Moroccan Arabic
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Moroccan Arabic
Moroccan Arabic
? Darija
Pronunciation[ddæ?i?æ]
Native toMorocco
Native speakers
21 million (1995)[1]
Latin alphabet, Arabic alphabet
Language codes
ary
Glottologmoro1292[2]
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For a guide to IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

Moroccan Arabic or Moroccan Darija (?, [ddæ?i?æ] in Morocco) is a member of the Maghrebi Arabic language continuum spoken in Morocco. It is mutually intelligible to some extent with Algerian Arabic language and to a lesser extent with Tunisian Arabic language. It has been heavily influenced mainly by the Berber languages and to a lesser extent by Latin (African Romance), Punic, French, and Spanish.

While Modern Standard Arabic is rarely spoken in daily life and is used to varying degrees in formal situations such as religious sermons, books, newspapers, government communications, news broadcasts or political talkshows, Darija is the spoken common language of Morocco, and has a strong presence in Moroccan television entertainment, cinema and commercial advertising.

Sahrawi Hassaniya Arabic spoken in the disputed Moroccan-controlled Western Sahara is usually considered as a separate spoken Arabic language and is poorly mutually intelligible with Moroccan Arabic.

Moroccan Arabic has many regional dialects and accents as well. Its mainstream dialect is the one used in Casablanca, Rabat and Fas and therefore it dominates the media eclipsing the other regional dialects like the ones spoken in Tangiers and Oujda.

It is spoken as a first language by about 50% to 75% of Morocco's population. The other half speaks one of the Tamazight languages. Educated Moroccan Tamazight-speakers can communicate in mainstream Moroccan Arabic.

Dialects

A Moroccan person from the city of Salé speaking Moroccan Arabic.

Moroccan Arabic was formed of several dialects of Arabic several belonging to two genetically different groups: pre-Hilalian and Hilalian dialects.[3][4][4][5]

Pre-Hilalian dialects

Ethno-linguistic map of northern Morocco: Pre-Hilalian speaking areas in purple (Mountain Arabic) and blue (old urban, village).

Pre-Hilalian dialects are a result of early Arabization phases of the Maghreb, from the 7th to the 12th centuries, concerning the main urban settlements, the harbors, the religious centres (zaouias) as well as the main trade routes. The dialects are generally classified in three types: (old) urban, "village" and "mountain" sedentary and Jewish dialects.[4][6] In Morocco, several pre-Hilalian dialects are spoken:

Hilalian dialects

Hilalian, or Bedouin, dialects were introduced to Morocco following the settlement of several Hilalian and Mâqilian tribes in western Morocco brought by the Berber Almohad king Yaqub Mansur.

The Hilalian dialects spoken in Morocco belong to the Mâqil subgroup,[6] a family that includes three main dialectal areas: western Morocco (Doukkala, Abda, Tadla, Chaouia, Gharb, Zaers and Sraghna), eastern Morocco (L'Oriental and the Oujda area) and western Algeria (central and western Oranie[10]), and the southernmost Hassaniya area (southern Morocco, Western Sahara and Mauritania).[11] Among the dialects, Hassaniya is often considered as distinct from Moroccan Darija.

Modern urban koines are also based on the Hilalian dialects and have mainly Hilalian features.

Phonology

Vowels

One of the most notable features of Moroccan Arabic is the collapse of short vowels. Initially, short /?/ and /?/ were merged into a phoneme /?/ (however, some speakers maintain a difference between /?/ and /?/ when adjacent to pharyngeal /?/ and /?/). This phoneme was then deleted entirely in most positions; for the most part, it is maintained only in the position /...C?C#/ or /...C?CC#/ (where C represents any consonant and # indicates a word boundary), i.e. when appearing as the last vowel of a word. When /?/ is not deleted, it is pronounced as a very short vowel, tending towards [?] in the vicinity of emphatic consonants, [a] in the vicinity of pharyngeal /?/ and /?/ (for speakers who have merged /?/ and /?/ in this environment), and [?] elsewhere. Original short /?/ usually merges with /?/ except in the vicinity of a labial or velar consonant. In positions where /?/ was deleted, /?/ was also deleted, and is maintained only as labialization of the adjacent labial or velar consonant; where /?/ is maintained, /?/ surfaces as [?]. This deletion of short vowels can result in long strings of consonants (a feature shared with Amazigh and certainly derived from it). These clusters are never simplified; instead, consonants occurring between other consonants tend to syllabify, according to a sonorance hierarchy. Similarly, and unlike most other Arabic dialects, doubled consonants are never simplified to a single consonant, even when at the end of a word or preceding another consonant.

Some dialects are more conservative in their treatment of short vowels. For example, some dialects allow /?/ in more positions. Dialects of the Sahara, and eastern dialects near the border of Algeria, preserve a distinction between /?/ and /?/ and allow /?/ to appear at the beginning of a word, e.g. /?qsr?/ "shorter" (standard /qsr?/), /?t?l/ "go up!" (standard /t?l/ or /t?l/), /?sab/ "friends" (standard /sab/).

Long /a/, /i/ and /u/ are maintained as semi-long vowels, which are substituted for both short and long vowels in most borrowings from Modern Standard Arabic (MSA). Long /a/, /i/ and /u/ also have many more allophones than in most other dialects; in particular, /a/, /i/, /u/ appear as [?], [e], [o] in the vicinity of emphatic consonants and , , , , but [æ], [i], [u] elsewhere. (Most other Arabic dialects only have a similar variation for the phoneme /a/.) In some dialects, such as that of Marrakech, front-rounded and other allophones also exist. Allophones in vowels usually do not exist in loanwords.

Emphatic spreading (i.e. the extent to which emphatic consonants affect nearby vowels) occurs much less than in many other dialects. Emphasis spreads fairly rigorously towards the beginning of a word and into prefixes, but much less so towards the end of a word. Emphasis spreads consistently from a consonant to a directly following vowel, and less strongly when separated by an intervening consonant, but generally does not spread rightwards past a full vowel. For example, /bid?-at/ [bed?t?s] "eggs" (/i/ and /a/ both affected), /ta?-at/ [tæt?s] "sparks" (rightmost /a/ not affected), /d?r-at/ [dræt?s] "stairs" (/a/ usually not affected), /d?rb-at-u/ [dr?bat?su] "she hit him" (with [a] variable but tending to be in between [?] and [æ]; no effect on /u/), /t?alib/ [t?lib] "student" (/a/ affected but not /i/). Contrast, for example, Egyptian Arabic, where emphasis tends to spread forward and backward to both ends of a word, even through several syllables.

Emphasis is audible mostly through its effects on neighboring vowels or syllabic consonants, and through the differing pronunciation of /t/ [t?s] and /t?/ [t]. Actual pharyngealization of "emphatic" consonants is weak and may be absent entirely. In contrast with some dialects, vowels adjacent to emphatic consonants are pure; there is no diphthong-like transition between emphatic consonants and adjacent front vowels.

Consonants

Consonant phonemes of Moroccan Darija[12]
  Labial Dental-Alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Glottal
plain emphatic plain emphatic
Nasal m (m?) n            
Plosive voiceless (p)   t t?   k q   ?
voiced b (b?) d d?   ?      
Fricative voiceless f (f?) s s? ?   ? ? h
voiced (v)   z z? ?   ? ?  
Tap     ?          
Approximant     l (l?) j w      

Phonetic notes:

