Momir Bulatovi%C4%87
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Momir Bulatovi%C4%87
Momir Bulatovi?
Ratko Dmitrovic, Momir Bulatovic, Zdenko Tomanovic-mc.rs (cropped).jpg
1st President of the Republic of Montenegro

23 December 1990 - 15 January 1998
Position established
Milo ?ukanovi?
3rd Prime Minister of the FR Yugoslavia

19 May 1998 - 4 November 2000
PresidentSlobodan Milo?evi?
Vojislav Ko?tunica
Radoje Konti?
Zoran ?i?i?
Personal details
Born(1956-09-21)21 September 1956
Belgrade, PR Serbia, FPR Yugoslavia
Died30 June 2019(2019-06-30) (aged 62)
Ra?i, Podgorica, Montenegro
NationalityMontenegrin
Political partySKJ (1980s-1991)
DPS (1991-1997)
SNP (1997-2001)
NSS (2001-2009)

Momir Bulatovi? (Serbian Cyrillic: ; 21 September 1956 - 30 June 2019)[1] was a Montenegrin politician. He was the first President of the Yugoslav Republic of Montenegro from 1990 to 1998, after which he served as the Prime Minister of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia from 1998 until 2000, when Slobodan Milo?evi? was overthrown.[2] He was a leader of the Montenegro's Democratic Party of Socialists from 1989 to 1997, when he split from DPS after a conflict with Milo ?ukanovi?.

During his mandate as President of Montenegro within Yugoslavia, he oversaw the engagement of Montenegrin reservists in the Yugoslav People's Army in the Siege of Dubrovnik as well as in the Bosnian War. According to Florence Hartmann, Bulatovi? was subject to an investigation by the ICTY for war crimes in Bosnia and Herzegovina, but was not charged.[3] He was a defense witness in the trials of Slobodan Milo?evi?,[4]Radovan Karad?i?,[5] and Nikola ?ainovi?[6] at the ICTY.

Early life

Bulatovi? was born in Belgrade as the son of a Yugoslav People's Army (JNA) officer who originated from Montenegro. The family lived in the Vo?dovac neighbourhood. Due to the nature of his father's job his family frequently relocated throughout Yugoslavia. When Momir was five years old, the family moved to Zadar in Croatia, where he completed his primary and secondary education.[]

In 1975 the 18-year-old Bulatovi? moved to Titograd to study at the Veljko Vlahovi? University's Faculty of Economics. According to Bulatovi?, he wanted to return to Belgrade for university studies, but his family did not have enough money to send him there, so he ended up in Titograd.[7] Upon graduating he continued as an assistant at the same university and soon earned a master's degree.[]

Anti-bureaucratic revolution

In November 1988, while working as an assistant at the Faculty of Economics in Podgorica, Bulatovi? was named coordinator of the League of Communists of Montenegro.[8] After the anti-bureaucratic revolution in January 1989, Bulatovi? was promoted to the presidency of the League of Communists of Montenegro.[8]

With the breakup of Yugoslavia, Bulatovi? became President of Yugoslavia's Republic of Montenegro, serving in that position from 23 December 1990 to 15 January 1998. During his tenure, he was a loyal ally to Slobodan Milo?evi?, and oversaw the Montenegrin reserve of the Yugoslav People's Army in the Croatian and Bosnian wars.[]

In the 1990 Yugoslav Communist party's congress, Bulatovi? supported Milo?evi?'s agenda of changing the party's voting system to a one-member-one-vote system which would give a numerical majority to Serbs. Montenegro also supported Serbia in opposing all reforms proposed by Slovenia that were deemed to be intended to devolve power to the republics.[] The Slovenian and Croatian communist factions abdicated the party in what they saw as an attempt by Milo?evi? to create Serb hegemony in the party. The League of Communists collapsed, Bulatovi? followed the political changes in the other republics and made Montenegro a multi-party democracy and formed the Democratic Party of Socialists (DPS) with former communists.[]

President of Montenegro (1990-1998)

