The National Council for Peace and Order (NCPO; Thai: ; RTGS: khana raksa khwam sangop haeng chat; abbreviated (Thai: .; RTGS: khosocho)) was the military junta that ruled Thailand between its 2014 Thai coup d'état on 22 May 2014 and 10 July 2019. On 20 May 2014, the military declared martial law nationwide in an attempt to stop the country's escalating political crisis, and to force the democratically elected government out of office. On 22 May, the military removed the Yingluck Shinawatra government and formed the NCPO to take control of the country. The junta censored the broadcasting system in Thailand, suspended most of the constitution (except for the article concerning the country's king; the crisis began during the final years of the reign of Rama IX and continued into the reign of Rama X), and detained members of the Thai cabinet. The NCPO was formally dissolved following the swearing-in of the new cabinet on 16 July 2019. Critics like former Thai ambassador Pithaya Pookaman charge that the NCPO "...is practically still very much intact. Its arbitrary power[s] ... transferred to the existing Internal Security Operations Command chaired by the prime minister."
The original English name assumed by the junta was "National Peace and Order Maintaining Council" or "NPOMC". The name was later changed to "National Council for Peace and Order" or "NCPO" on 24 May 2014.
This section needs to be updated.November 2018)(
On 22 May 2014, the NCPO announced its composition and stated that its leader would exercise all powers and duties which the laws invest in the prime minister and the cabinet, until a new prime minister was elected or appointed.
On 23 May, the NCPO announced that short and long-term national administrative policies would be determined by its leader. It assigned its members to government ministries and agencies.
On 24 May 2014, the NCPO dissolved the Senate and vested legislative power in its leader. It also ordered the judicial branch to operate under its directives. Later that day, it transferred Police General Adul Saengsingkaew, who was the Commissioner-General of the Royal Thai Police and also its deputy leader, to an inactive post in the Office of the Prime Minister. Adul was replaced by Police General Watcharapol Prasarnrajkit.
On 26 May, King Bhumibol Adulyadej endorsed the coup, formally appointing General Prayut Chan-o-cha to "take charge of public administration" as of 24 May. The royal endorsement was seen as key to legitimising the coup.
|Office||Name||Military status||In charge of|
|Leader||Prayut Chan-o-cha||Royal Thai Army||General||Commander-in-Chief|
|Deputy Leader||Thanasak Patimaprakorn||Royal Thai Armed Forces Headquarters||General||Chief of the Armed Forces|
|Deputy Leader||Narong Pipathanasai||Royal Thai Navy||Admiral||Commander-in-Chief|
|Deputy Leader||Prajin Juntong||Royal Thai Air Force||Air Chief Marshal||Commander-in-Chief|
|Deputy Leader||Adul Sangsingkeo||Royal Thai Police||Police General||Former Commissioner-General
Minister of the Office of Prime Minister
|Secretary-General||Teerachai Nakwanich||Royal Thai Army||General||Deputy Commander-in-Chief|
|Deputy Secretary-General||Chatudom Titthasiri||Royal Thai Army||General||Deputy Commander-in-Chief|
|Spokesman||Winthai Suvaree||Royal Thai Army||Colonel||Vice Spokesman of the Army|
On 26 May 2014, the NCPO announced the formation of its Board of Consultants:
|Chairman||Prawit Wongsuwan||Former Minister of Defence, (Abhisit Vejjajiva's cabinet)|
|Vice Chairman||Anupong Paochinda||Former commander-in-chief of the army|
|Vice Chairman||Pridiyathorn Devakula||Former Governor of the Bank of Thailand|
|Consultant||Somkid Jatusripitak||Former Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Finance, (Thaksin Shinawatra's cabinet)|
|Consultant||Narongchai Akrasanee||Member of Thai Monetary Policy Committee and Former Minister of Trade, (Chavalit Yongchaiyudh's cabinet)|
|Consultant||Wissanu Krea-ngam||Former Deputy Prime Minister, (Thaksin Shinawatra's cabinet)|
|Consultant||Yongyuth Yuthavong||Former Minister of Science and Technology, (Surayud Chulanont's cabinet)|
|Consultant||Itthaporn Subhawong||Former commander-in-chief of the air force|
|Consultant||Noppadol Intapanya||Former secretary to Minister of Defence, (Prawit Wongsuwan)|
|Consultant and Secretary||Dowpong Rattanasuwan||Former vice commander-in-chief of the army|
The stated objective of the coup and NCPO was to restore order to Thailand and to enact political reforms. Specifically, Thailand's military junta promised to clean up corruption, reduce political tensions, transform the Thai economy, solve the issues in Thailand's educational system and infrastructure, and equitably allocate state funding regionally. Since then, Thailand's military has failed to demonstrate it is a neutral, prudent economic manager that refrains from mixing business and politics. Top army brass appear to be inexplicably wealthy. The generals have been accused of larding Thai companies with junta cronies, of boosting defense budgets, and of making little progress on economic reform.
Since taking over, the NCPO has made full use of martial law to prosecute opponents, ban political activity, and censor the media. More than 1,000 people, including academics, political bloggers, activists and politicians, have been detained or sent for "attitude adjustment" at military installations. There are allegations of torture. Prosecutions under the country's strict lèse majesté laws, which protect the monarchy from insult, have risen sharply. In its annual report in January 2015, Human Rights Watch said military rule had sent human rights in Thailand into "a freefall".
The NCPO repealed the 2007 Constitution, save the second chapter which deals with the King. In addition, it formally ordered the dissolution of the caretaker government, while the Senate was dissolved. Other state agencies, including the courts and the independent organs, remain operative.
The NCPO imposed a curfew throughout the country, ordering people to stay indoors from 22:00 to 05:00. It laid down a ban on political gatherings and directed all protesters to disperse. It also ordered all educational institutes, both public and private, to close from 23 to 25 May 2014.
On 2 August 2014, a law was issued to determine monthly salaries and other monetary benefits for NCPO staff. General Prayut was granted 125,590 baht per month. Each of the other NCPO members was granted salaries of 119,920 baht per month. These salaries are in addition to the benefits they are already entitled to receive by virtue of their posts in the armed forces.
Immediately after the coup was announced, People's Democratic Reform Committee (PDRC) protesters expressed their support for the takeover. Phra Buddha Issara, a Buddhist monk and PDRC co-leader, went on stage and proclaimed the victory of the anti-Yingluck Shinawatra government protesters before requesting that protesters return to their homes. Some pro-Shinawatra government protesters dispersed at the behest of the military, while others refused to leave. The NCPO provided 70 military vehicles to send protesters from both sides home.
On 6 April 2017, a new constitution drafted by the NCPO was promulgated replacing the 2014 interim constitution. The transitory provisions of the 2017 constitution state that the NCPO will come to an end when a cabinet established after the first general election under this constitution takes office, but until then the NCPO retained its sweeping powers under the 2014 constitution. These provisions also constitutionalised all the actions as well as the announcements and orders of the NCPO.
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