  • Non-emphatic /t/ In normal circumstances, is pronounced with noticeable affrication, almost like [t?s] (still distinguished from a sequence of /t/ + /s/), and hence is easily distinguishable from emphatic /t?/ which can be pronounced as [t]. However, in some recent loanwords from European languages, a non-affricated, non-emphatic appears, distinguished from emphatic /t?/ primarily by its lack of effect on adjacent vowels (see above; an alternative analysis is possible).
  • /m, b, f/ are very distinct consonants that only occur geminated, and almost always come at the beginning of a word. They function completely differently from other emphatic consonants: They are pronounced with heavy pharyngealization, affect adjacent short/unstable vowels but not full vowels, and are pronounced with a noticeable diphthongal off-glide between one of these consonants and a following front vowel. Most of their occurrences can be analyzed as underlying sequences of /mw/, /fw/, /bw/ (which appear frequently in diminutives, for example). However, a few lexical items appear to have independent occurrences of these phonemes, e.g. /m?m-/ "mother" (with attached possessive, e.g. /m?mk/ "your mother").
  • and occur mostly in recent borrowings from European languages, and may be assimilated to /b/ or /f/ in some speakers.
  • Unlike in most other Arabic dialects (but, again, similar to Amazigh), non-emphatic /r/ and emphatic /r?/ are two entirely separate phonemes, almost never contrasting in related forms of a word.
  • /l?/ is rare in native words; in nearly all cases of native words with vowels indicating the presence of a nearby emphatic consonant, there is a nearby triggering /t?/, /d?/, /s?/, /z?/ or /r?/. Many recent European borrowings appear to require (l?) or some other unusual emphatic consonant in order to account for the proper vowel allophones; but an alternative analysis is possible for these words where the vowel allophones are considered to be (marginal) phonemes on their own.
  • Original /q/ splits lexically into /q/ and /?/ in most dialects but /q/ is preserved all the time in all of the big cities such as Casablanca, Fes, Tangier, etc. and all of the montagneious regions; for all words, both alternatives exist.
  • Original /d?/ normally appears as /?/, but as /?/ (sometimes /d/) if a sibilant, lateral or rhotic consonnant appears later in the same stem: /?l?s/ "he sat" (MSA /d?alas/), /?zzar/ "butcher" (MSA /d?azza:r/), /duz/ "go past" (MSA /d?u:z/) like in western Algerian dialects.
  • Original /s/ is converted to /?/ if /?/ occurs elsewhere in the same stem, and /z/ is similarly converted to /?/ as a result of a following /?/: /m?/ "sun" vs. MSA /?ams/, /?u?/ "two" vs. MSA /zawd?/ "pair", /?a?/ "glass" vs. MSA /zud?a:d?/, etc. This does not apply to recent borrowings from MSA (e.g. /mza?/ "disposition"), nor as a result of the negative suffix /?/ or /?i/.
  • the gemination of the flap /?/ results in a trill /r/.

Writing

Moroccan Arabic is not often written (most books and magazines are in French, Spanish, or Modern Standard Arabic; most Qur'an books are written in French, Spanish, Classical Arabic, or Modern Standard Arabic), and there is no universally standard written system.[13] There is also a loosely standardized Latin system used for writing Moroccan Arabic in electronic media, such as texting and chat, often based on sound-letter correspondences from French, English or Spanish ('sh' or 'ch' for English 'sh', 'u' or 'ou' for English 'u', etc.) and using numbers to represent sounds not found in French or English (2-3-6-7-9 used for ?-?-?-?-?).

However, most systems used for writing Darija in linguistic works largely agree among each other. A Moroccan Arabic alphabet, Abazidiya Magribiya, is being developed:[]http://www.ktbdarija.com/old/

kh = ? "" [x]

gh = ? "?ayn" [?]

sh = ? "n" [?]

â = ? "?ayn" []

h = ? "" [?]

q = ? "q?f" [q]

Long (aka "stable") vowels /a/, /i/, /u/ are written a, i, u. e represents /?/ and o represents /?/ (see section on phonology, above). ? is used for /?/ in speakers who still have this phoneme in the vicinity of pharyngeal /?/ and /?/.?, ?, and o are also used for ultrashort vowels used by educated speakers for the short vowels of some recent borrowings from MSA.

In practice, /?/ is usually deleted when it is not the last vowel of a word. Some authors omit in transcription: ka-t-ktb-u "You are (plural) writing" instead of ka-t-ketb-u. Others (like Richard Harrell, in his reference grammar of Moroccan Darija) maintain the e, but it never occurs in an open syllable (one ending with a vowel). Instead, the e is transposed with the preceding (sometimes geminated) consonant, which ends up following e, known as inversion.

y represents /j/.

? and ? represent pharyngeal /?/ and /?/.

? and x represent velar /?/ and /x/.

?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ? represent emphatic /t?, d?, s?, z?, r?, l?/.

?, ? represent hushing /?, ?/.

Vocabulary

Substrates

Moroccan Arabic is characterized by a strong Berber as well as Latin (African Romance) stratum[14].

Following the Arab conquest, Berber languages remained widely spoken. During their Arabisation, some Berber tribes became bilingual for generations before abandoning their language for Arabic; however, they kept a substantial Berber stratum that increases from the east to the west of the Maghreb, making Moroccan Arabic dialects the ones most influenced by Berber.

More recently, the influx of Andalusi people and Spanish-speaking-Moriscos (between the 15th and the 17th centuries) influenced urban dialects with Spanish substrate (and loanwords).

Vocabulary and loanwords

Most vocabulary of Moroccan Arabic language is derived from Classical Arabic and Amazigh, supplemented by French and Spanish loanwords.

There are noticeable lexical differences between Moroccan Arabic and most other Arabic languages. Some words are essentially unique to Darija: daba "now". Many others, however, are characteristic of Maghrebi Arabic as a whole including both innovations and unusual retentions of Classical vocabulary that disappeared elsewhere, such as hbe?' "go down" from Classical haba?. Others are shared with Algerian Arabic such as h?e? "talk", from Classical hadhar "babble", and temma "there", from Classical thamma.

There are a number of Moroccan Arabic dictionaries in existence:

  • A Dictionary of Moroccan Arabic: Moroccan-English, ed. Richard S. Harrell & Harvey Sobelman. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 1963 (reprinted 2004.)
  • Mu`jam al-fu fil-`?mmiyyah al-maghribiyyah ? ? , Muhammad Hulwi, Rabat: al-Madaris 1988.
  • Dictionnaire Colin d'arabe dialectal marocain (Rabat, éditions Al Manahil, ministère des Affaires Culturelles), by a Frenchman named Georges Séraphin Colin, who devoted nearly all his life to it from 1921 to 1977. The dictionary contains 60,000 entries and was published in 1993, after Colin's death.
Examples of Arabic words[]
  • k?lb: dog
  • mu?: cat
  • q?rd: monkey
  • ?ari?: street
  • b?ar: sea
  • m?:sun
  • bab: door
  • ?ayt: wall
  • bagra:cow
  • kol: eat
  • f?kra:idea
  • ?ob:love
  • dhab:gold
  • ?did:metal
  • rl:foot
  • ras:head
  • wh:face
  • bit: room
  • xayt:wire
  • "bnty" : my daughter
  • "weldi": my son
  • "rajel " : man
  • "mra": woman
  • 'colors=red/green/bleu/yellowmar/xd?r/zraq/sfar
Examples of words inherited from Amazigh
  • Mu? or me?: cat (orig. Amouch), pronounced [mu?]
  • xizzu: carrots [xizzu]
  • al: how much [tæl]
  • Tak?ita: typical Moroccan dress
  • Lalla: lady, madam
  • Henna: grandmother (jebli and northern urban dialects) / "jeda" :southern dialect
  • D?ar or t?ar: zone, region [t]
  • Neggafa: wedding facilitator (orig. taneggaft) [nafa]
  • sifet or sayfet: send [sf?t?]
  • Sebniya: veil (jebli and northern urban dialects)
  • ?aada : carrots (jebli and northern urban dialects)
  • sarred : synonyme of send (jebli and northern urban dialects)
  • ?la?em : mustache
  • Awriz: heel (jebli and northern urban dialects)
  • Tamara: hardship, worries
  • bra: letter
  • de?ya: hurry
  • dmir: hard work
  • niker: wake up
Examples of words of French origin
  • forshita: fourchette (fork), pronounced [foit]
  • tomobil or tonobile: automobile (car) [t?omobil]
  • telfaza: télévision (television) [t?lf?z?]
  • radio: radio [d?jo], r?dio is common across most varieties of Arabic).
  • bartma: appartement (apartment) [bt?m?]
  • rompa: rondpoint (traffic circle) [?ambwa]
  • tobis: autobus (bus) [t?obis]
  • kamera: caméra (camera) [k?me]
  • portable: portable (cell phone) [po?tbl]
  • tilif?n: téléphone (telephone) [tilifu:n]
  • brika: briquet (lighter) [b?ike]
  • parisiana: a French baguette, more common is komera, stick
  • disk: song
  • tran: train (train) [træ:n]
  • sbitar: hôpital (hospital) [sbit?:r]
  • serbita: serviette (napkin) [srbit?]
  • tabla : table (table) [t?bl?]
  • pc:ordinateur / pc
Examples of words borrowed from Spanish

Some loans might have come through Andalusi Arabic brought by Moriscos when they were expelled from Spain following the Christian Reconquest or, alternatively, they date from the time of the Spanish Protectorate in Morocco.