Siege of Dubrovnik

On 1 October 1991, Peter Carington, 6th Baron Carrington came to Titograd and asked Bulatovi? if Dubrovnik was in danger of an attack by the Yugoslav People's Army.[9] According to testimony by Nikola Samard?i? to the ICTY, a member of Bulatovi?'s cabinet, Bulatovi? promised Carrington that Dubrovnik would not be attacked.[9] Just a few hours after meeting Carrington, Bulatovi? attended a meeting with several generals of the Yugoslav People's Army, including Pavle Strugar, after which Bulatovi? told Samard?i? that "30,000 Ustashe are coming from Dubrovnik to seize the Bay of Kotor", and that a response was urgent.[9] Bulatovi? ultimately participated in ordering an attempted annexation of Dubrovnik to Montenegro, additionally claiming that it was historically linked to Montenegro.[10] After the war ended, Bulatovi? claimed that the attack on Dubrovnik was "the only way to prevent the conflict from spreading into Montenegro", but also asserted that the military gave the government of Montenegro "false information".[9]

"Stjepan Mesi? asked me back in 1993, 'What in God's name are you doing, why are you taking us over? Did you have any information how many of us were there?' I replied to him that Kadijevi? told me that there were 30,000 of them. [And] that for 30,000 close to our border we need to react with 60,000. Then Mesi? told me that there were only 700 of them. We only found out later." -Bulatovi? for Vijesti on 31 September 2010.[11]

Carrington's proposal (1991)

The siege of Dubrovnik, in addition to war crimes committed, had enormous consequences for Yugoslavia's international standing. The European Economic Community invited Carrington and representatives from Yugoslavia to negotiate a peace accord known as the Carrington plan on 19 October 1991, in The Hague. The proposal of a "loose federation of independent states" was a non-starter for Milo?evi?, who preferred a centralized Yugoslavia with institutional powers in Belgrade. Bulatovi?, to the shock of Milo?evi? and his own party members, agreed to Carrington's terms and even signed a draft of the plan during an overnight session of the Montenegrin parliament on October 17, arguing that it would secure Montenegro's interests and end the Yugoslav wars.[12] Bulatovi?'s signature potentially guaranteed Montenegro's legal right to secede from Yugoslavia, resulting in an almost explosive rift with the Yugoslav leadership in Belgrade.[13]Borisav Jovi? contacted Bulatovi? about his support for the Carrington plan in disbelief, asking him if he had been paid off by the Croats, Austrians, or Italians.[13] Bulatovi? claimed that the Carrington proposal offered Montenegro the Prevlaka peninsula, and that it guaranteed Montenegro would not be subject to sanctions.[13] Furthermore, Italian foreign minister Gianni De Michelis claimed that Bulatovi? told him that he "wanted to chart an independent course from Belgrade."[13] In a follow-up session of the Montenegrin parliament on 24-25 October, parliament and party members ratified Bulatovi?'s signature on the Carrington plan, making the accord more imminent.[13]

However, in a sharp turn, the Narodna Stranka (People's Party) called for an emergency session in the Montenegrin parliament, during which Bulatovi? was accused of treason.[14]Milo ?ukanovi? defended Bulatovi? in the parliamentary hearing.[14] Bulatovi? tried to make his own case, telling the parliament members "if servility and acceptance of everything coming from Belgrade is the criteria for good governance in Montenegro, then this nation doesn't need a government, elections, or political parties."[14] Subsequently, Bulatovi? was invited to a meeting with Milo?evi? and Jovi? in Belgrade; Bulatovi? described the meeting as "very explosive".[15] As a result of the meeting, Milo?evi? added a clause to Bulatovi?'s Carrington commitment, such that a republic could decide to stay in Yugoslavia through a referendum.[15] This resulted in the 1992 independence referendum, where voters in Montenegro decided to remain in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.

