Muskogean Languages
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Muskogean Languages
Muskogean
Geographic
distribution
Southeastern North America
Linguistic classificationOne of the world's primary language families
Subdivisions
  • Choctaw-Chickasaw
  • Alabama-Koasati
  • Hitchiti-Mikasuki
  • Creek-Seminole
  • Apalachee
Glottologmusk1252[1]
Muskogean map.svg
Pre-contact distribution of Muskogean languages

Muskogean (also Muskhogean, Muskogee) is a language family spoken in different areas of the Southeastern United States. Though the debate concerning their interrelationships is ongoing, the Muskogean languages are generally divided into two branches, Eastern Muskogean and Western Muskogean. Typologically, Muskogean languages are agglutinative. One documented language, Apalachee, is extinct and the remaining languages are critically endangered.

Genetic relationships

Family division

The Muskogean family consists of six languages that are still spoken: Alabama, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek-Seminole, Koasati, and Mikasuki, as well as the now-extinct Apalachee, Houma, and Hitchiti (the last is generally considered a dialect of Mikasuki).[2] "Seminole" is listed as one of the Muskogean languages in Hardy's list, but it is generally considered a dialect of Creek rather than a separate language, as she comments.[3]

The major subdivisions of the family have long been controversial, but the following lower-level groups are universally accepted: Choctaw-Chickasaw, Alabama-Koasati, Hitchiti-Mikasuki, and Creek-Seminole.[4][5][6] Because Apalachee is extinct, its precise relationship to the other languages is uncertain; Mary Haas and Pamela Munro both classify it with the Alabama-Koasati group.[7]

Haas's classification

For connections among these groupings, the traditional classification is that of Mary Haas and her students, such as Karen Booker, in which "Western Muskogean" (Choctaw-Chickasaw) is seen as one major branch, and "Eastern Muskogean" (Alabama-Koasati, Hitchiti-Mikasuki, and Creek-Seminole) as another. Within Eastern Muskogean, Alabama-Koasati and Hitchiti-Mikasuki are generally thought to be more closely related to each other than to Creek-Seminole.[8] That classification is reflected in the list below:[9][10]

Munro's classification

A more recent and controversial classification has been proposed by Pamela Munro. In her classification, the languages are divided into a "Southern Muskogean" branch (Choctaw-Chickasaw, Alabama-Koasati, and Hitchiti-Mikasuki) and a "Northern Muskogean" one (Creek-Seminole). Southern Muskogean is the subdivided into Hitchiti-Mikasuki and a "Southwestern Muskogean" branch containing Alabama-Koasati and "Western Muskogean" (Choctaw-Chickasaw).[8] The classification is reflected in the list below:[11]

Northern Muskogean:

Southern Muskogean:

Kimball's classification

A third proposed classification is that of Geoffrey Kimball, who envisions a threeway split among the languages, with "Western Muskogean" (Choctaw-Chickasaw), "Eastern Muskogean" (Creek-Seminole), and "Central Muskogean" (Alabama-Koasati and Hitchiti-Mikasuki).[12] However, Kimball's classification has not received as much support as either Haas's or Munro's.[13]

Broader relationships

Possible Muskogean languages

Several sparsely attested languages have been claimed to be Muskogean languages. George Broadwell suggested that the languages of the Yamasee and Guale were Muskogean.[14][15] However, William Sturtevant argued that the "Yamasee" and "Guale" data were Creek and that the language(s) spoken by the Yamasee and Guale people remain unknown.[16] It is possible that the Yamasee were an amalgamation of several different ethnic groups and did not speak a single language. Chester B. DePratter describes the Yamasee as consisting mainly of speakers of Hitchiti and Guale.[17] The historian Steven Oatis also describes the Yamasee as an ethnically mixed group that included people from Muskogean-speaking regions, such as the early colonial-era native towns of Hitchiti, Coweta, and Cussita.[18]