  • rwida: rueda (wheel), pronounced [?wed]
  • kuzina: cocina (kitchen) [kuzin?]
  • skwila: escuela (school) [skwil?]
  • simana: semana (week) [sim?n?]
  • manta: manta (blanket) [m?nt]
  • rial: real (five centimes; the term has also been borrowed into many other Arabic dialects) [?jæl]
  • fundo: fondo (bottom of the sea or the swimming pool) [fund?o]
  • karrossa: carrosa (carrosse) [k?ros?]
  • kurda: cuerda (rope) [ko?d]
  • kama (in the north only): cama (bed) [k?m]
  • blassa: plaza (place) [bl?s?]
  • l'banio: el baño (toilet) [?l b?njo]
  • komir : eat (but Moroccans use the expression to name the Parisian bread) [kome?]
  • Disko : song (in the north only) [disko]
  • elmaryo : El armario (the cupboard) [elmjo]
  • playa  : playa (beach) [pl?j?]
  • mariya : marea (water flow) [mj?]
  • pasiyo : paseo (walk) [pasijo]
  • karratera : carretera (means highway in Spanish but used to refer to the road in Darija) [karate?a]
Examples of words borrowed from Portuguese and German

They are used in several coastal cities across the Moroccan coast like Oualidia, El Jadida, and Tangier.

Examples of regional differences
  • Now: "deba" in the majority of regions, but "druk" or "druka" is also used in some regions in the centre and south and "drwek" or "durk" in the east
  • When?: "fuqa?" in most regions,"fe-waxt" in the Northwest (Tangier-Tetouan) but "imta" in the Atlantic region and "weqta?" in Rabat region
  • What?: "a?nu", "?nu" or "a?" in most regions, but "?enni", "?ennu" in the north, "?nu", "?" in Fes, and "wa?ta", "wasmu", "wa?" in the far east
Some useful sentences

Note: All sentences are written according to the transcription used in Richard Harrell, A Short Reference Grammar of Moroccan Arabic (Examples with their pronunciation).:[15]

  • a i u = full vowels = normally [æ i u], but [? e o] in the vicinity of an emphatic consonant or q ("vicinity" generally means not separated by a full vowel)
  • e = /?/
  • q = /q/
  • x ? = /x ?/
  • y = /j/
  • t = [ts]
  • ? ? = /? ?/
  • ? ? = /? ?/
  • ? ? ? ? ? ? = emphatic consonants = /d? l? r? s? t? z?/ (? is not affricated, unlike t)
English Western Darija Northern (Jebli, Tetouani) Darija Eastern (Oujda) Darija
How are you? la bas? la bas? / bi-xayr?/ kif ntina? / amandra? la bas? / rak ?aya / rak ?bab?
Can you help me? yemken-lek t?aweni? teqder d?aweni? waxa d?aweni? yemken-lek t?aweni?
Do you speak English? wa? ka-tehder lengliziya / wa? ka-tedwi be-l-lengliziya? wa? ka-dehder be-l-lengliziya? / ka-tehder lengliziya? wa? tehder lengliziya?
Excuse me sma?-liya sma?-li sma?-liya
Good luck lay awn / lay sehl
Good morning ?ba? l-xir / ?ba? n-nur
Good night te?ba? ?la xir lay ymsik be-xer te?ba? ?la xir
Goodbye be-slama / tlla be-slama / be-slama f had sa?a / huwa hadak be-slama
Happy new year sana sa?ida
Hello s-salam ?alikum / as-salamu ?alaykum (Classical) / ?ahlan as-salamu ?alaykum (Classical) / ?ahlan s-salam ?likum
How are you doing? la bas (?lik)?
How are you? ki dayer ? (masculine) / ki dayra ? (feminine) kif ntin? (masculine) / kif ntina? (feminine) ki rak?
Is everything okay? kul-?i mezyan ? kul-?i mezyan ? / kul-?i huwa hadak ? kul-?i mli / kul-?i zin?
Nice to meet you met?afin [m?t.r?r?.fen]
No thanks la ?ukran
Please a yxallik / ?afak a yxallik / a y?izek / xayla a yxallik / a y?izek
Take care tlla f-?a?ek tlla tlla f-?a?ek
Thank you very much ?ukran bezzaf
What do you do? fa? xddam? / chno taddir ?kad ddel? / ?enni xaddam? (masculine) / ?enni xaddama? (feminine) / ?-ka-dexdem? / ?ini ka-te?mel/?adal f-hyatak? fa? texdem? (masculine) / fa? txedmi ? (feminine)
What's your name? a?nu smiytek? / ?u smiytek ?enni ?esmek? / kif-a? msemy nta/ntinah? wa?ta smiytek?
Where are you from? mnin nta? (masculine) / mnin nti? (feminine) mnayen ntina? min ntaya? (masculine) / min ntiya? (feminine)
Where are you going? fin ?adi tem?i? nayemma?i?/fayn ma?i? (masculine) / nayemma?a?/fayn ma?ya? (feminine) f-rak tem?i? / f-rak raya?
You are welcome la ?ukr ?la wa?ib / bla ?mil la ?ukr ?la wa?ib/ma?i mu?kil / dunya hania la ?ukr ?la wa?ib

Grammar

Verbs

Introduction

The regular Moroccan Arabic verb conjugates with a series of prefixes and suffixes. The stem of the conjugated verb may change a bit, depending on the conjugation:

The stem of the Moroccan Arabic verb for "to write" is kteb.

Past tense

The past tense of kteb (write) is as follows:

I wrote: kteb-t

You wrote: kteb-ti (some regions tend to differentiate between masculine and feminine, the masculine form is kteb-t, the feminine kteb-ti)

He/it wrote: kteb (can also be an order to write; kteb er-rissala: Write the letter)

She/it wrote: ketb-et

We wrote: kteb-na

You (plural) wrote: kteb-tu / kteb-tiu

They wrote: ketb-u

The stem kteb turns into ketb before a vowel suffix because of the process of inversion described above.

Present tense

The present tense of kteb is as follows:

I am writing: ka-ne-kteb

You/ae (masculine) writing: ka-te-kteb

You are (feminine) writing: ka-t-ketb-i

He's/it is writing: ka-ye-kteb

She is/it is writing: ka-te-kteb

We are writing: ka-n-ketb-u

You (plural) are writing: ka-t-ketb-u

They are writing: ka-y-ketb-u

The stem kteb turns into ketb before a vowel suffix because of the process of inversion described above. Between the prefix ka-n-, ka-t-, ka-y- and the stem kteb, an e appears but not between the prefix and the transformed stem ketb because of the same restriction that produces inversion.

In the north, you are writing" is always ka-de-kteb regardless of who is addressed. This is also the case of de in de-kteb as northerners prefer to use de and southerners prefer te.

Instead of the prefix ka, some speakers prefer the use of ta (ta-ne-kteb "I am writing"). The coexistence of these two prefixes is from historic differences. In general, ka is more used in the north and ta in the south, some other prefixes like la, a, qa are less used. In some regions like in the east (Oujda), most speakers use no preverb (ne-kteb, te-kteb, y-kteb, etc.).

Other tenses

To form the future tense, the prefix ka-/ta- is removed and replaced with the prefix ?a-, ?ad- or ?adi instead (e.g. ?a-ne-kteb "I will write", ?ad-ketb-u (north) or ?adi t-ketb-u "You (plural) will write").

For the subjunctive and infinitive, the ka- is removed (b?it ne-kteb "I want to write", b?it te-kteb "I want 'you to write").

The imperative is conjugated with the suffixes of the present tense but without any prefixes or preverbs:

kteb Write! (masculine singular)

ketb-i Write! (feminine singular)

ketb-u Write! (plural)

Negation

One characteristic of Moroccan Arabic syntax, which it shares with other North African varieties as well as some southern Levantine dialect areas, is in the two-part negative verbal circumfix /ma-...-?i/. (In many regions, including Marrakech, the final /i/ vowel is not pronounced so it becomes /ma-...-?/.)[16]

  • Past: /kteb/ "he wrote" /ma-kteb-?i/ "he did not write"
  • Present: /ka-y-kteb/ "he writes" /ma-ka-y-kteb-?i/ "he does not write"

/ma-/ comes from the Classical Arabic negator /ma/. /-?i/ is a development of Classical /?ay?/ "thing". The development of a circumfix is similar to the French circumfix ne ... pas in which ne comes from Latin non "not" and pas comes from Latin passus "step". (Originally, pas would have been used specifically with motion verbs, as in "I did not walk a step". It was generalised to other verbs.)