Muslim communities in Montenegro

"...yesterday in Pljevlja we were on the edge of an international conflict and all that negative energy could have turned against the Muslims such that the fate and existence of Muslims in Pljevlja could have ended that night. What a catastrophe that would be, from the point of our international position, there's absolutely no need to explain."

Momir Bulatovi? on 7 August 1992.[16]

With the war raging in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulatovi? faced the first serious threat of "spill-over" in the summer of in 1992, when Muslims in Pljevlja were subject to intimidation and violence. On 6 August 1992, a local warlord named Milika "?eko" Da?evi? walked into Pljevlja's police headquarters to ask that a vehicle which was seized be returned to his personal envoy, threatening to "declare war" on Pljevlja.[16] Although Bulatovi? described Da?evi? as someone "who hardly can be characterized as sane",[16] over half of the police force turned themselves over to Da?evi? during his custody, essentially turning over the police station to Da?evi?'s militia.[16][17][18] In addition to the stand-off with Da?evi?, his militia included forces of the Kornja?a brothers from ?ajni?e, who helped blocked off the town from a garrison of the Yugoslav People's Army.[17] Du?ko Kornja?a threatened to kill all of the Muslims in Pljevlja unless Da?evi? was released.[16] The militia's control over Pljevlja was strong enough that the Yugoslav People's Army garrison in Pljevlja, composed of only 73 soldiers,[16] refused to confront them.[17] As a result, on 7 August 1992, Bulatovi?, ?ukanovi?, Dobrica ?osi? and ?ivota Pani? came to Pljevlja to negotiate with all parties involved.[16] During the negotiations, a representative of Pljevlja's Islamic community named Hakija Ajanovi? asked Bulatovi? to tighten border controls to prevent Serbian paramilitaries from Bosnia entering Montenegro.[18] In contrast, Bulatovi? had been told by the police that "the border with Bosnia and Herzegovina was not possible to secure".[17] In the end, Bulatovi? and his colleagues promised the Islamic community in Pljevlja that they would attempt to disarm the paramilitaries[19] and add reinforcements of the Yugoslav People's Army to patrol the town.[17] To satisfy the militia, Bulatovi? asked the local Muslims not to seek autonomy, although they had not done so over the course of the meeting.[19]

"All of our efforts to assure the world how we're for peace fall into the water by the fact that self-proclaimed colonel Radovi?, who was once a JNA senior, who ?e?elj promoted to a colonel, spoke in yesterday's airing by Studio Television of Montenegro, saying that he has his own forces, that he will kill all the Muslims...just by chance the journalist didn't put that. Simply, I think we're coming to the situation where we don't control the field, or the territory--that the self-proclaimed commanders and self-styled formations move and give statements which are catastrophic for our international position, yet we have absolutely no power whatsoever to take that space." -Bulatovi? on 7 August 1992.[16]

In spite of Bulatovi?'s reassurances, Pljevlja's Muslim community suffered various incidents, particularly in the village of Bukovica where 6 Muslim inhabitants were killed from 1992 to 1995.[20] Additionally, the first kidnapping of Muslim inhabitants took place in Pljevlja on February 15 1993, where Muslim family members were taken to a prison in ?ajni?e. After a negotiation leading to the release of Serbian reservists held as prisoners by the Army of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulatovi? announced the freeing of the Bungur family from the ?ajni?e prison in 1993, crediting ?osi? and Radovan Karad?i? "personal responsibility" for the family's freedom.[20]

In May 1993, Bulatovi? participated in the negotiations of Vance-Owen Plan, held in Athens in the presence of Greek Prime Minister Konstantinos Mitsotakis.[21] Bulatovi? along with ?osi? and Milo?evi? collaborated in pressuring Karad?i? to sign the plan.[21][22] Karad?i? eventually signed the plan, after which Bulatovi? traveled with ?osi? and Milo?evi? to Pale, where they tried to convince wartime Republika Srpska's parliament to adopt the resolution signed in Athens.[22] The parliament of Republika Srpska in Pale rejected the resolution in defiance of the Milo?evi?-?osi?-Bulatovi? team, and the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina continued for another two years.[22]