The Pensacola and Chatot (or Chacato) people are reported to have spoken the same Muskogean language, which may have been closely related to Choctaw.[19][20][21]

Sparse evidence indicates that a Muskogean language was spoken by at least some of the people of the paramount chiefdom of Cofitachequi in northeastern South Carolina. If so, that would be the most eastern outpost of Muskogean. The people of Cofitichequi were probably absorbed by nearby Siouan and Iroquoian speakers in the late 17th century.[22]

A vocabulary of the Houma may be another underdocumented Western Muskogean language or a version of Mobilian Jargon. Mobilian Jargon is a pidgin based on Western Muskogean.

Gulf

The best-known connection proposed between Muskogean and other languages is Mary Haas' Gulf hypothesis, in which she conceived of a macrofamily comprising Muskogean and a number of language isolates of the southeastern US: Atakapa, Chitimacha, Tunica, and Natchez. While well-known, the Gulf grouping is now generally rejected by historical linguists.[14][23] A number of Muskogean scholars continue to believe that Muskogean is related to Natchez.[24]

Features

Phonology

Proto-Muskogean is reconstructed as having the consonants (given in IPA transcription):[25]

Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar
Central Lateral Plain Labialized
Stops *p *t *k *k?
Affricates *ts *t?
Fricatives *s *? *? *x *x?
Nasals *m *n
Approximants *l *j *w
Other *?

The phonemes reconstructed by Haas as */x/ and */x?/ show up as /h/ and /f/ (or /?/[26]), respectively, in all Muskogean languages;[27] they are therefore reconstructed by some as */h/ and */?/.[11][28]*/k?/ appears as /b/ in all the daughter languages except Creek for which it is /k/ initially and /p/ medially. The value of the proto-phoneme conventionally written ⟨?⟩ (or ⟨N⟩) is unknown;[29] it appears as /n/ in Western Muskogean languages and as /?/ in Eastern Muskogean languages. Haas reconstructed it as a voiceless /n/ (that is, */n?/), based partly on presumed cognates in Natchez.[11][30]

Nouns

Most family languages display lexical accent on nouns and grammatical case, which distinguishes the nominative from the oblique. Nouns do not obligatorially inflect for gender or number.

Verbs

Muskogean verbs have a complex ablaut system; the verbal stem almost always changes depending on aspect; less commonly, it is affected by tense or modality. In Muskogean linguistics, the different forms are known as "grades."

Verbs mark for first and second person, as well as agent and patient (Choctaw also marks for dative). Third-persons (he, she, it) have a null-marker.

Plurality of a noun agent is marked by either affixation on the verb or an innately plural verbal stem:

Pluralization via affixation, Choctaw:

ishimpa
ish-impa
2SG.NOM-eat
"you [sg.] eat"
hashimpa
hash-impa
2PL.NOM-eat
"you [pl.] eat"

Innately-numbered verbal stems, Mikasuki:

?iniik
run. SG
"to run (singular)"
palaak
run. PAUCAL
"to run (several)"
mataak
run. PL
"to run (many)"

Vocabulary

Below is a list of basic vocabulary in five Muskogean languages from Broadwell (1992):[31]