The negative circumfix surrounds the entire verbal composite, including direct and indirect object pronouns:

  • /ma-kteb-hom-li-?i/ "he did not write them to me"
  • /ma-ka-y-kteb-hom-li-?i/ "he does not write them to me"
  • /ma-?adi-y-kteb-hom-li-?i/ "he will not write them to me"
  • /wa? ma-kteb-hom-li-?i/ "did he not write them to me?"
  • / wa? ma-ka-y-kteb-hom-li-?i/ "does he not write them to me?"
  • /wa? ma-?adi-y-kteb-hom-li-?i/ "will he not write them to me?"

Future and interrogative sentences use the same /ma-...-?i/ circumfix (unlike, for example, in Egyptian Arabic). Also, unlike in Egyptian Arabic, there are no phonological changes to the verbal cluster as a result of adding the circumfix. In Egyptian Arabic, adding the circumfix can trigger stress shifting, vowel lengthening and shortening, elision when /ma-/ comes into contact with a vowel, addition or deletion of a short vowel, etc. However, they do not occur in Moroccan Arabic (MA):

  • There is no phonological stress in MA.
  • There is no distinction between long and short vowels in MA.
  • There are no restrictions on complex consonant clusters in MA and hence no need to insert vowels to break up such clusters.
  • There are no verbal clusters that begin with a vowel. The short vowels in the beginning of Forms IIa(V), and such, have already been deleted. MA has first-person singular non-past /ne-/ in place of Egyptian /a-/.

Negative pronouns such as walu "nothing", ?ta ?aja "nothing" and ?ta wa?ed "nobody" can be added to the sentence without ?i as a suffix:

  • ma-?a-ne-kteb walu "I will not write anything"
  • ma-te-kteb ?ta ?aja "Do not write anything"
  • ?ta wa?ed ma-?a-ye-kteb "Nobody will write"
  • wellah ma-ne-kteb or wellah ma-?a-ne-kteb "I swear to God I will not write"

Note that wellah ma-ne-kteb could be a response to a command to write kteb while wellah ma-?a-ne-kteb could be an answer to a question like wa? ?a-te-kteb? "Are you going to write?"

In the north, "'you are writing" is always ka-de-kteb regardless of who is addressed. It is also the case of de in de-kteb, as northerners prefer to use de and southerners prefer te.

Instead of the prefix ka, some speakers prefer the use of ta (ta-ne-kteb "I am writing"). The co-existence of these two prefixes is from historical differences. In general ka is more used in the north and ta in the south. In some regions like the east (Oujda), most speakers ue no preverb:

  • ka ma-?adi-?i-te-kteb?!

In detail

Verbs in Moroccan Arabic are based on a consonantal root composed of three or four consonants. The set of consonants communicates the basic meaning of a verb. Changes to the vowels between the consonants, along with prefixes and/or suffixes, specify grammatical functions such as tense, person and number in addition to changes in the meaning of the verb that embody grammatical concepts such as causative, intensive, passive or reflexive.

Each particular lexical verb is specified by two stems, one used for the past tense and one used for non-past tenses, along with subjunctive and imperative moods. To the former stem, suffixes are added to mark the verb for person, number and gender. To the latter stem, a combination of prefixes and suffixes are added. (Very approximately, the prefixes specify the person and the suffixes indicate number and gender.) The third person masculine singular past tense form serves as the "dictionary form" used to identify a verb like the infinitive in English. (Arabic has no infinitive.) For example, the verb meaning "write" is often specified as kteb, which actually means "he wrote". In the paradigms below, a verb will be specified as kteb/ykteb (kteb means "he wrote" and ykteb means "he writes"), indicating the past stem (kteb-) and the non-past stem (also -kteb-, obtained by removing the prefix y-).

The verb classes in Moroccan Arabic are formed along two axes. The first or derivational axis (described as "form I", "form II", etc.) is used to specify grammatical concepts such as causative, intensive, passive or reflexive and mostly involves varying the consonants of a stem form. For example, from the root K-T-B "write" are derived form I kteb/ykteb "write", form II ketteb/yketteb "cause to write", form III kateb/ykateb "correspond with (someone)" etc. The second or weakness axis (described as "strong", "weak", "hollow", "doubled" or "assimilated") is determined by the specific consonants making up the root, especially whether a particular consonant is a "w" or " y", and mostly involves varying the nature and location of the vowels of a stem form. For example, so-called weak verbs have one of those two letters as the last root consonant, which is reflected in the stem as a final vowel instead of a final consonant (?ma/y?mi "throw" from ?-M-Y). Meanwhile, hollow verbs are usually caused by one of those two letters as the middle root consonant, and the stems of such verbs have a full vowel (/a/, /i/ or /u/) before the final consonant, often along with only two consonants (?ab/y?ib "bring" from ?-Y-B).

It is important to distinguish between strong, weak, etc. stems and strong, weak, etc. roots. For example, X-W-F is a hollow root, but the corresponding form II stem xuwwef/yxuwwef "frighten" is a strong stem:

  • Weak roots are those that have a w or a y as the last consonant. Weak stems are those that have a vowel as the last segment of the stem. For the most part, there is a one-to-one correspondence between weak roots and weak stems. However, form IX verbs with a weak root will show up the same way as other root types (with doubled stems in most other dialects but with hollow stems in Moroccan Darija).
  • Hollow roots are triliteral roots that have aw or a y as the last consonant. Hollow stems are those that end with /-VC/ in which V is a long vowel (most other dialects) or full vowel in Moroccan Arabic (/a/, /i/ or /u/). Only triliteral hollow roots form hollow stems and only in forms I, IV, VII, VIII and X. In other cases, a strong stem generally results. In Moroccan Darija, all form IX verbs yield hollow stems regardless of root shape: sman "be fat" from S-M-N.
  • Doubled roots are roots that have the final two consonants identical. Doubled stems end with a geminate consonant. Only Forms I, IV, VII, VIII, and X yield a doubled stem from a doubled root. Other forms yield a strong stem. In addition, in most dialects (but not Moroccan), all stems in Form IX are doubled: Egyptian Arabic i?má/yi?má "be red, blush" from ?-M-R.
  • Assimilated roots are those where the first consonant is a w or a y. Assimilated stems begin with a vowel. Only Form I (and Form IV?) yields assimilated stems and only in the non-past. There are none In Moroccan Darija.
  • Strong roots and stems are those that fall under none of the other categories described above. It is common for a strong stem to correspond with a non-strong root but the reverse is rare.
Table of verb forms

In this section, all verb classes and their corresponding stems are listed, excluding the small number of irregular verbs described above. Verb roots are indicated schematically using capital letters to stand for consonants in the root:

  • F = first consonant of root
  • M = middle consonant of three-consonant root
  • S = second consonant of four-consonant root
  • T = third consonant of four-consonant root
  • L = last consonant of root

Hence, the root F-M-L stands for all three-consonant roots, and F-S-T-L stands for all four-consonant roots. (Traditional Arabic grammar uses F-?-L and F-?-L-L, respectively, but the system used here appears in a number of grammars of spoken Arabic dialects and is probably less confusing for English speakers since the forms are easier to pronounce than those involving /?/.)

The following table lists the prefixes and suffixes to be added to mark tense, person, number, gender and the stem form to which they are added. The forms involving a vowel-initial suffix and corresponding stem PAv or NPv are highlighted in silver. The forms involving a consonant-initial suffix and corresponding stem PAc are highlighted in gold. The forms involving no suffix and corresponding stem PA0 or NP0 are not highlighted.

Tense/Mood Past Non-Past
Person Singular Plural Singular Plural
1st PAc-t PAc-na n(e)-NP0 n(e)-NP0-u/w
2nd masculine PAc-ti PAc-tiw t(e)-NP0 t(e)-NPv-u/w
feminine t(e)-NPv-i/y
3rd masculine PA0 PAv-u/w y-NP0 y-NPv-u/w
feminine PAv-et t(e)-NP0

The following table lists the verb classes along with the form of the past and non-past stems, active and passive participles, and verbal noun, in addition to an example verb for each class.

