Daid?-ch?nin Matsuri in ?su
|City of Nagoya|
Location of Nagoya in Aichi Prefecture
|o Mayor||Takashi Kawamura (Genzei Nippon)|
|o Designated city||326.45 km2 (126.04 sq mi)|
(October 1, 2019)
|o Designated city||2,327,557 (3rd)|
|o Metro||10,240,000 (3rd)|
|Time zone||UTC+9 (Japan Standard Time)|
|- Tree||Camphor laurel|
|Address||3-1-1 Sannomaru, Naka-ku, Nagoya-shi, Aichi-ken 460-0001|
Nagoya (?, Nagoya-shi) is the largest city in the Ch?bu region of Japan. It is Japan's fourth-largest incorporated city and the third most populous urban area. Located on the Pacific coast on central Honshu, it is the capital of Aichi Prefecture and is one of Japan's major ports along with those of Tokyo, Osaka, Kobe, Yokohama, and Chiba. It is also the center of Japan's third-largest metropolitan region, known as the Ch?ky? metropolitan area. As of 1 October 2019 , 2,327,557 people lived in the city, part of Ch?ky? metropolitan Area's 10.11 million people, making it one of the 50 largest urban areas in the world.
In 1610, the warlord Tokugawa Ieyasu, a retainer of Oda Nobunaga, moved the capital of Owari Province from Kiyosu to Nagoya. This period saw the renovation of Nagoya Castle. Nagoya was proclaimed a city in 1889, during the Meiji Restoration; it became a major industrial hub for Japan. The traditional manufactures of timepieces, bicycles, and sewing machines were followed by the production of special steels, chemicals, oil, and petrochemicals, as the area's automobile, aviation, and shipbuilding industries flourished. Nagoya was impacted by bombing from US air raids during World War II.
After the war, Nagoya developed into a major port and transport center. The Shinkansen high-speed line connecting Tokyo and Osaka converges on Nagoya. Nagoya is served by two airports: Chubu Centrair International Airport in nearby Tokoname, and Nagoya Airfield, home to Mitsubishi Aircraft Corporation. Nagoya remains an important center for the automotive, aviation, and ceramic industries, hosting the headquarters of Brother Industries, Ibanez, Lexus, and Toyota Tsusho, among others.
Nagoya is home to Nagoya University, the Nagoya Institute of Technology, and Nagoya City University. It is also the location of numerous cultural institutions, including the Tokugawa Art Museum, Atsuta Shrine, Higashiyama Zoo and Botanical Gardens, Aichi Arts Center, and Misono-za. Nagoya TV Tower is the oldest TV tower in Japan.
The city's name was historically written as or (both read as Nagoya). One possible origin is the adjective nagoyaka (?), meaning 'peaceful'.
The name Ch?ky? (), consisting of ch? (middle) + ky? (capital) is also used to refer to Nagoya. Notable examples of the use of the name Ch?ky? include the Ch?ky? Industrial Area, Ch?ky? Metropolitan Area, Ch?ky? Television Broadcasting, Chukyo University and the Chukyo Racecourse.
Oda Nobunaga and his protégés Toyotomi Hideyoshi and Tokugawa Ieyasu were powerful warlords based in the Nagoya area who gradually succeeded in unifying Japan. In 1610, Tokugawa Ieyasu moved the capital of Owari Province from Kiyosu, about seven kilometers (4.3 miles) away, to a more strategic location in present-day Nagoya.
In May-June 1560, the Battle of Okehazama took place in Dengakuhazama, Owari Province which was just outside of what would become Nagoya city. In this battle, Oda Nobunaga defeated Imagawa Yoshimoto and established himself as one of the leading warlords in the Sengoku period.
