National Police Agency (Japan)
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National Police Agency Japan
National Police Agency

Keisatsu-ch?
Asahikage.svg
AbbreviationNPA
Agency overview
FormedJuly 1, 1954 (1954-07-01)
Employees7,800(2017)
Annual budget¥258,344M(FY 2005/6)
Jurisdictional structure
National agencyJapan
Operations jurisdictionJapan
Headquarters2-1-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda, Tokyo 100-8974, Japan

Civilians4,800
Agency executive
Parent agencyNational Public Safety Commission
Child agencies
Bureaus
Regional Bureaus
Website
www.npa.go.jp/english/index.html (English)
www.npa.go.jp (Japanese)
2nd Building of the Central Common Government Office, the building which houses the agency

The National Police Agency (, Keisatsu-ch?) is an agency administered by the National Public Safety Commission of the Cabinet Office of the Cabinet of Japan, and is the central agency of the Japanese police system, and the central coordinating agency of law enforcement in situations of national emergency in Japan.

Unlike comparable bodies such as the U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation, the NPA does not have any operational units of its own except for the Imperial Guard. Instead, its role is to determine general standards and policies, although in national emergencies or large-scale disasters the agency is authorized to take command of Prefectural police departments.

As of 2017, the NPA has a strength of approximately 7,800 personnel: 2,100 sworn officers, 900 guards and 4,800 civilian staff.[1]

Background

Police services of the Empire of Japan were placed under complete centralized control with the Police Affairs Bureau (, Keiho-kyoku) of the Home Ministry at their core. But after the surrender of Japan, the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers regarded this centralized police system as undemocratic.[2]

During the Occupation, the principle of decentralization was introduced by the 1947 Police Law. Cities and large towns had their own municipal police services (, Jichitai Keisatsu), and the National Rural Police (, Kokka Chih? Keisatsu) was responsible for smaller towns, villages and rural areas. But most Japanese municipalities were too small to have a large police force, so sometimes they were unable to deal with large-scale violence. In addition, excessive fragmentation of the police organization reduced the efficiency of police activities.[2]

As a response to these problems, complete restructuring created a more centralized system under the 1954 amended Police Law. All operational units except for the Imperial Guard were reorganized into Prefectural Police Departments for each prefecture, and the National Police Agency was established as the central coordinating agency for these Police Departments.[2]

Organization

Leadership

The Commissioner General of the National Police Agency (, Keisatsu-ch? Ch?kan) is the highest ranking police officer of Japan, regarded as an exception to the regular class structure. For the Deputy Commissioner General (, Jich?), the Senior Commissioner is supplemented. The Commissioner General's Secretariat (?, Ch?kan Kanb?) are their staff. The civilian political leadership is provided by the National Public Safety Commission.[2]

Internal Bureaus

Community Safety Bureau

The Community Safety Bureau (, Seikatsu Anzen-kyoku) is responsible for crime prevention, combating juvenile delinquency, and pollution control.[3]

This bureau was derived from the Safety Division of the Criminal Affairs Bureau in 1994.[4]

  • Community Safety Planning Division (?)
  • Community Police Affairs Division ()
  • Juvenile Division ()
  • Safety Division ()
  • Cybercrime Division ()
  • Director for Economic Crimes Investigation ()

Criminal Affairs Bureau

The Criminal Affairs Bureau (, Keiji-kyoku) is in charge of research statistics and coordination of the criminal investigation of nationally important and international cases. [3]

  • (Direct reporting divisions)
    • Criminal Affairs Planning Division ()
    • First Investigation Division ()
    • Second Investigation Division ()
    • Director for Criminal Intelligence Support ()
    • Director for Criminal Identification ()
  • Organized Crime Department (?)
    • Organized Crime Policy Planning Division ()
    • Japanese Organized Crime Division ()
    • Drugs and Firearms Division (?)
    • Director for International Investigative Operations (?)

Traffic Bureau

The Traffic Bureau (, K?ts?-kyoku) is responsible for traffic policing and regulations. This bureau was derived from the Safety Bureau (, Hoan-kyoku) (later merged with the Criminal Affairs Bureau; predecessor of the Community Safety Bureau) in 1962 because of the expression indicating a high number of deaths from traffic accidents.[2][3]

  • Traffic Planning Division ()
  • Traffic Enforcement Division ()
  • Traffic Management and Control Division ()
  • License Division ()

Security Bureau

The Security Bureau (, Keibi-kyoku) is in charge of the internal security affairs, such as counter-intelligence, counter-terrorism or disaster response. [2][3]

  • (Direct reporting divisions)
    • Security Planning Division ()
    • Public Security Division ()
    • Security Division ()
  • Foreign Affairs and Intelligence Department ()
    • Foreign Affairs Division ()
    • Counter International Terrorism Division (?)

