111/j.0014-3820.2003.tb00360.x.

External links

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.



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