During this period Nagoya Castle was constructed, built partly from materials taken from Kiyosu Castle. During the construction, the entire town around Kiyosu Castle, consisting of around 60,000 people, moved from Kiyosu to the newly planned town around Nagoya Castle. Around the same time, the nearby ancient Atsuta Shrine was designated as a waystation, called Miya (the Shrine), on the important T?kaid? road, which linked the two capitals of Kyoto and Edo (now Tokyo). A town developed around the temple to support travelers. The castle and shrine towns formed the city.
During the Meiji Restoration Japan's provinces were restructured into prefectures and the government changed from family to bureaucratic rule. Nagoya was proclaimed a city on October 1, 1889, and designated a city on September 1, 1956, by government ordinance.
Nagoya became an industrial hub for the region. Its economic sphere included the famous pottery towns of Tokoname, Tajimi and Seto, as well as Okazaki, one of the only places where gunpowder was produced under the shogunate. Other industries included cotton and complex mechanical dolls called karakuri ningy?.
Mitsubishi Aircraft Company was established in 1920 in Nagoya and became one of the largest aircraft manufacturers in Japan. The availability of space and the central location of the region and the well-established connectivity were some of the major factors that lead to the establishment of the aviation industry there.
Nagoya Station in 1886
Hirokoji in Nagoya during the Meiji era
Main Gate of the Nagoya Expo in Tsuruma Park, 1928
Toyota Motor Corporation Koromo plant in 1938
Nagoya in the Showa period
Nagoya was the target of US air raids during World War II. The population of Nagoya at this time was estimated to be 1.5 million, fourth among Japanese cities and one of the three largest centers of the Japanese aircraft industry. It was estimated that 25% of its workers were engaged in aircraft production. Important Japanese aircraft targets (numbers 193, 194, 198, 2010, and 1729) were within the city itself, while others (notably 240 and 1833) were to the north of Kagamigahara. It was estimated that they produced between 40% and 50% of Japanese combat aircraft and engines, such as the vital Mitsubishi A6M Zero fighter. The Nagoya area also produced machine tools, bearings, railway equipment, metal alloys, tanks, motor vehicles and processed foods during World War II.
Air raids began on April 18, 1942, with an attack on a Mitsubishi Heavy Industries aircraft works, the Matsuhigecho oil warehouse, the Nagoya Castle military barracks and the Nagoya war industries plant. The bombing continued through the spring of 1945, and included large-scale firebombing. Nagoya was the target of two of Bomber Command's attacks. These incendiary attacks, one by day and one by night, devastated 15.3 square kilometres (5.9 sq mi) . The XXI Bomber Command established a new U.S. Army Air Force record with the greatest tonnage ever released on a single target in one mission--3,162 tons of incendiaries. It also destroyed or damaged twenty-eight of the numbered targets and raised the area burned to almost one-fourth of the entire city.[full ] Nagoya Castle, which was being used as a military command post, was hit and mostly destroyed on May 14, 1945. Reconstruction of the main building was completed in 1959. Later in the same year on July 26th, 1945 the Enola Gay also dropped a conventional pumpkin bomb in the Yagoto area of Nagoya as part of a bombing raid in order to train for their mission to Hiroshima.
In 1959, the city was flooded and severely damaged by the Ise-wan Typhoon.
After the war the city was able to rebuild and take up its role again as one of the country's leading industrial and manufacturing centres. It also plays an increasing role in the meetings, incentives, conferencing, exhibitions (MICE) industry, hosting the Expo 2005 and the Nagoya Protocol conference in 2010.
Nagoya lies north of Ise Bay on the N?bi Plain. The city was built on low-level plateaus to ward off floodwaters. The plain is one of the nation's most fertile areas. The Kiso River flows to the west along the city border, and the Sh?nai River comes from the northeast and turns south towards the bay at Nishi Ward. The man-made Hori River was constructed as a canal in 1610. It flows from north to south, as part of the Sh?nai River system. The rivers allowed for trade with the hinterland. The Tempaku River feeds from a number of smaller river in the east, flows briefly south at Nonami and then west at ?daka into the bay.
