|Languages||Urdu, Persian, some varieties of Punjabi|
Nasta'l?q (Persian: ? [næ'stæ?li:q] (in a simplified typeface: ?), from () Naskh and () Ta?l?q) is one of the main calligraphic hands used in writing the Persian alphabet and traditionally the predominant style in Persian calligraphy. It was developed in Iran in the 14th and 15th centuries. It is sometimes used to write Arabic language text (where it is known as Ta?l?q or Persian and is mainly used for titles and headings), but its use has always been more popular in the Persian, Urdu, and Turkic sphere of influence. Nastaliq remains very widely used in Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan and India and other countries for written poetry and as a form of art.
A less elaborate version of Nashtaliq serves as the preferred style for writing in Kashmiri, and Urdu and it is often used alongside Naskh for Pashto. In Persian, it is used for poetry only. Nashtaliq was historically used for writing Ottoman Turkish, where it was known as tâlik (not to be confused with a totally different Persian style, also called ta?l?q; to distinguish the two, Ottomans referred to the latter as ta?l?q-i qadim, "old ta?l?q").
Nashtaliq is the core script of the post-Sassanid Persian writing tradition and is equally important in the areas under its cultural influence. The languages of Iran (Western Persian, Azeri, Balochi, Kurdi, Luri, etc.), Afghanistan (Dari Persian, Pashto, Turkmen, Uzbek, etc.), India (Urdu, Kashmiri, etc.) and the Turkic Uyghur language of the Chinese province of Xinjiang, rely on Nashtaliq. Under the name ta?liq (lit. "suspending [script]"), it was also beloved by Ottoman calligraphers who developed the Diwani (divanî) and Ruqah (r?kʻa) styles from it.
Nashtaliq is amongst the most fluid calligraphy styles for the Arabic script. It has short verticals with no serifs, and long horizontal strokes. It is written using a piece of trimmed reed with a tip of 5-10 mm (0.2-0.4 in), called qalam ('pen', Arabic and Persian ) and carbon ink, named siyahi. The nib of a qalam can be split in the middle to facilitate ink absorption.
Two important forms of Nastaliq panels are Chalipa and Siyah mashq. A Chalipa ("cross", in Persian) panel usually consists of four diagonal hemistiches (half-lines) of poetry, clearly signifying a moral, ethical or poetic concept. Siyah Mashq ("black drill") panels, however, communicate via composition and form, rather than content. In Siyah Mashq, repeating a few letters or words (sometimes even one) virtually inks the whole panel. The content is thus of less significance and not clearly accessible.
After the Islamic conquest of Persia, the Iranian Persian people adopted the Perso-Arabic script and the art of Persian calligraphy flourished in Iran as territories of the former Persian empire. Apparently, Mir Ali Tabrizi (14th century) developed Nastaliq by combining two existing scripts of Nas? and Ta?l?q. Hence, it was originally called Nas?-Ta?l?q. Another theory holds that the name Nastaliq means "that which abrogated (naskh) Ta?l?q".
Nastaliq thrived and many prominent calligraphers contributed to its splendor and beauty. It is believed[by whom?] that Nastaliq reached its highest elegance in Mir Emad's works. The current practice of Nastaliq is, however, heavily based on Mirza Reza Kalhor's technique. Kalhor modified and adapted Nastaliq to be easily used with printing machines, which in turn helped wide dissemination of his transcripts. He also devised methods for teaching Nastaliq and specified clear proportional rules for it, which many could follow.
The Mughal Empire used Persian as the court language during their rule over South Asia. During this time, Nastaliq came into widespread use in South Asia. The influence continues to this day. In India and Pakistan, almost everything in Urdu is written in the script, constituting the greatest part of Nastaliq usage in the world. The situation of Nastaliq in Bangladesh used to be the same as in Pakistan until 1971, when Urdu ceased to remain an official language. Today, only a few people use this form of writing in Bangladesh.