Notes:

  • Italicized forms are those that follow automatically from the regular rules of deletion of /e/.
  • In the past tense, there can be up to three stems:
    • When only one form appears, this same form is used for all three stems.
    • When three forms appear, these represent first-singular, third-singular and third-plural, which indicate the PAc, PA0 and PAv stems, respectively.
    • When two forms appear, separated by a comma, these represent first-singular and third-singular, which indicate the PAc and PA0 stems. When two forms appear, separated by a semicolon, these represent third-singular and third-plural, which indicate the PA0 and PAv stems. In both cases, the missing stem is the same as the third-singular (PA0) stem.
  • Not all forms have a separate verb class for hollow or doubled roots. In such cases, the table below has the notation "(use strong form)", and roots of that shape appear as strong verbs in the corresponding form; e.g. Form II strong verb d?áyya?/yid?áyya? "waste, lose" related to Form I hollow verb d?a?/yid?i? "be lost", both from root D?-Y-?.
Form Strong Weak Hollow Doubled
Past Non-Past Example Past Non-Past Example Past Non-Past Example Past Non-Past Example
I FMeL; FeMLu yFMeL, yFeMLu kteb/ykteb "write", ?r?eb/y?r?eb "drink" FMit, FMa yFMi r?ma/yr?mi "throw", ?ra/y?ri "buy" FeLt, FaL yFiL ba?/ybi? "sell", ?ab/y?ib "bring" FeMMit, FeMM yFeMM ?edd/y?edd "close", medd/ymedd "hand over"
yFMoL, yFeMLu dxel/ydxol "enter", sken/yskon "reside" yFMa nsa/ynsa "forget" yFuL ?af/y?uf "see", daz/yduz "pass" FoMMit, FoMM yFoMM ko/yko "cough"
yFMu ?ba/y?bu "crawl" yFaL xaf/yxaf "sleep", ban/yban "seem"
FoLt, FaL yFuL qal/yqul "say", kan/ykun "be" (the only examples)
II FeMMeL; FeMMLu yFeMMeL, yFeMMLu beddel/ybeddel "change" FeMMit, FeMMa yFeMMi werra/ywerri "show" (same as strong)
FuwweL; FuwwLu yFuwweL, yFuwwLu xuwwef/yxuwwef "frighten" Fuwwit, Fuwwa yFuwwi luwwa/yluwwi "twist"
FiyyeL; FiyyLu yFiyyeL, yFiyyLu biyyen/ybiyyen "indicate" Fiyyit, Fiyya yFiyyi qiyya/yqiyyi "make vomit"
III FaMeL; FaMLu yFaMeL, yFaMLu s?afer?/ys?afer? "travel" FaMit, FaMa yFaMi qad?a/yqad?i "finish (trans.)", sawa/ysawi "make level" (same as strong) FaMeMt/FaMMit, FaM(e)M, FaMMu yFaM(e)M, yFaMMu s?af(e)f/ys?af(e)f "line up (trans.)"
Ia(VIIt) tteFMeL; ttFeMLu ytteFMeL, yttFeMLu ttekteb/yttekteb "be written" tteFMit, tteFMa ytteFMa tter?ma/ytter?ma "be thrown", ttensa/yttensa "be forgotten" ttFaLit/ttFeLt/ttFaLt, ttFaL yttFaL ttba?/yttba? "be sold" ttFeMMit, ttFeMM yttFeMM tt?edd/ytt?edd "be closed"
ytteFMoL, yttFeMLu ddxel/yddxol "be entered" yttFoMM ttfekk/yttfokk "get loose"
IIa(V) tFeMMeL; tFeMMLu ytFeMMeL, ytFeMMLu tbeddel/ytbeddel "change (intrans.)" tFeMMit, tFeMMa ytFeMMa twerra/ytwerra "be shown" (same as strong)
tFuwweL; tFuwwLu ytFuwweL, ytFuwwLu txuwwef/ytxuwwef "be frightened" tFuwwit, tFuwwa ytFuwwa tluwwa/ytluwwa "twist (intrans.)"
tFiyyeL; tFiyyLu ytFiyyeL, ytFiyyLu tbiyyen/ytbiyyen "be indicated" tFiyyit, tFiyya ytFiyya tqiyya/ytqiyya "be made to vomit"
IIIa(VI) tFaMeL; tFaMLu ytFaMeL, ytFaMLu t?awen/yt?awen "cooperate" tFaMit, tFaMa ytFaMa tqad?a/ytqad?a "finish (intrans.)", t?ama/yt?ama "join forces" (same as strong) tFaMeMt/tFaMMit, tFaM(e)M, tFaMMu ytFaM(e)M, ytFaMMu ts?af(e)f/yts?af(e)f "get in line", twad(e)d/ytwad(e)d "give gifts to one another"
VIII FtaMeL; FtaMLu yFtaMeL, yFtaMLu ?tar?em/?tar?em "respect", xtar?e?/xtar?e? "invent" FtaMit, FtaMa yFtaMi FtaLit/FteLt/FtaLt, FtaL yFtaL xtar?/yxtar? "choose", ?ta?/y?ta? "need" FteMMit, FteMM yFteMM htemm/yhtemm "be interested (in)"
IX FMaLit/FMeLt/FMaLt, FMaL yFMaL ?mar?/y?mar? "be red, blush", sman/ysman "be(come) fat" (same as strong)
X steFMeL; steFMLu ysteFMeL, ysteFMLu ste?r?eb/yste?r?eb "be surprised" steFMit, steFMa ysteFMi sted?a/ysted?i "invite" (same as strong) stFeMMit, stFeMM ystFeMM st?ell/yst?ell "exploit"
ysteFMa stehza/ystehza "ridicule", stfa/ystfa "resign"
Iq FeSTeL; FeSTLu yFeSTeL, yFeSTLu t?erem/yt?erem "translate", melmel/ymelmel "move (trans.)", hernen/yhernen "speak nasally" FeSTit, FeSTa yFeSTi seqs?a/yseqs?i "ask" (same as strong)
FiTeL; FiTLu yFiTeL, yFiTLu s?ifet?/ys?ifet? "send", ritel/yritel "pillage" FiTit, FiTa yFiTi tira/ytiri "shoot"
FuTeL; FuTLu yFuTeL, yFuTLu suger/ysuger "insure", suret/ysuret "lock" FuTit, FuTa yFuTi rula/yruli "roll (trans.)"
FiSTeL; FiSTLu yFiSTeL, yFiSTLu birez "cause to act bourgeois", biznes "cause to deal in drugs" F...Tit, F...Ta yF...Ti bl?ana, ybl?ani "scheme, plan", fanta/yfanti "dodge, fake", pid?ala/ypid?ali "pedal"
Iqa(IIq) tFeSTeL; tFeSTLu ytFeSTeL, ytFeSTLu t?t?erem/yt?t?erem "be translated", tmelmel/ytmelmel "move (intrans.)" tFeSTit, tFeSTa ytFeSTa tseqs?a/ytseqs?a "be asked" (same as strong)
tFiTeL; tFiTLu ytFiTeL, ytFiTLu ts?ifet?/yts?ifet? "be sent", tritel/ytritel "be pillaged" tFiTit, tFiTa ytFiTa ttira/yttiri "be shot"
tFuTeL; tFuTLu ytFuTeL, ytFuTLu tsuger/ytsuger "be insured", tsuret/ytsuret "be locked" tFuTit, tFuTa ytFuTa trula/ytruli "roll (intrans.)"
tFiSTeL; tFiSTLu ytFiSTeL, ytFiSTLu tbirez "act bourgeois", tbiznes "deal in drugs" tF...Tit, tF...Ta ytF...Ta tbl?ana/ytbl?ana "be planned", tfanta/ytfanta "be dodged", tpid?ala/ytpid?ala "be pedaled"
Sample Paradigms of Strong Verbs
Regular verb, form I, f?el/yf?el

Example: kteb/ykteb "write"

Tense/Mood Past Present Subjunctive Present Indicative Future Imperative
Person Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
1st kteb-t kteb-na ne-kteb n-ketb-u ka-ne-kteb ka-n-ketb-u ?a-ne-kteb ?a-n-ketb-u
2nd masculine kteb-ti kteb-tiw te-kteb t-ketb-u ka-te-kteb ka-t-ketb-u ?a-te-kteb ?a-t-ketb-u kteb ketb-u
feminine t-ketb-i ka-t-ketb-i ?a-t-ketb-i ketb-i
3rd masculine kteb ketb-u y-kteb y-ketb-u ka-y-kteb ka-y-ketb-u ?a-y-kteb ?a-y-ketb-u
feminine ketb-et te-kteb ka-te-kteb ?a-te-kteb

Some comments:

  • Boldface, here and elsewhere in paradigms, indicate unexpected deviations from some previously established pattern.
  • The present indicative is formed from the subjunctive by the addition of /ka-/. Similarly, the future is formed from the subjunctive by the addition of /?a-/.
  • The imperative is also formed from the second-person subjunctive, this by the removal of any prefix /t-/, /te-/, or /d-/.
  • The stem /kteb/ changes to /ketb-/ before a vowel.
  • Prefixes /ne-/ and /te-/ keep the vowel before two consonants but drop it before one consonant; hence singular /ne-kteb/ changes to plural /n-ketb-u/.