The city's location and its position in the centre of Japan allowed it to develop economically and politically.
Nagoya has 16 wards.
|Wards of Nagoya|
|Place Name||Map of Nagoya|
|R?maji||Kanji||Population||Land area in km2||Pop. density per km2|
|11||Naka-ku - administrative center||90,918||9.38||9,693|
Nagoya has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification: Cfa) with hot, humid summers and cool winters. The summer is noticeably wetter than the winter, although rain falls throughout the year.
|Climate data for Nagoya, Aichi (1981-2010)|
|Record high °C (°F)||21.0
|Average high °C (°F)||9.0
|Daily mean °C (°F)||4.5
|Average low °C (°F)||0.8
|Record low °C (°F)||-10.3
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||48.4
|Average snowfall cm (inches)||5
|Average rainy days||6.8||7.5||10.2||10.4||11.4||12.8||13.0||8.7||11.9||9.5||7.2||6.9||116.2|
|Average snowy days||6.4||5.4||2.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||2.6||16.6|
|Average relative humidity (%)||64||61||59||60||65||71||74||70||71||68||66||65||66|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||170.1||170.0||189.1||196.6||197.5||149.9||164.3||200.4||151.0||169.0||162.7||172.2||2,091.6|
|Average ultraviolet index||2||4||6||7||9||10||10||10||8||6||3||2||6|
|Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (records) and Weather Atlas|
One of the earliest censuses, carried out in 1889, counted 157,496 residents. The population reached the 1 million mark in 1934 and as of December 2010 had an estimated population of 2,259,993 with a population density of 6,923 persons per km2. Also as of December 2010 an estimated 1,019,859 households resided there--a significant increase from 153,370 at the end of World War II in 1945.
The area is 326.45 square kilometres (126.04 sq mi). Its metropolitan area extends into the Mie and Gifu prefectures, with a total population of about 10 million people, surpassed only by Osaka and Tokyo.
Nagoya's main industry is automotive. Toyota's luxury brand Lexus, Denso, Aisin Seiki Co., Toyota Industries, JTEKT and Toyota Boshoku have their headquarters in or near Nagoya. Mitsubishi Motors has an R&D division in the suburb of Okazaki. Major component suppliers such as Magna International and PPG also have a strong presence here. Spark plug maker NGK and Nippon Sharyo, known for manufacturing rolling stock including the Shinkansen are headquartered there.
The aviation history has historically been of importance since the industrialization. During the war the Mitsubishi A6M Zero fighter was constructed in Nagoya. The aviation tradition continues with Mitsubishi Aircraft Corporation headquartered in the Nagoya Airfield's terminal building in Komaki. The Mitsubishi Regional Jet (MRJ) aircraft is produced at a factory adjacent to the airport. The MRJ is a partnership between majority owner Mitsubishi Heavy Industries and Toyota with design assistance from Toyota affiliate Fuji Heavy Industries, already a manufacturer of aircraft. It is the first airliner designed and produced in Japan since the NAMC YS-11 of the 1960s. The MRJ's first flight was on November 11, 2015.
Japanese pottery and porcelain has a long tradition due to suitable clay being available in Owari Province. Before and during the Edo period there were two main kilns in the region: Seto and Tokoname. In Nagoya Castle a type of oniwa-yaki (literally "garden ware") called Ofukei ware was produced by the feudal lord's court. Almost every feudal lord had his own oniwa-yaki, also to have gifts made. In the town itself Toyoraku ware and Sasashima ware Japanese tea utensils were made with refined tastes. Ofukei ware started under the first Owari lord Tokugawa Yoshinao and was interrupted once, but continued on until the end of the Edo period. It became widely known in Japan. The lord's taste in ceramics was also imitated by other Owari samurai, such as Hirasawa Kur? and Masaki S?zabur?, who made their own pieces.
