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The linguistic varieties of Murcian form a dialect continuum with Eastern Andalusian and Manchego Peninsular Spanish.
Murcian is considered a separate language of Spanish by some of its native speakers, who call it llengua murciana. The term panocho is also used to designate the Murcian language, however it mostly refers to the variety spoken in the comarca of the Huerta de Murcia [es].
Kingdom of Murcia within the Crown of Castile (1590).
Territorial division of 1833 in which the biprovincial region of Murcia appears.
The Murcian dialectal features differ among areas, villages, social classes and individuals in accordance with the communicative situation in which they are involved, this is because of the influence of standard rule. This dialect has similarities and differences with Spanish, Aragonese and Catalan languages.
As Eastern Andalusian and Southern Manchego Peninsular dialects, Murcian has 5 tense vowels (roughly the same as standard Spanish): [a], [e], [i], [o], [u], plus 3 lax vowels (not present in standard Spanish): [æ], [?], [?]. Vowels are lowered when in contact with an omitted coda: fricative (/s/, /?/ and /x/) or liquid (/l/, /r/); additionally a vowel harmonyprocess may take place; e.g. la casa[la 'kasa] ("the house") vs las casas[læ 'k:æsæ] ("the houses"). Notes about the Murcian vowels:
In some cases [?] approaches [æ]: seis['sæj] 'six'.
Some accents use two additional allophones: [?] and [?].
Vowels are often phonetically nasalised when in contact with a nasal consonant. Nasalisation is particularly strong when in contact with palatals and velars: munchos['m?nt ~ 'm?nd ~ 'm?n] ('much, a lot').
The consonant system of Murcian is mostly the same as Castilian.
Notable features, several shared with other southern dialects of Spanish:
The spirants [? ð ?] are pronounced as fricatives or close fricatives more frequently than in Standard Spanish.
[? ð ?] can occur word initially and can be geminated and/or devoiced in certain environments.
[ð] elision is very common: prenná[p?e'?a], mercao[me?'ka?o].
Palatalisation of initial /l/: llengua['gwa] ('tongue').
Final /l/ is pronounced [?] before consonants (sal blanca['sæ? 'bla?ka] 'white salt'), [l] before vowels (sal azul['sæl a'?u] 'blue salt'), and it is silent at the end of an utterance: sal['sæ] ('salt').
There are linguistic phenomena that are (or were) usual in other linguistic varieties (Aragonese, Mozarabic, Catalan, Andalusian, etc.):
The frequent preservation of voiceless intervocalic consonants or other voiceless consonants that used to be voiced or are voiced in standard Spanish: cocote (cogote in Spanish), cocotazo, cancro (cangrejo in Spanish), parata (parada), sermonata (sermonada), atoba (adobe), acachar, alcayata, engangrenar, cangrena, pescatero, pinato (pino joven), gayato (cayado), falluto (huero), capolar, Caputa (a place in Mula), caparra (garrapata), capítulo (cabildo), súpito (súbito), molata, La Mulata, escorrata, pescatero, Ficaria (a place in Blanca), poyata (Lorca), volandero, etc.
The frequent voicing of voiceless consonants: gambusino (campesino), morga (morca), alhábega (albahaca), chiguito (chiquito), regüestar (recostar), bambulla (lat. ampulla), etc.
The frequent preservation of Latin group cl: clamar, 'llamar' and also "pl" (plantaje, El Plan).
The frequent preservation of Latin group fl: flama (llama, calor), flamante (llameante), flamar, suflama/soflama, inflar, infleta, botinflar, botinflao, etc.
The frequent maintenance of Latin /f/ in its original form (fenazar, fenás, vafada, fito a fito, manifacero, ferrija, Ficaria, figue, etc.) or aspirated (it is always aspirated before /u/ like in huerte, huerza, huente, humar, humo, conhundir, etc.; it is maintained in certain cases before /o/ like in hormar, hondo, hongo, hopo, etc and before /a/ in haldar, hambre, etc.
The presence of the intervocalic consonant cluster ns: ansa, nansa, pansa, pansir, pansío, suspensar, ansín, ansina, etc.
A consonantal alternation between voiceless /k/ and /t/: La Rápita or La Rápica, tavacote (cavacote), tápena (caparis), friolenco, cantamusa, a tatas (a catas < a gatas), chito (chico, in Cieza), etc.
Change from b to m: mandurria, Menjú (Abenhud, from Arabic Ibn Hud), meneno, comenencia, moñiga, camota (cabota), etc.
Evolution of certain consonant clusters
/bd/ > [d:] (Abdón > Addón)
/bg/ > [?:] (Novgorod > Noggorod)
/bs/ > [s:] or [s] (absorver > assorver / asorver)
/bt/ > [t:] (obtener > ottener)
/bx/ > [x:] or [x] (objetivo > ojjetivo / ojetivo)
/kn/ > [n:](tecnología > tennología)
/ks/ > [s] (examen > esamen)
/ksk/ > [k:] (excursión > eccursión)
/ksf/ > [?:] (Oxford > Offor)
/ksp/ > [p:] (explicar > epplicar)
/kst/ > [t:] (extra > ettra)
/kt/ > [t:] or [t] (exacto > esatto; doctrina > dottrina > dotrina)
/k?/ > [?:] or [?] (lección> lición; producción > predución)