Example: kteb/ykteb "write": non-finite forms

Number/Gender Active Participle Passive Participle Verbal Noun
Masc. Sg. kateb mektub ketaba
Fem. Sg. katb-a mektub-a
Pl. katb-in mektub-in
Regular verb, form I, f?el/yf?el, assimilation-triggering consonant

Example: dker/ydker "mention"

Tense/Mood Past Present Subjunctive Present Indicative Future Imperative
Person Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
1st dker-t dker-na n-dker n-dekr-u ka-n-dker ka-n-dekr-u ?a-n-dker ?a-n-dekr-u
2nd masculine dker-ti dker-tiw d-dker d-dekr-u ka-d-dker ka-d-dekr-u ?a-d-dker ?a-d-dekr-u dker dekr-u
feminine d-dekr-i ka-d-dekr-i ?a-d-dekr-i dekr-i
3rd masculine dker dekr-u y-dker y-dekr-u ka-y-dker ka-y-dekr-u ?a-y-dker ?a-y-dekr-u
feminine dekr-et d-dker ka-d-dker ?a-d-dker

This paradigm differs from kteb/ykteb in the following ways:

  • /ne-/ is always reduced to /n-/.
  • /te-/ is always reduced to /t-/, and then all /t-/ are assimilated to /d-/.

Reduction and assimilation occur as follows:

  • Before a coronal stop /t/, /t?/, /d/ or /d?/, /ne-/ and /te-/ are always reduced to /n-/ and /t-/.
  • Before a coronal fricative /s/, /s?/, /z/, /z?/, /?/ or /?/, /ne-/ and /te-/ are optionally reduced to /n-/ and /t-/. The reduction usually happens in normal and fast speech but not in slow speech.
  • Before a voiced coronal /d/, /d?/, /z/, /z?/, or /?/, /t-/ is assimilated to /d-/.

Examples:

  • Required reduction /n-them/ "I accuse", /t-them/ "you accuse".
  • Optional reduction /n-skon/ or /ne-skon/ "I reside", /te-skon/ or /t-skon/ "you reside".
  • Optional reduction/assimilation /te-?ber?/ or /d-?ber?/ "you find".
Regular verb, form I, f?el/yf?ol

Example: xr?e?/yxr?o? "go out"

Tense/Mood Past Present Subjunctive Present Indicative Future Imperative
Person Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
1st xr?e?-t xr?e?-na ne-xr?o? n-xer-u ka-ne-xr?o? ka-n-xer-u ?a-ne-xr?o? ?a-n-xer-u
2nd masculine xr?e?-ti xr?e?-tiw te-xr?o? t-xer-u ka-te-xr?o? ka-t-xer-u ?a-te-xr?o? ?a-t-xer-u xr?o? xer-u
feminine t-xer-i ka-t-xer-i ?a-t-xer-i xer-i
3rd masculine xr?e? xer-u y-xr?o? y-xer-u ka-y-xr?o? ka-y-xer-u ?a-y-xr?o? ?a-y-xer-u
feminine xer-et te-xr?o? ka-te-xr?o? ?a-te-xr?o?
Regular verb, form II, feel/yfeel

Example: beddel/ybeddel "teach"

Tense/Mood Past Present Subjunctive Present Indicative Future Imperative
Person Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
1st beddel-t beddel-na n-beddel n-beddl-u ka-n-beddel ka-n-beddl-u ?a-n-beddel ?a-n-beddl-u
2nd masculine beddel-ti beddel-tiw t-beddel t-beddl-u ka-t-beddel ka-t-beddl-u ?a-t-beddel ?a-t-beddl-u beddel beddl-u
feminine t-beddl-i ka-t-beddl-i ?a-t-beddl-i beddl-i
3rd masculine beddel beddl-u y-beddel y-beddl-u ka-y-beddel ka-y-beddl-u ?a-y-beddel ?a-y-beddl-u
feminine beddl-et t-beddel ka-t-beddel ?a-t-beddel

Boldfaced forms indicate the primary differences from the corresponding forms of kteb, which apply to many classes of verbs in addition to form II strong:

  • The prefixes /t-/, /n-/ always appear without any stem vowel. This behavior is seen in all classes where the stem begins with a single consonant (which includes most classes).
  • The /e/ in the final vowel of the stem is elided when a vowel-initial suffix is added. This behavior is seen in all classes where the stem ends in /-VCeC/ or/-VCCeC/ (where /V/ stands for any vowel and /C/ for any consonant). In addition to form II strong, this includes form III strong, form III Due to the regular operation of the stress rules, the stress in the past tense forms beddel-et and beddel-u differs from dexl-et and dexl-u.
Regular verb, form III, fa?el/yfa?el

Example: s?afer?/ys?afer? "travel"

Tense/Mood Past Present Subjunctive Present Indicative Future Imperative
Person Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
1st s?afer?-t s?afer?-na n-s?afer? n-s?afr?-u ka-n-s?afer? ka-n-s?afr?-u ?a-n-s?afer? ?a-n-s?afr?-u
2nd masculine s?afer?-t s?afer?-tiw t-s?afer? t-s?afr?-u ka-t-s?afer? ka-t-s?afr?-u ?a-t-s?afer? ?a-t-s?afr?-u s?afer? s?afr?-u
feminine t-s?afr?-i ka-t-s?afr?-i ?a-t-s?afr?-i s?afr?-i
3rd masculine s?afer? s?afr?-u y-s?afer? y-s?afr?-u ka-y-s?afer? ka-y-s?afr?-u ?a-y-s?afer? ?a-y-s?afr?-u
feminine s?afr?-et t-s?afer? ka-t-s?afer? ?a-t-s?afer?

The primary differences from the corresponding forms of beddel (shown in boldface) are:

  • The long vowel /a/ becomes /a/ when unstressed.
  • The /i/ in the stem /safir/ is elided when a suffix beginning with a vowel follows.
Regular verb, form Ia, ttef?el/yttef?el

Example: ttexle?/yttexle? "get scared"

Tense/Mood Past Present Subjunctive Present Indicative Future Imperative
Person Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
1st ttexle?-t ttexle?-na n-ttexle? n-ttxel?-u ka-n-ttexle? ka-n-ttxel?-u ?a-n-ttexle? ?a-n-ttxel?-u
2nd masculine ttexle?-ti ttexle?-tiw (te-)ttexle? (te-)ttxel?-u ka-(te-)ttexle? ka-(te-)ttxel?-u ?a-(te-)ttexle? ?a-(te-)ttxel?-u ttexle? ttxel?-u
feminine (te-)ttxel?-i ka-(te-)ttxel?-i ?a-(te-)ttxel?-i ttxel?-i
3rd masculine ttexle? ttxel?-u y-ttexle? y-ttxel?-u ka-y-ttexle? ka-y-ttxel?-u ?a-y-ttexle? ?a-y-ttxel?-u
feminine ttxel?-et (te-)ttexle? ka-(te-)ttexle? ?a-(te-)ttexle?
Sample Paradigms of Weak Verbs

Weak verbs have a W or Y as the last root consonant.