Toyoraku ware continued on until the Taish? era under the 8th generation. Colourful pieces and gorgeous tea utensils were highly valued. Sasashima ware also experienced its heyday during this time. Colourful and soft ceramic items such as sake and tea utensils and objects were produced and intently collected.
An early type of manufactured production was the blue-and-white Kawana ware. With the advent of industrialisation during the Meiji era of the late 19th century, some export wares were produced. Industrial-scale export porcelain was made by old Noritake, also Nagoya E-tsuke () became popular.
The city has an increasing role in the meetings, incentives, conferencing, exhibitions (MICE) industry. It hosted in 1989 the World Design Expo () for which the Nagoya Congress Center was constructed. It hosted the Expo 2005 and the Nagoya Protocol conference in 2010, as well as the G20 Aichi-Nagoya Foreign Ministers' Meeting in November 2019.
Brother Industries, which is known for office electronics such as multifunction printers is based in Nagoya, as is Hoshizaki Electric, which is known for commercial ice machines and refrigeration equipment. Many small machine tool and electronics companies are also based in the area.
Retail is of importance in the city. Traditional department stores with roots in Nagoya are Matsuzakaya, Maruei and the Meitetsu Department Store. Oriental Nakamura was bought by Mitsukoshi from Tokyo in 1977.
The city offers venues for conferences and congresses such as the Nagoya Congress Center and the Nagoya International Exhibition Hall.
A second airport is Nagoya Airfield (Komaki Airport, NKM) near the city's boundary with Komaki and Kasugai. On February 17, 2005, Nagoya Airport's commercial international flights moved to Centrair Airport. Nagoya Airfield is now used for general aviation and as an airbase and is the main Fuji Dream Airlines hub.
Nagoya Station, the world's largest train station by floor area, is on the T?kaid? Shinkansen line, the T?kaid? Main Line, and the Ch Main Line, among others. JR Central, which operates the T?kaid? Shinkansen, has its headquarters there. Meitetsu is also based in Nagoya, and along with Kintetsu provides regional rail service to the T?kai and Kansai regions. Nagoya Subway provides urban transit service.
Oasis 21 bus terminal
Nagoya has mostly state-run primary and secondary schools. The area in the city limits includes international schools such as the Nagoya International School and Colégio Brasil Japão Prof. Shinoda Brazilian school.
State and private colleges and universities primarily located in the eastern area. Some Western-style institutions were founded early in the Meiji era, with more opening during the Taish? and Sh?wa eras. Nagoya University was set up in 1871 as a medical school and has produced six Nobel Prize laureates in science.Nanzan University was established by the Roman Catholic Society of the Divine Word in 1932 as a high school and expanded to include Nanzan Junior College and the Nanzan Institute for Religion and Culture. The main campus was designed in the 1960s by the renowned architect Antonin Raymond. Some universities specialise in engineering and technology, such as Nagoya University Engineering school, Nagoya Institute of Technology and Toyota Technological Institute; these universities receive support and grants from companies such as Toyota.
Other colleges and universities include: Aichi Prefectural College of Nursing & Health, Aichi Shukutoku Junior College, Aichi Toho University, Chukyo University, Daido University, Doho University, Kinjo Gakuin University, Kinjo Gakuin University Junior College, Meijo University, Nagoya City University, Nagoya College of Music, Nagoya Future Culture College, Nagoya Gakuin University, Nagoya Management Junior College, Nagoya Women's University, St. Mary's College, Nagoya, Sugiyama Jogakuen University, Sugiyama Jogakuen University Junior College, Tokai Gakuen Women's College. Various universities from outside Nagoya have set up satellite campuses, such as Tokyo University of Social Welfare.
The H?sa Library dates to the 17th century and houses 110,000 items, including books of classic literature such as historic editions of The Tale of Genji that are an heirloom of the Owari Tokugawa and were bequeathed to the city. The Nagoya City Archives store a large collection of documents and books. Tsuruma Central Library is a public library and Nagoya International Center has a collection of foreign-language books.