gloss Chickasaw Choctaw Alabama Mikasuki Creek
all mõma mõma óyha maamos- omalka
ashes hottok hitokchobi histo tolhambi iisso
belly ittakoba' iffoka ikfi lampi nalhki
big ishto chito coba coob- lhakkii
bird foshi' hoshi foosi foosi foswa
bite kisili kopooli kachalhlhi kabalikci akkita
black losa losa loca looci lasti
blood issish issish lhakhani picikci caati
bone foni' foni cokfoni -fooni iffoni
breast ip shik ip shik pisi owaaci hokpi
burn lowa lowah libatli yill- noklhita
claw iyyakchosh iyyakchosh iyyaksi iiyakoosi ilinkososwa
cloud hoshonti hoshõti onoolici hosoti aholocii
cold kapassa kapassa kasatka kapaali kasappi
come minti m ti ila ont- atita
die illi illi illi il- ilita
dog ofi' ofi ifa iifi ifa
drink ishko ishko isko isk- iskita
dry shila shila solotka sokook- kalhpii
ear haksibis haksobish hakco hacoobi hakco
earth yakni' yakni ihaani yakni iikana
eat impa pa ipa imp- hompita
egg akankoshi' akãkoshi akaakocóòsi onaasi costaki
eye ishkin nishkin ittilhi iti tolhwa
fat (grease) niha bila nitokci niihi nihaa
fire lowak lowak tikba iiti tootka
fish nani' nani lhalho lhaalhi lhalho
fly, to wakaa hika wakayka yakaal- tamkita
foot iyyi' iyyi iyyi iyi ili
full kayya kayya kayya labakni fackita
give ima ima inka iik- imita
good chokma achokma kano hiilhi h lhi
green okchamali okchamaali okcakko honotbitalakci laani
hair pãshi'/hishi' pãshi/hishi hissi tokisi issi
hand ilbak ibbak ilbi ilbi inki
head ishkobo' noshkobo isbakko yoosi ika
hear hánglo haklo haalo hakl- pohita
heart chõkash chõkash conoska conosbi fiiki
horn lapish lapish lapihci lap-i yapi
I ano' ano ana aani ani
kill abi abi ibi ill c iliicita
knee iyyinto'lhka' iyyi kalaaha ittôlhpa tolhpi tolhkowa
know ithána ikhana sobayli ataalh kilhlhita
lie down, to tí'wa talaaya baláàli talaal wakkita
liver salakha salakha illopi lopi lopi
long falaa falaaya baski backi capki
louse issap issap icha hicahci icka
man hattak nakni' hattak nakni naani nakni honanwa
many lawa lawa lawa aconki solkii
meat (flesh) nipi' nipi nipo akni apiswa
mountain onchaba habik bokkoscaaha iikanhalwii
mouth iti itialbi icokhalbi ici cokwa
name holhchifo hohchifo holcifa hocilki hocifka
neck nokhistap ikkõla nokbi nokbi nokwa
new himitta himmona hahpa himaci mocasi
night oklhili' ninak tanka niilhaki nilhii
nose ibichchala' ibishakni ibisaani ibi yopoo
not ki'yo kiiyo mánko maati monks
one chaffa achaffa caffaaka lhaamin hamkin
person (human) hattak hattak aati yaati isti
rain omba õba oyba okoob- oskita
red homma homma homma kitisci caati
road (path) hina' hina hini hini nini
root haksish hakshish assikci aski yalomka
round lhibokta kalaaha bonotka polocki polooki
say aachi aachi manka kaac maakita
sand shinok shinok sanco samooci oktaaha
see p sa p sa hicha hica hicita
seed nihi' nihi hilhikci yiilhi nilhka
sit bínni'li biniili cokóòli cokool- leykita
skin hakshop hakshop affakci halbi halhpi
sleep nosi nosi noci nooc- nocita
small iskanno'si osi cinoofa wink- cotki
smoke shobohli shobohli sobotli ockoci ikkoci
stand híkki'ya hikiiya lokóòli lokooka hoylhita
star foshik fichik hociilhi owaaciki kocacampa
stone tali' tali tali tali cato
sun hashi' hashi hasi haasi hasi
swim yopi okshiniili oohapka opahk- omeyyita
tail hasimbish has bis haci haaci haci
that yamma ma akki ma ma
this yappa pa ya ya ya
thou ishno' chishno isna cihn- ciimi
tongue isõlash ittõlas icoolaksi cokolaasi tolaaswa
tooth noti' noti innati -nooti noti
tree itti' itti itto ahi ito
two toklo toklo tôklo toklan hokkoolin
walk nõwa nowa ciyahli cayahl yakapita
warm (hot) lashpa lashpa ikba hãyyi hayyita
water oka' oka oki ooki oywa
we poshno' pishno posna pohni poomi
what nanta natah náàsi naaki naaki
white tohbi tohbi hatka hatki hatki
who kata katah náksi noolh- isteyma
woman ihoo ohooyo tayyi tayki hoktii
yellow lakna lakna laana lakni laanii

