Mohe People
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Mohe People
Mohe people
Chinese name
Chinese or
Korean name
Hangul
Hanja
Japanese name
Kanji

The Mohe, Malgal, or Mogher, maybe a mispronunciation of the word Mojie,[1] were a Tungusic people who lived primarily in modern Northeast Asia. The two most powerful Mohe groups were known as the Heishui Mohe, located along the Amur River, and the Sumo Mohe, named after the Songhua River.[2]

The Mohe constituted a major part of the population in the kingdom of Balhae, which lasted from the late 7th century to early 10th century.[] After the fall of Balhae, few historical traces of the Mohe can be found, though they are considered to be the primary ethnic group from whom the Jurchen people descended. The Heishui Mohe in particular are considered to be the direct ancestors of the Jurchens, from whom the 17th century Manchu people originated.[3] The Mohe practiced a sedentary agrarian lifestyle and were predominantly farmers who grew soybean, wheat, millet, and rice, supplemented by pig raising and hunting for meat.[4][5] The Mohe were also known to have worn pig and dog skin coats.[6]

Name

Lineage of the Mohe people

The Chinese exonym Mohe is a graphic pejorative written with mo ? "socks; stockings" and he ? "shoes". Mo (?) (Middle Chinese: /mu?t?/) is an adjective, a customary expression meaning "barbarian" or Xiongnu[]. In the Dynasties before the Five dynasties recorded as "", such as Honglujing Stele. He ? is gal (Middle Chinese gat[] or /t?/), meaning "stone" by Mohe/Malgal, Jie/Gal language.[] The Jie ruler Shi Le () takes the surname shi ? "stone" from gal. According to the History of Jin (Jin Shi), Shi Tu Men () is the prince of the Jurchen people, whose surname shi hints to a connection with the Mohe and Jie.

The ethnonym of the Mohe bears a notable resemblance to that of the later historically attested *Motgit in Middle Chinese. (Chinese: ; pinyin: mò jí; Jyutping: mat6 gat1; Korean? [Mulgil]; Japanese [Motsukitsu]).

The name of the Mohe also appears as "Maka" in "Shin-Maka" (Japanese , ?) or "New Mohe," which is the name of a dance and the musical piece that accompanies it; the dance and song were introduced to the Japanese court during the Nara Period or around the beginning of the Heian Period from the Balhae kingdom. In modern Japanese historical texts, the name of the Mohe is annotated with the "kana" reading Makkatsu (?), which is probably a transliteration based on the standard Sino-Japanese readings of the Chinese characters used to transcribe the ethnonym of the Mohe.

Tribes

According to some records, there were seven/eight Mohe tribes :

Moji/Merjie/Wuji/Matgat () Mohe/Mogher/Malgal/Muthot () Modern location
Sumo tribe
(Sùmò Bù)
(Songmalbu)
Sumo tribe
(Sùmò Bù)
(Songmalbu)
near Songhua River
Baishan tribe
(Báish?n Bù)
(Baeksanbu)
Baishan tribe
(Báish?n Bù)
(Baeksanbu)
near Paektu Mountain
Yulou tribe
(Yúlóu)
(Uru)
Yulou tribe
(Yúlóu)
(Uru)
on the Suifun River Basin
Boduo tribe
(Bódu? Bù)
(Baekdolbu)
Boduo tribe
(Bódu? Bù)
(Baekdolbu)
Funie tribe
(Fúniè Bù)
(Buryeol)
Funie tribe
(Fúniè Bù)
(Buryeol)
near the Mudan River on the Khanka Basin dwelled in Jixi and Mudanjiang
Anchegu tribe
? (?nch?g? Bù)
? (Anchagolbu)
Tieli tribe
(Ti?lì)
(Cheolli)
near the Songhwa River dwelled in Harbin
Haoshi tribe
/ (Hàoshì Bù)
(Hosilbu)
Yuexi tribe
(Yuèx?)
(Wolhui)
dwelled in Dalnerechensk
Heishui tribe
(H?ishu? Bù)
(Heuksubu)
Heishui tribe
(H?ishu? Bù)
(Heuksubu)
low banks of Amur River dwelled in Hegang, Jiamusi, Shuangyashan, Khavarovsk, Birobidzhan, Yichun

Notable personalities

Prefecture Mohe chieftains

? Sumo Mohe

? Baishan Mohe

? Heisui Mohe

? Funie Mohe

? Yuexi Mohe

See also

References

Citations

  1. ^ "?".
  2. ^ Crossley 1997, p. 18.
  3. ^ Huang, P.: "New Light on the origins of the Manchu," Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, vol. 50, no.1 (1990): 239-82. Retrieved from JSTOR database July 18, 2006.
  4. ^ Gorelova 2002, p. 14.
  5. ^ Aisin Gioro & Jin, p. 18.
  6. ^ Gorelova 2002, pp. 13-4.

Bibliography

See also


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