Weak , form I, f?a/yf?a

Example: nsa/ynsa "forget"

Tense/Mood Past Present Subjunctive Present Indicative Future Imperative
Person Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
1st nsi-t nsi-na ne-nsa ne-nsa-w ka-ne-nsa ka-ne-nsa-w ?a-ne-nsa ?a-ne-nsa-w
2nd masculine nsi-ti nsi-tiw te-nsa te-nsa-w ka-te-nsa ka-te-nsa-w ?a-te-nsa ?a-te-nsa-w nsa nsa-w
feminine te-nsa-y ka-te-nsa-y ?a-te-nsa-y nsa-y
3rd masculine nsa nsa-w y-nsa y-nsa-w ka-y-nsa ka-y-nsa-w ?a-y-nsa ?a-y-nsa-w
feminine nsa-t te-nsa ka-te-nsa ?a-te-nsa

The primary differences from the corresponding forms of kteb (shown in ) are:

  • There is no movement of the sort occurring in kteb vs. ketb-.
  • Instead, in the past, there are two stems: nsi- in the first and second persons and nsa- in the third person. In the non-past, there is a single stem nsa.
  • Because the stems end in a vowel, normally vocalic suffixes assume consonantal form:
    • Plural -u becomes -w.
    • Feminine singular non-past -i becomes -y.
    • Feminine singular third-person past -et becomes -t.
Weak verb, form I, f?a/yf?i

Example: r?ma/yr?mi "throw"

Tense/Mood Past Present Subjunctive Present Indicative Future Imperative
Person Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
1st r?mi-t r?mi-na ne-r?mi ne-r?mi-w ka-ne-r?mi ka-ne-r?mi-w ?a-ne-r?mi ?a-ne-r?mi-w
2nd masculine r?mi-ti r?mi-tiw te-r?mi te-r?mi-w ka-te-r?mi ka-te-r?mi-w ?a-te-r?mi ?a-te-r?mi-w r?mi r?mi-w
feminine
3rd masculine r?ma r?ma-w y-r?mi y-r?mi-w ka-y-r?mi ka-y-r?mi-w ?a-y-r?mi ?a-y-r?mi-w
feminine r?ma-t te-r?mi ka-te-r?mi ?a-te-r?mi

This verb type is quite similar to the weak verb type nsa/ynsa. The primary differences are:

  • The non-past stem has /i/ instead of /a/. The occurrence of one vowel or the other varies from stem to stem in an unpredictable fashion.
  • -iy in the feminine singular non-past is simplified to -i, resulting in homonymy between masculine and feminine singular.

Verbs other than form I behave as follows in the non-past:

  • Form X has either /a/ or /i/.
  • Mediopassive verb forms--i.e. Ia(VIIt), IIa(V), IIIa(VI) and Iqa(IIq) - have /a/.
  • Other forms--i.e. II, III and Iq--have /i/.

Examples:

  • Form II: wedda/yweddi "fulfill"; qewwa/yqewwi "strengthen"
  • Form III: qad?a/yqad?i "finish"; dawa/ydawi "treat, cure"
  • Form Ia(VIIt): ttensa/yttensa "be forgotten"
  • Form IIa(V): tqewwa/ytqewwa "become strong"
  • Form IIIa(VI): tqad?a/ytqad?a "end (intrans.)"
  • Form VIII: (no examples?)
  • Form IX: (behaves as a strong verb)
  • Form X: sted?a/ysted?i "invite"; but stehza/ystehza "ridicule", ste?la/yste?la "enjoy", ste?ya/yste?ya "become embarrassed", stfa/ystfa "resign"
  • Form Iq: (need example)
  • Form Iqa(IIq): (need example)
Sample Paradigms of Hollow Verbs

Hollow have a W or Y as the middle root consonant. Note that for some forms (e.g. form II and form III), hollow verbs are conjugated as strong verbs (e.g. form II ?eyyen/y?eyyen "appoint" from ?-Y-N, form III ?aweb/y?aweb "answer" from ?-W-B).

Hollow verb, form I, fal/yfil

Example: ba?/ybi? "sell"

Tense/Mood Past Present Subjunctive Present Indicative Future Imperative
Person Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
1st be?-t be?-na n-bi? n-bi?-u ka-n-bi? ka-n-bi?-u ?a-n-bi? ?a-n-bi?-u
2nd masculine be?-ti be?-tiw t-bi? t-bi?-u ka-t-bi? ka-t-bi?-u ?a-t-bi? ?a-t-bi?-u bi? bi?-u
feminine t-bi?-i ka-t-bi?-i ?a-t-bi?-i bi?-i
3rd masculine ba? ba?-u y-bi? y-bi?-u ka-y-bi? ka-y-bi?-u ?a-y-bi? ?a-y-bi?-u
feminine ba?-et t-bi? ka-t-bi? ?a-t-bi?

This verb works much like beddel/ybeddel "teach". Like all verbs whose stem begins with a single consonant, the prefixes differ in the following way from those of regular and weak form I verbs:

  • The prefixes /t-/, /y-/, /ni-/ have elision of /i/ following /ka-/ or /?a-/.
  • The imperative prefix /i-/ is missing.

In addition, the past tense has two stems: be?- before consonant-initial suffixes (first and second person) and ba?- elsewhere (third person).

Hollow verb, form I, fal/yful

Example: ?af/y?uf "see"

Tense/Mood Past Present Subjunctive Present Indicative Future Imperative
Person Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
1st ?ef-t ?ef-na n-?uf n-?uf-u ka-n-?uf ka-n-?uf-u ?a-n-?uf ?a-n-?uf-u
2nd masculine ?ef-ti ?ef-tiw t-?uf t-?uf-u ka-t-?uf ka-t-?uf-u ?a-t-?uf ?a-t-?uf-u ?uf ?uf-u
feminine t-?uf-i ka-t-?uf-i ?a-t-?uf-i ?uf-i
3rd masculine ?af ?af-u y-?uf y-?uf-u ka-y-?uf ka-y-?uf-u ?a-y-?uf ?a-y-?uf-u
feminine ?af-et t-?uf ka-t-?uf ?a-t-?uf

This verb class is identical to verbs such as ba?/ybi? except in having stem vowel /u/ in place of /i/.

Sample Paradigms of Doubled Verbs

Doubled verbs have the same consonant as middle and last root consonant, e.g. ?abb/yi?ebb "love" from ?-B-B.

Doubled verb, form I, fe/yfe

Example: ?ebb/y?ebb "love"

Tense/Mood Past Present Subjunctive Present Indicative Future Imperative
Person Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
1st ?ebbi-t ?ebbi-na n-?ebb n-?ebb-u ka-n-?ebb ka-n-?ebb-u ?a-n-?ebb ?a-n-?ebb-u
2nd masculine ?ebbi-ti ?ebbi-tiw t-?ebb t-?ebb-u ka-t-?ebb ka-t-?ebb-u ?a-t-?ebb ?a-t-?ebb-u ?ebb ?ebb-u
feminine t-?ebb-i ka-t-?ebb-i ?a-t-?ebb-i ?ebb-i
3rd masculine ?ebb ?ebb-u y-?ebb y-?ebb-u ka-y-?ebb ka-y-?ebb-u ?a-y-?ebb ?a-y-?ebb-u
feminine ?ebb-et t-?ebb ka-t-?ebb ?a-t-?ebb

This verb works much like ba?/ybi? "sell". Like that class, it has two stems in the past, which are ?ebbi- before consonant-initial suffixes (first and second person) and ?ebb- elsewhere (third person). Note that /i-/ was borrowed from the weak verbs; the Classical Arabic equivalent form would be *?abáb-, e.g. *?abáb-t.

Some verbs have /o/ in the stem: ko/yko "cough".

As for the other forms:

  • Form II, V doubled verbs are strong: ?edded/y?edded "limit, fix (appointment)"
  • Form III, VI doubled verbs optionally behave either as strong verbs or similar to ?ebb/y?ebb: s?afef/ys?afef or s?aff/ys?aff "line up (trans.)"
  • Form VIIt doubled verbs behave like ?ebb/y?ebb: tt?edd/ytt?edd
  • Form VIII doubled verbs behave like ?ebb/y?ebb: htemm/yhtemm "be interested (in)"
  • Form IX doubled verbs probably don't exist, and would be strong if they did exist.
  • Form X verbs behave like ?ebb/y?ebb: st?ell/yst?ell "exploit".
Sample Paradigms of Doubly Weak Verbs

"Doubly weak" verbs have more than one "weakness", typically a W or Y as both the second and third consonants. This term is in fact a misnomer, as such verbs actually behave as normal weak verbs (e.g. ?ya/y?ya "live" from ?-Y-Y, quwwa/yquwwi "strengthen" from Q-W-Y, dawa/ydawi "treat, cure" from D-W-Y).