Nagoya was a major trading city and political seat of the Owari lords, the most important house of the Tokugawa clan. They encouraged trade and the arts under their patronage, especially Tokugawa Muneharu, the 7th lord, who took a keen interest in drama and plays and lived lavishly. Under his rule, actors and actresses began to visit Nagoya. Arts and culture was further supported by the city's wealthy merchants. Culture flourished after the feudal Edo period and the beginning of the Meiji era. During World War II many old buildings and artefacts were destroyed. The region's economic and financial power in the post-war years rekindled the artistic and cultural scene.
Nagoya has multiple museums, including traditional and modern art, handicrafts to industrial high-tech, natural and scientific museums.
Nagoya Castle's collection is from the Owari Tokugawa era. The main tower is a museum that details the history of the castle and the city. The Honmaru Palace, destroyed in World War II, is slated for reconstruction by 2016 and will again be a prime example of the Shoin-zukuri architecture of the feudal era. Tokugawa Art Museum is a private museum belonging to the Owari Tokugawa, who lived in Nagoya castle for 16 generations. Among other things, it contains 10 designated national Treasures of Japan, including some of the oldest scrolls of The Tale of Genji. The Nagoya Noh Theatre houses various precious objects of Noh theatre. The Nagoya City Museum showcases the history of the town.
Paintings and sculpture are exhibited at the Nagoya City Art Museum. Modern art is displayed at the Aichi Arts Center. The Aichi Arts Center also is the venue of rotating exhibitions. The city is also home to the Nagoya/Boston Museum of Fine Arts, a sister museum to the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, which was founded to bring aspects of the MFA's collection to Japan.
The art of porcelain and ceramics can be seen at the Noritake Garden. Toyota has two museums in the city, the Toyota Automobile Museum which shows vintage cars, and the Toyota Commemorative Museum of Industry and Technology, which showcases company history, including its start as a textile mill.
The Nagoya City Tram & Subway Museum has trams and subway cars, as well as the Nagoya City Science Museum. The SCMaglev and Railway Park opened in March 2011 with various trains from the Central Japan Railway Company.
Other art museums in Aichi prefecture are the Aichi Prefectural Ceramic Museum and the Toyota Municipal Museum of Art. Meiji Mura is an open-air museum with salvaged buildings from the Meiji, Taish? and Showa eras. Another museum in Nagoya is the Mandolin Melodies Museum.
The civic authorities promote tourism and have taken steps to safeguard architectural heritage by earmarking them as cultural assets. Apart from the castle, temples, shrines and museums in the city, a "Cultural Path" was instituted in the 1980s, located between the Tokugawa Art Museum and Nagoya Castle. This residential area has historic buildings such as the Nagoya City Archives, the Nagoya City Hall main building, the Aichi Prefectural Office main building, the Futaba Museum, the former residence of Sasuke Toyoda, the former residence of Tetsujiro Haruta and the Chikaramachi Catholic Church. Most buildings date from the Meiji and Taish? era and are protected.
Daid?-ch?nin Matsuri in ?su
N? and Ky?gen theatre date back to the feudal times of the Owari Tokugawa lords. The Nagoya Noh Theater at Nagoya Castle continues that tradition and is a prominent feature in the cultural life of the city, with monthly performances.
In 1912, the musician Gor? Morita invented the Nagoya harp music instrument.
In 1992, the large, modern Aichi Arts Center was opened in Sakae. It is the main venue for performing arts, featuring a main hall that can be used for opera and theatre and a concert hall. The Nagoya Philharmonic Orchestra performs there, as well as many visiting guest orchestras.
Major events include the June Atsuta Festival, the July Port Festival, the August Nagoya Castle Summer Festival Castle and the October Nagoya Festival. Wards and areas host local festivals such as the Daid?-ch?nin Matsuri (?, Street Performer's Festival) in ?su.