Proto-language

Proto-Muskogean
Reconstruction ofMuskogean languages

Proto-Muskogean reconstructions by Booker (2005):

no. gloss Proto-Muskogean branch
1 dove, pigeon *pa?iCi
2 stem, stalk *apiCi
3 rock *taliCi
4 tooth *notiCi
5 skunk *koniCo
6 (to) bloom *pakanli
7 arrow *?akiCi
8 night *ni?aki
9 yellow-shafted pucker *x?itokxaki
10 mulberry *k?ixiCi
11 (to) copy, imitate *a-xok?a
12 behind *yok?ala
13 pokeweed *kosik?aCa
14 (to) have ringworm *xiClampak?i
15 overtake *¢aCki
16 (to) sleep *no¢i
17 fox *?olaCa
18 crawfish *saka?iCo
19 otter *osana
20 (to) boil *moxo?i
21 pass through *lompotVli
22 peel off *?ilax?a
23 pull, hold *xalato
24 seed (in fruit) *nixiliCi
25 ashes *ixistoko
26 (to) sit (pl) *kaxa
27 land *ixakanika
28 (to) vomit) *axowita
29 medicine *axinlisi
30 axe *?axax?i
31 duck *x?o?o
32 (to) name *xocix?a
33 screech owl *xax?onlo
34 grandfather *ax?aCo
35 (to) beat, stir up *k?ax?o
36 (to) gnaw *kalix?i
37 fall off *?ilax?a
38 (to) whip, lash *loCkanx?o
39 chief, king *minkkoCo
40 (to) protrude *x?ama
41 bone *x?oniCi
42 liver, marrow *lopiCi
43 (to) scratch, slice *kalax?a
44 back (of body) *?ali
45 spring (of water) *kaliCi
46 (to) doctor *alikci
47 horn *(i-)lapi
48 cuckoo *talonktaCi
49 grubworm *yolaCa
50 turtle *lok¢iCa
51 (to) go *aya
52 crane *watonlaka
53 wildcat *kowiCi
54 cricket *?alontakiCa
55 squash *?oksiCi
56 ant *?onkk?ani
57 skin, rind *ax?ak?opi
58 son *o?iCi
59 tendon, muscle, blood vessel, intestine *x?ik?i
60 yellow, green, brown *lakna
61 trout *¢akliCo
62 two *toklo
63 sifting basket *sakla
64 soft-shelled turtle *xolakwaCa
65 hole, hollow *olakk?i
66 sun *xasiCi
67 (to) offer *wayli
68 hoe *loyli
69 (to) mark *?awli
70 persimmon *xo?kox?a
71 mushroom *paktiCo
72 sack, bag *sok?a
73 ghost *silopi
74 turkey *x?akito
75 betsy bug *i¢sonksiCo
76 (to) beg, plead for *kosapi
77 hear *xaklo
78 earthworm *lakap?o
79 peach *tapakonla
80 (of liquid) *¢itko
81 flat and wide *patakxa
82 wise *ko¢tini
83 small *i¢katini
84 (to) shoot at and hit *i¢xo
85 smoke *i?ko?i
86 mother *i?kiCi
87 rectum *i?koCk?iko
88 (to) inflate *sokpax?a
89 destroy, ruin *xokpani
90 (to) adhere to *alokpa
91 (to) pucker *wiliksi Proto-Eastern Muskogean
92 double *poktaCa
93 tree *iktiCo
94 frog *sokaktiCi
95 pass wind *xok¢o
96 upper arm *sakk?aCa
97 astringent tasting *tikk?a
98 opossum *sokxaCa
99 rabbit *?okx?iCi
100 jaw, chin *notakx?a
101 bramble, briar *k?ak?oko Proto-Eastern Muskogean
102 rib, side *nak¢iCi
103 flea *kastiCo
104 (to) drink *isko
105 rot, decay *tosk?i
106 knee *in-tolkopa
107 father *i?kiCi
108 (to) steal *xo?kopa
109 young *ximanixta
110 day *nixtaka
111 river *xax?aCi
112 hungry *xox(?)?ax?a
113 different *im-alaxka
114 (to) pinch *yikix?la
115 skin *xalk?iCi
116 wife *xaliki Proto-Eastern Muskogean
117 (to) forget *ilxosi Proto-Eastern Muskogean
118 (to) grow, sprout *xolx?anti
119 white oak *k?alyiCa
120 pine *colyi Proto-Eastern Muskogean
121 (to) raise animals *apoyk?a
122 (to) eat (a meal) *impa
123 (to) come *ominti
124 pawpaw *onk?iCo
125 breast *ipinsiki
126 (to) hide *xolamxi
127 buy *lonx?a
128 (to) weave *taC?a
129 (to) get warm from a heat source *iC?i
130 (to) shoot at *xonC¢a
131 war *hoCli
132 (to) die *iCli
133 pepper *xoCma
134 (to) want, need *k?aCna
135 road *xinaCi
136 dark *tampki
137 stout *lampko
138 snake *¢inCtiCo
139 hard, rigid *wantxa Proto-Eastern Muskogean
140 shoot at *xonC¢a
141 (to) cloak oneself *anC?i
142 whippoorwill *xa?okk?ilankk?ila
143 Canada goose *axankxaCa
144 grasshopper *xatankx?aCo
145 grass *panxsi
146 true *anxli
147 hand, lower arm *ilmk?i
148 (to) rain *oynk?a
149 whoop like an Indian *paynxa
150 (to) flow *xox?ayxna
151 heavy *waylki
152 buy *?owmpa
153 (to) suck *so?onka
154 frost *xitontiki
155 (to) play a game *xompani Proto-Eastern Muskogean
156 winter *o?anx?aCi
157 (to) pierce *lompotVli

