A mufa?ah (Arabic: ? [mu'?a:fað?ah]; pl. mufat [mu?a:fa'ð?a:t]) is a first-level administrative division of many Arab countries, and a second-level administrative division in Saudi Arabia. The term is usually translated to "governorate", and occasionally to "province". It comes from the Arabic root ? ? ? ?-f-?, which means to "keep" and "guard". The head of a mufa?ah is the () mufi? .