After the 1996 Japanese embassy hostage crisis in Peru, the Security Bureau established the Terrorism Response Team where officers liaise with foreign law enforcement and intelligence agencies when Japanese interests or nationals are in danger.[5] It was later reformed to the Terrorism Response Team - Tactical Wing (TRT-2) for Overseas in order to meet with demands to coordinate with foreign police forces in assisting them whenever a terror attack has happened.[5]

Info-Communications Bureau

The Info-Communications Bureau (, J?h? Ts?shin-kyoku) supervises police communications systems and combat with cyberterrorism.

  • Info-Communications Planning Division (?)
  • Information Systems Division ()
  • Communications Facilities Division ()
  • High-Tech Crime Technology Division (?)

Local Branch Bureaus and Departments

Regional Police Bureaus

There are six Regional Police Bureaus (), each responsible for a number of prefectures as below:[6]

T?hoku Regional Police Bureau (?, T?hoku Kanku Keisatsu-kyoku)
Aomori, Iwate, Miyagi, Akita, Yamagata, and Fukushima Prefectures
Kant? Regional Police Bureau (?, Kant? Kanku Keisatsu-kyoku)
Ibaraki, Tochigi, Gunma, Saitama, Chiba, Kanagawa, Niigata, Yamanashi, Nagano, and Shizuoka Prefectures
Ch?bu Regional Police Bureau (?, Ch?bu Kanku Keisatsu-kyoku)
Toyama, Ishikawa, Fukui, Gifu, Aichi, and Mie Prefectures
Kinki Regional Police Bureau (?, Kinki Kanku Keisatsu-kyoku)
Shiga, Kyoto, Osaka, Hyogo, Nara, and Wakayama Prefectures
Ch?goku-Shikoku Regional Police Bureau (, Ch?goku Shikoku Kanku Keisatsu-kyoku)
Tottori, Shimane, Okayama, Hiroshima, and Yamaguchi Prefectures
Tokushima, Kagawa, Ehime, and Kochi Prefectures
Ky?sh? Regional Police Bureau (?, Ky?sh? Kanku Keisatsu-kyoku)
Fukuoka, Saga, Nagasaki, Kumamoto, Oita, Miyazaki, Kagoshima, and Okinawa Prefectures

They are located in major cities of each geographic region. The Tokyo Metropolitan Police Department and Hokkaido Prefectural Police Headquarters are excluded from the jurisdiction of regional police bureaus. Headed by a Senior Commissioner, each regional police bureaus exercises necessary control and supervision over and provides support services to prefectural police within its jurisdiction, under the authority and orders of NPA's Commissioner General. Attached to each Regional Police Bureaus is a Regional Police School which provides police personnel with education and training required of staff officers as well as other necessary education and training.

Police Communications Departments

Metropolitan Tokyo and the island of Hokkaid? are excluded from the regional jurisdictions and are run more autonomously than other local forces, in the case of Tokyo, because of its special urban situation, and of Hokkaid?, because of its distinctive geography. The National Police Agency maintains police communications divisions in these two areas to handle any coordination needed between national and local forces. In other area, Police Communications Departments are established within each Regional Police Bureaus.

  • Independent Communications Departments
    • Tokyo Metropolitan Police Info-Communications Department (?, T?ky?-to Keisatsu J?h? Ts?shin-bu)
    • Hokkaido Police Info-Communications Department (?, Hokkaid? Keisatsu Ts?shin J?h?-bu)

Subsidiary Organs

Imperial Guard

In 1947, the Imperial Guard Headquarters (, K?g?-Keisatsu Honbu) was created under the control of the Home Ministry from the Imperial Household Ministry. It came under the aegis of the National Police Agency of Japan in 1954. It provides personal security for the Emperor, Crown Prince and other members of the Imperial Family of Japan, as well as protection of imperial properties, including the Tokyo Imperial Palace, Kyoto Imperial Palace, Katsura Imperial Villa, Shugakuin Imperial Villa (both in Kyoto), Shosoin Imperial Repository in Nara and the imperial villas of Hayama, Kanagawa and Nasu, Tochigi.

See also

References

  1. ^ National Police Agency (2018). POLICE OF JAPAN 2018 (Overview of Japanese Police) (PDF) (Report).
  2. ^ a b c d e f National Police Agency Police History Compilation Committee, ed. (1977). Japan post-war police history (in Japanese). Japan Police Support Association.
  3. ^ a b c d National Police Agency. "Mechanism of Police systems" (in Japanese). Archived from the original on 2012-12-06. Retrieved .
  4. ^ Japan Federation of Bar Associations. "Declaration on police activities and citizens' human rights" (in Japanese). Retrieved .
  5. ^ a b https://www.webcitation.org/5xSaWNCYB
  6. ^ "Public Safety Commission System and Police Activity Support" (PDF). Japanese National Police Agency. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-02-16. Retrieved .

External links


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