Notes

  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Muskogean". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. ^ Hardy 2005, pg. 69
  3. ^ (Hardy 2005:70; see also Mithun 2005:462, Crawford).
  4. ^ Broadwell 1992, p. 1
  5. ^ Hardy 2005, pg. 70
  6. ^ Martin & Munro 2005, pg. 299
  7. ^ Broadwell 1992, pp. 3; 41-2, footnote 2
  8. ^ a b Hardy 2005, pp. 70-71
  9. ^ Mithun 2005, pg. 461
  10. ^ Campbell 1997, pg. 147
  11. ^ a b c Campbell 1997, pg. 148
  12. ^ Mithun 1999, pg. 462
  13. ^ Broadwell 1992
  14. ^ a b Campbell 1997, pg. 149
  15. ^ Broadwell 1992, pp. 41-42, fn. 2
  16. ^ Sturtevant 1994, referenced in Campbell 1997, pg. 149
  17. ^ Dr. Chester B. DePratter, "The Foundation, Occupation, and Abandonment of Yamasee Indian Towns in the South Carolina Lowcountry, 1684-1715", National Register Multiple Property Submission
  18. ^ Oatis, Steven J. (2004). A Colonial Complex: South Carolina's Frontiers in the Era of the Yamasee War, 1680-1730. University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 0-8032-3575-5.
  19. ^ Milanich:96
  20. ^ Coker:6
  21. ^ Swanton:136
  22. ^ Hudson, Charles The Juan Pardo Expeditions Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1990, pp. 68-73, 75
  23. ^ Campbell 1997, pp. 305-9
  24. ^ Campbell 1997, pg. 305
  25. ^ Booker 2005
  26. ^ Booker 2005, pg. 254
  27. ^ Booker 2005, pp. 248, 252, 254
  28. ^ Martin & Munro 2005, pg. 318, fn. 2
  29. ^ Booker 2005, pg. 286, footnote 7
  30. ^ Booker 2005, pp. 251-2
  31. ^ Broadwell, George Aaron. (1992). Reconstructing Proto-Muskogean Language and Prehistory: Preliminary Results. Paper presented at the Southern Anthropological Society, St. Augustine, FL.