And others, including Mirza Jafar Tabrizi, Abdul Rashid Deilami, Sultan Ali Mashadi, Mir Ali Heravi, Emad Ul-Kottab, Mirza Gholam Reza Esfehani, Emadol Kotab, Yaghoot Mostasami and Darvish Abdol Majid Taleghani.
Islamic calligraphy was originally used to adorn Islamic religious texts, specifically the Qur'an, as pictorial ornaments were prohibited in sacred publications and spaces of Islam. Therefore, a sense of sacredness was always implicit in calligraphy.
A Nastaliq disciple was supposed to qualify himself spiritually for being a calligrapher, besides learning how to prepare qalam, ink, paper and, more importantly, master Nastaliq. For instance see Adab al-Mashq, a manual of penmanship attributed to Mir Emad.
Folio of Poetry From the Divan of Sultan Husayn Mirza, ca. 1490. Brooklyn Museum.
Quatrain on the Virtue of Patience by Muhammad Muhsin Lahuri of the Mughal Empire
Spousal Advice by Abdallah Lahuri of the Mughal Empire
|^Note: Some of the Nastaliq text on this page will probably show in a different style if you do not have a Nastaliq font installed. If this ? and this ? looks like these four ? ? ? ? then you are probably seeing it written in a modern Arabic style.|
Nastaliq Typography first started with attempts to develop a metallic type for the script, but all such efforts failed. Fort William College developed a Nastaliq Type, which was not close enough to Nastaliq and hence was never used other than by the college library to publish its own books. The State of Hyderabad Dakan (now in India) also attempted to develop a Nastaliq Typewriter but this attempt failed miserably and the file was closed with the phrase "Preparation of Nastaliq on commercial basis is impossible". Basically, in order to develop such a metal type, thousands of pieces would be required.
Modern Nastaliq typography began with the invention of Noori Nastaleeq which was first created as a digital font in 1981 through the collaboration of Mirza Ahmad Jamil TI (as Calligrapher) and Monotype Imaging (formerly Monotype Corp & Monotype Typography). Although this was a ground-breaking solution employing over 20,000 ligatures (individually designed character combinations) which provided the most beautiful results and allowed newspapers such as Pakistan's Daily Jang to use digital typesetting instead of an army of calligraphers, it suffered from two problems in the 1990s: (a) its non-availability on standard platforms such as Windows or Mac OS, and (b) the non-WYSIWYG nature of text entry, whereby the document had to be created by commands in Monotype's proprietary page description language.
Windows 8 was the first version of Microsoft Windows to have native Nastaliq support, through Microsoft's "Urdu Typesetting" font.
Google has an open-source Nastaliq font called Noto Nastaliq. Apple provides this font on all Mac installations since Mac OS X High Sierra. Similarly, Apple has carried this font on iOS devices since iOS 11.
In 1994, InPage Urdu, which is a fully functional page layout software for Windows akin to Quark XPress, was developed for Pakistan's newspaper industry by an Indian software company Concept Software Pvt Ltd. It offered the Noori Nastaliq font licensed from Monotype Corporation. This font, with its vast ligature base of over 20,000, is still used in current versions of the software for Windows. As of 2009 InPage has become Unicode based, supporting more languages, and the Faiz Lahori Nastaliq font with Kasheeda has been added to it along with compatibility with OpenType Unicode fonts. Nastaliq Kashish[clarification needed] has been made for the first time[clarification needed] in the history of Nastaliq Typography.
Shekasteh or Shekasteh Nastaliq (Persian: ?, ?, "cursive Nastaliq" or literally "broken Nastaliq") style is a successor of Nastaliq.
A line of poetry by the Iranian poet Omar Khayyam in Shekasteh Nastaliq.
A ruba'i of Omar Khayyam in Shekasteh Nastaliq.
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Fath Ali Shah Qajar's order in Shekasteh Nastaliq script, January 1831
Mir Emad Hassani, Safavid era