Loss to ?ukanovi? and departure from the Democratic Party of Socialists

On 11 July 1997, the national committee ("Glavni odbor", abbreviated as "GO") of DPS, formerly the League of Communists, held a closed doors session after which the committee selected Milica Pejanovi?-?uri?i? to replace Bulatovi? as the party president.[23] The party split had enormous implications, making a political confrontation between ?ukanovi? and Bulatovi? inevitable. This manifested in the 1997 Montenegrin presidential election held in October, which ?ukanovi? won by a thin margin. Although the OSCE recognized the result as legitimate, Bulatovi? claimed that the United States interfered in ?ukanovi?'s favor.[24] Bulatovi? then participated in the mobilization of a large demonstration at ?ukanovi?'s inauguration in Podgorica on 14 January 1998. The protest at ?ukanovi?'s inauguration was confronted by the police, resulting in the injury of 44 policemen and four civilians.[25]

On 21 March 1998, Bulatovi? mobilized a large fraction from DPS CG and helped found the Socialist People's Party of Montenegro (SNP).[26]

Prime Minister of Yugoslavia (1998-2000)

On 21 May 1998, Bulatovi? was named the new Prime Minister of Yugoslavia by the country's parliament, replacing ?ukanovi?-loyalist Radoje Konti?.[2] On 23 March 1999, he signed a declaration of a state of war when NATO began bombing Yugoslavia.[27] He resigned on 9 October 2000, shortly after Milo?evi? was ousted.

Later life

He withdrew from frontline politics in 2001.[28] In 2017 Bulatovic took part in protests by the pro-Serb opposition in Montenegro against the country's NATO membership.[29]

He was last seen in public at the funeral of Mirjana Markovi? in April 2019.[30]

Death and legacy

Bulatovi? died on 30 June 2019 at his family's home near Podgorica.[31] A close associate, Milan Kne?evi?, said the former president apparently suffered a heart attack.[32] He was 62.[33]

Knezevic, an opposition politician, said Bulatovic "left a permanent trace in the Montenegrin politics as a man who fought for his beliefs until the last day."[34] However others, including prosecutors at the ICTFY saw him as one of Milosevic's partners in crime in the 1990's wars in Yugoslavia.[35]