External links

Bibliography

  • Booker, Karen. (2005). "Muskogean Historical Phonology." In Hardy, Heather Kay and Scancarelli, Janine (eds.), Native languages of the Southeastern United States, 246-298. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.
  • Broadwell, George Aaron. (1992). Reconstructing Proto-Muskogean Language and Prehistory: Preliminary Results (PDF). Paper presented at the Southern Anthropological Society, St. Augustine, FL. Retrieved on 2009-05-03.
  • Campbell, Lyle. (1997). American Indian languages: The historical linguistics of Native America. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509427-1.
  • Coker, William S. (1999) "Pensacola, 1686-1821." in Judith Anne Bense. (1999) Editor. Archaeology of colonial Pensacola. University Press of Florida. ISBN 0-8130-1661-4 Found at Google Books
  • Crawford, James M. (Ed.). (1975a). Studies in Southeastern Indian Languages. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press.
  • Crawford, James M. (1975b). "Southeastern Indian Languages". In Crawford (ed.) 1975, pp. 1-120.
  • Goddard, Ives (Ed.). (1996). Languages. Handbook of North American Indians (W. C. Sturtevant, General Ed.) (Vol. 17). Washington, D. C.: Smithsonian Institution. ISBN 0-16-048774-9.
  • Haas, Mary (1951). "The Proto-Gulf word for water (with notes on Siouan-Yuchi)". International Journal of American Linguistics 17: 71-79.
  • Haas, Mary. (1952). "The Proto-Gulf word for 'land' (with notes on Proto-Siouan)". International Journal of American Linguistics 18:238-240.
  • Haas, Mary. (1973). "The Southeast". In T. A. Sebeok (Ed.), Linguistics in North America (part 2, pp. 1210-1249). The Hague: Mouton.
  • Hardy, Heather. (2005). "Introduction". In Hardy & Scancarelli 2005, pp. 69-74.
  • Hardy, Heather & Janine Scancarelli. (2005). Native Languages of the Southeastern United States. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.
  • Hopkins, Nicholas A. The Native Languages of the Southeastern United States (PDF). Report for the Foundation for the Advancement of Mesoamerican Studies, Inc. Retrieved on 2009-05-03.
  • Martin, Jack B. & Pamela Munro. (2005). "Proto-Muskogean Morphology". in Hardy & Scancarelli eds., pp. 299-320
  • Milanich, Jerald T. (1995). Florida Indians and the Invasion from Europe. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida. ISBN 0-8130-1360-7
  • Mithun, Marianne. (1999). The languages of Native North America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-23228-7 (hbk); ISBN 0-521-29875-X.
  • Sebeok, Thomas A. (Ed.). (1973). Linguistics in North America (parts 1 & 2). Current trends in linguistics (Vol. 10). The Hague: Mouton. (Reprinted as Sebeok 1976).
  • Sturtevant, William C. (Ed.). (1978-present). Handbook of North American Indians (Vol. 1-20). Washington, D. C.: Smithsonian Institution. (Vols. 1-3, 16, 18-20 not yet published).
  • Sturtevant, William C. (1994). "The Misconnection of Guale and Yamasee with Muskogean". International Journal of American Linguistics 60:139-148.
  • Swanton, John Reed. (1952) The Indian Tribes of North America. Found at Google Books

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