Paradigms of Irregular Verbs

The irregular verbs are as follows:

  • dda/yddi "give" (inflects like a normal weak verb; active participle dday or meddi, passive participle meddi)
  • ?a/y?i "come" (inflects like a normal weak verb, except imperative a?i (sg.), a?iw (pl.); active participle ma?i or ?ay)
  • kla/yakol (or kal/yakol) "eat" and xda/yaxod (or xad/yaxod) "take" (see paradigm below; active participle wakel, waxed; passive participle muwkul, muwxud):
Tense/Mood Past Present Subjunctive Present Indicative Future Imperative
Person Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
1st kli-t kli-na na-kol na-kl-u ka-na-kol ka-na-kl-u ?a-na-kol ?a-na-kl-u
2nd masculine kli-ti kli-tiw ta-kol ta-kl-u ka-ta-kol ka-ta-kl-u ?a-ta-kol ?a-ta-kl-u kul kul-u
feminine ta-kl-i ka-ta-kl-i ?a-ta-kl-i kul-i
3rd masculine kla kla-w ya-kol ya-kl-u ka-ya-kol ka-ya-kl-u ?a-ya-kol ?a-ya-kl-u
feminine kla-t ta-kol ka-ta-kol ?a-ta-kol

Social features

An interview with Salma Rachid, a Moroccan singer while she speaks Moroccan Arabic.

Evolution

In general, Moroccan Arabic is one of the most innovative (in the technical sense of "least conservative") of all Arabic languages. Now, Moroccan Arabic or Darija continues to integrate new French words, mainly technological and modern words. However, in recent years, constant exposure to revived classical forms on television and in print media and a certain desire among many Moroccans for a revitalization of an Arab identity has inspired many Moroccans to integrate words from Modern Standard Arabic, replacing their French or Spanish counterparts or even speaking in Modern Standard Arabic while keeping the Moroccan accent to sound less pedantic. The phenomenon mostly occurs among literate people.

Though rarely written, Moroccan Arabic is currently undergoing an unexpected and pragmatic revival. It is now the preferred language in Moroccan chat rooms or for sending SMS, using Arabic Chat Alphabet composed of Latin letters supplemented with the numbers 2, 3, 5, 7 and 9 for coding specific Arabic sounds, as is the case with other Arabic speakers.

The language continues to evolve quickly as can be noted by consulting the Colin dictionary. Many words and idiomatic expressions recorded between 1921 and 1977 are now obsolete.

Code switching

Some Moroccan Arabic speakers, in the territory previously known as French Morocco, also practice code-switching. In the northern parts of Morocco, as in Tetouan & Tangier, it is common for code-switching to occur between Moroccan Arabic, Modern Standard Arabic, and Spanish, as Spain had previously controlled part of the region and continues to possess the territories of Ceuta and Melilla in North Africa bordering only Morocco. On the other hand, some Arab nationalist Moroccans generally attempt to avoid French and Spanish in their speech, consequently, their speech tends to resemble old Andalusian Arabic.

Artistic expression

There exists some poetry written in Moroccan Arabic like the Malhun. In the troubled and autocratic Morocco of the 1970s, Years of Lead, the legendary Nass El Ghiwane band wrote beautiful and allusive lyrics in Moroccan Arabic that were very appealing to the youth even in other Maghreb countries.

Another interesting movement is the development of an original rap music scene, which explores new and innovative usages of the language.

Scientific production

The first known scientific productions written in Moroccan Arabic were released on the Web in early 2010 by Moroccan teacher and physician Farouk Taki El Merrakchi, three average-sized books dealing with physics and mathematics (Example here).[17]

Newspapers

There are now at least three newspapers[] in Moroccan Arabic; their aim is to bring information to people with a low level of education. From September 2006 to October 2010, Telquel Magazine had a Moroccan Arabic edition Nichane. There is also a free weekly magazine that is entirely written in "standard" Moroccan Arabic: Khbar Bladna ('News of Our Country').

The Moroccan online newspaper Goud or "" has much of its content written in Moroccan Darija rather than Modern Standard Arabic. Its name "Goud" and its slogan "dima nishan" (? ) are Moroccan Darija expressions.[18]

See also

References

  1. ^ Moroccan Arabic at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Moroccan Arabic". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ A. Bernard & P. Moussard, « Arabophones et Amazighophones au Maroc », Annales de Géographie, no.183 (1924), pp.267-282.
  4. ^ a b c D. Caubet, Questionnaire de dialectologie du Maghreb, in: EDNA vol.5 (2000-2001), pp.73-92
  5. ^ a b c S. Levy, Repères pour une histoire linguistique du Maroc, in: EDNA no.1 (1996), pp.127-137
  6. ^ a b K. Versteegh, Dialects of Arabic: Maghreb Dialects, teachmideast.org
  7. ^ L. Messaoudi, Variations linguistiques: images urbaines et sociales, in: Cahiers de Sociolinguistique, no.6 (2001), pp.87-98
  8. ^ The dialects of Ouezzane, Chefchaouen, Asilah, Larache, Ksar el-Kebir and Tangiers are influenced by the neighbouring mountain dialects. The dialects of Marrakech and Meknes are influenced by Bedouin dialects. The old urban dialect formerly spoken in Azemmour is extinct.
  9. ^ A. Zouggari & J. Vignet-Zunz,Jbala: Histoire et société, dans Sciences Humaines, (1991) (ISBN 2-222-04574-6)
  10. ^ J. Grand'Henry, Les parlers arabes de la région du Mz?b, Brill, 1976, pp.4-5
  11. ^ M. El Himer, Zones linguistiques du Maroc arabophone: contacts et effets à Salé, in: Between the Atlantic and Indian Oceans, Studies on Contemporary Arabic, 7th AIDA Conference, 2006, held in Vienna
  12. ^ Watson (2002:21)
  13. ^ Some effort has recently been made in that direction with the KtbDarija [1] (literally "WriteDarija") project, which proposes a Latin alphabet for writing Darija and a set of keyboard layouts for writing in this alphabet.
  14. ^ Martin Haspelmath; Uri Tadmor (22 December 2009). Loanwords in the World's Languages: A Comparative Handbook. Walter de Gruyter. p. 195. ISBN 978-3-11-021844-2.
  15. ^ Morocco-guide.com. "Helpful Moroccan Phrases with pronunciation - Darija".
  16. ^ Boujenab, Abderrahmane (2011). Moroccan Arabic. Peace Corps Morocco. p. 52.
  17. ^ "Une première: Un Marocain rédige des manuels scientifiques en...". Medias24.com.
  18. ^ "". Goud.

Bibliography

  • Ernest T. Abdel Massih, Introduction to Moroccan Arabic, Univ. of Michigan, Washington, 1982.
  • Jordi Aguadé, Notes on the Arabic Dialect of Casablanca, in: AIDA, 5th Conference Proceedings, Universidad de Cadiz, 2003, pp. 301-308.
  • Jordi Aguadé, Morocco (dialectological survey), in: Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics vol.3, Brill, 2007, pp. 287-297
  • Bichr Andjar & Abdennabi Benchehda, Moroccan Arabic Phrasebook, Lonely Planet, 1999.
  • Louis Brunot, Introduction à l'arabe marocain, Maisonneuve, 1950.
  • Dominique Caubet, L'arabe marocain, Publ. Peeters, 1993.
  • Dominique Caubet, Moroccan Arabic, in: Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics vol.3, Brill, 2007, pp. 274-287
  • Moscoso García, Francisco, Esbozo gramatical del árabe marroquí, Universidad de Castilla La Mancha, 2004.
  • Olivier Durand, L'arabo del Marocco. Elementi di dialetto standard e mediano, Università degli Studi La Sapienza, Rome, 2004.
  • Richard S. Harrel, A short reference grammar of Moroccan Arabic, Georgetown Univ. Press, 1962.
  • Richard S. Harrel, A Dictionary of Moroccan Arabic, Georgetown Univ. Press, 1966.
  • Jeffrey Heath, Ablaut and Ambiguity: Phonology of a Moroccan Arabic Dialect, State Univ. of New York Press, 1987.
  • Angela Daiana Langone, Khbar Bladna, une expérience journalistique en arabe dialectal marocain, in: Estudios de Dialectologia Norteafricana y Andalusi no.7, 2003, pp. 143-151.
  • Angela Daiana Langone, Jeux linguistiques et nouveau style dans la masrahiyya en-Neqsha, Le déclic, écrite en dialecte marocain par Tayyeb Saddiqi, in: Actes d'AIDA 6, Tunis, 2006, pp. 243-261.
  • Abderrahim Youssi, La triglossie dans la typologie linguistique, in: La Linguistique no.19, 1983, pp. 71-83.
  • Abderrahim Youssi, Grammaire et lexique de l'arabe marocain moderne, Wallada, 1994.

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