References

  1. ^ "Preminuo Momir Bulatovi?". b92.net (in Serbian). Tanjug. 30 June 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  2. ^ a b "Milosevic Ally Becomes Yugoslav Premier". The New York Times. May 21, 1998. Retrieved 2019.
  3. ^ "Artman: Pod ha?kom istragom bio i Momir Bulatovi?" (in Serbian). Blic. November 30, 2012. Retrieved 2019.
  4. ^ Janet Anderson and Michael Farquhar (September 18, 2007). "Serb Leader's Death "Tragic for Victims"". Balkan Insight. Retrieved 2019.
  5. ^ "MOMIR BULATOVI? I "VREME LUDAKA"" (in Serbian). Sense Tribunal. March 1, 2013. Retrieved 2019.
  6. ^ "MOMIR BULATOVIC: 'MILOSEVIC SAVED ME FROM THE TRIBUNAL"". Sense Tribunal. August 17, 2007. Retrieved 2019.
  7. ^ Bulatovic @ Balkanskom ulicom; RTS, 28 March 2010
  8. ^ a b Radenko eki? (2011). ",,DOGA?ANJE NARODA" U CRNOJ GORI - POLITI?KO-PROPAGANDNI OKVIR" (PDF). Matica Crnogorska (in Serbian). Retrieved 2019.
  9. ^ a b c d Veseljko Koprivica (September 30, 2011). "Zlo?ini koji su se ?ukanovi?u isplatili" (in Serbian). Monitor. Retrieved 2019.
  10. ^ The 1991 Siege of Dubrovnik and the Consequences of the "War for Peace", yorku.ca; retrieved 31 January 2014.
  11. ^ "Crnogorski vrh promijenio pri?u o razaranju Dubrovnika". Radio Free Europe (in Serbian). October 1, 2010. Retrieved 2019.
  12. ^ Morrison 2009, p. 98.
  13. ^ a b c d e Morrison 2009, p. 99.
  14. ^ a b c Morrison 2009, p. 100.
  15. ^ a b Morrison 2009, p. 101.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h "Kako su se paravojne jedinice otele kontroli". e-novine (in Serbian). May 20, 2011. Retrieved 2019.
  17. ^ a b c d e K. Radevi? (September 27, 2010). "CRNOGORSKI ZLO?IN - BULATOVI?: PITAO SAM MILA O ?EMU SE RADI". Bo?njaci.net (in Bosnian). Retrieved 2019.
  18. ^ a b Morrison 2009, p. 120.
  19. ^ a b Morrison 2009, p. 121.
  20. ^ a b Jakub Durgut (February 18, 2017). "Zlo?ini bez kazne" (in Serbian). Danas. Retrieved 2019.
  21. ^ a b Annika Savill (May 3, 1993). "'Friendly persuasion' nails Karadzic: Vance-Owen peace plan is finally agreed but far from smoke-filled rooms in Greece passions and hatreds bode ill for UN force in Bosnia". The Independent. Retrieved 2019.
  22. ^ a b c Slobodan Kosti? (February 8, 2007). "Raspadanje do Kosova" (in Serbian). Vreme. Retrieved 2019.
  23. ^ "Kako su se "razveli" Milo i Momir: Dve decenije od sednice na kojoj se pocepao DPS". Nedeljnik (in Serbian). July 11, 2017. Retrieved 2019.
  24. ^ Morrison 2009, p. 160.
  25. ^ "NO? KADA JE PODGORICA GORJELA". Objectiv.me (in Serbian). January 13, 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  26. ^ Morrison 2009, p. 163.
  27. ^ Momir Bulatovi? (March 24, 2017). "?esto sam se pitao koja bi to budala mogla da zarati sa protivnikom koji govori u ime ?itavog sveta?". Nedeljnik (in Serbian). Retrieved 2019.
  28. ^ https://www.telegraf.rs/english/3077141-the-former-president-of-the-republic-of-montenegro-momir-bulatovic-passed-away-due-to-heart-attack
  29. ^ https://apnews.com/d9fdc5e333fb449ea092e6f06b9e913d
  30. ^ https://www.telegraf.rs/english/3077141-the-former-president-of-the-republic-of-montenegro-momir-bulatovic-passed-away-due-to-heart-attack
  31. ^ https://www.rferl.org/a/former-president-of-montenegro-momir-bulatovic-dies-at-62/30029602.html
  32. ^ https://apnews.com/d9fdc5e333fb449ea092e6f06b9e913d
  33. ^ https://www.rferl.org/a/former-president-of-montenegro-momir-bulatovic-dies-at-62/30029602.html
  34. ^ https://abcnews.go.com/International/wireStory/president-montenegro-momir-bulatovic-dies-62-64051240
  35. ^ https://balkaninsight.com/2007/09/18/serb-leader-s-death-tragic-for-victims/

Bibliography

  • Morrison, Kenneth (2009). Nationalism, Identity and Statehood in Post-Yugoslav Montenegro. London: I.B. Tauris & Co Ltd. ISBN 978-1-84511-710-8.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)

External links

Political offices
New office President of Montenegro
1990-1998
Succeeded by
Milo ?ukanovi?
Preceded by
Radoje Konti?
Prime Minister of Yugoslavia
1998-2000
Succeeded by
Zoran ?i?i?
Party political offices
Preceded by
Milica Pejanovi?-?uri?i?
President of the Presidency of League of Communists of Montenegro
1989-1991
Succeeded by
Position abolished
New political party President of the Democratic Party of Socialists
1991-1997
Succeeded by
Milica Pejanovi?-?uri?i?
New political party Leader of the Socialist People's Party
1998-2001
Succeeded by
Predrag Bulatovi?

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