The Nagoya dialect (?, Nagoya-ben) is spoken in the western half of Aichi Prefecture, centering on Nagoya. It is also called Owari dialect (, Owari-ben). The Nagoya dialect is relatively close to standard Japanese and to the Kansai dialect, differing in pronunciation and vocabulary.
The industry of Japanese handicrafts in the city is centuries old.
The city and the region are known for its unique local Nagoya cuisine (, Nagoya meshi). Dishes include:
The world premier of the first Godzilla movie was in Nagoya on October 27, 1954. The city, especially Nagoya Castle, has been featured in three other Godzilla movies: King Kong vs. Godzilla, Mothra vs. Godzilla, and Godzilla vs. Mothra. The city is also featured in Gamera vs. Gyaos and is the main setting of 2003 film Gozu. The 1995 film The Hunted starring Christopher Lambert and the 1992 film Mr. Baseball starring Tom Selleck were also filmed in the city.
The city was the setting for the 2007 movie Ashita e no yuigon (translated as Best Wishes for Tomorrow), in which a Japanese war criminal sets out to take responsibility for the execution of U.S. airmen. The anime The Wind Rises by Hayao Miyazaki, released in 2013, is a highly fictionalized biography of the Mitsubishi A6M Zero's chief engineer Jiro Horikoshi and takes mostly place in Nagoya of the 1920s and 1930s. Nagoya is also the setting for the manga and anime series Yatogame-chan Kansatsu Nikki, which highlights many of the sites and traditions of the city.
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Nagoya is home to several professional sports teams:
|Chunichi Dragons||Baseball||Central League||Nagoya Dome, Nagoya Stadium||1936|
|Nagoya Diamond Dolphins||Basketball||B.League||Aichi Prefectural Gymnasium, Nagoya Higashi sport center||1950|
|Toyotsu Fighting Eagles Nagoya||Basketball||B.League||Biwajima sport center||1957|
|Daido Steel Phenix||Handball||Japan Handball League||Daido Steel Hoshizaki Gym||1964|
|Daido Steel Red Star||Volleyball||V.LEAGUE||Daido Steel Hoshizaki Gym||1968|
|Nagoya Cyclones||American football||X-League||Nagoya Minato Stadium||1980|
|Nagoya Frater||Hockey||Hockey Japan League||Sh?nai Greens||1985|
|Nagoya Grampus||Soccer||J. League||Mizuho Athletic Stadium, Toyota Stadium||1993|
|Nagoya Oceans||Futsal||F. League||Teva Ocean Arena||2006|
In 2007, the Chunichi Dragons won the Japan Series baseball championship. In 2010, Nagoya Grampus won the J. League championship, their first in team history. Nagoya is also the home of the Nagoya Barbarians semi-pro rugby football club.
In September 2016 the city was awarded the right to host the 2026 Asian Games after it was the only city to lodge a bid. It will be the third time Japan hosts the event after Tokyo in 1958 and Hiroshima in 1994.
The Chunichi Dragons are one of Japan's strongest baseball teams
The Aichi Prefectural Gymnasium is used for Sumo wrestling and other events
The Nagoya International Center promotes international exchange in the local community. It houses the U.S. Consulate on the 6th floor and the United Nations Centre for Regional Development (UNCRD) on the 7th floor.
Nagoya's sister ports are:
Nagoya's sister Airport is:
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The three samurais who unified Japan in the 16th century all have strong links to Nagoya.
Other attractions include:
Nagoya is a starting point for visits to the surrounding area, such as Inuyama, Little World Museum of Man, Meiji Mura, Tokoname, Himakajima, Tahara, Toyohashi and Toyokawa and Hamamatsu. Reachable with at most a two-hour journey are Gifu, Gujo Hachiman, Gifu, Ise Shrine, Takayama, Gifu, Gero Onsen and the hill stations in the Kiso Valley Magome and Tsumago.