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A spatial data infrastructure (SDI) is a data infrastructure implementing a framework of geographic data, metadata, users and tools that are interactively connected in order to use spatial data in an efficient and flexible way. Another definition is "the technology, policies, standards, human resources, and related activities necessary to acquire, process, distribute, use, maintain, and preserve spatial data".
A further definition is given in Kuhn (2005): "An SDI is a coordinated series of agreements on technology standards, institutional arrangements, and policies that enable the discovery and use of geospatial information by users and for purposes other than those it was created for."
Some of the main principles are that data and metadata should not be managed centrally, but by the data originator and/or owner, and that tools and services connect via computer networks to the various sources. A GIS is often the platform for deploying an individual node within an SDI. To achieve these objectives, good coordination between all the actors is necessary and the definition of standards is very important.
Due to its nature (size, cost, number of t-related. An example of an existing SDI, since 2002, is the NSDI created by the OMB Circular A-16 in the United States. At the European side, since 2007, the INSPIRE is a European Commission initiative to build a European SDI beyond national boundaries and ultimately the United Nations Spatial Data Infrastructure (UNSDI) will do the same for over 30 UN Funds, Programmes, Specialized Agencies and member countries.
An SDI should enable the discovery and delivery of spatial data from a data repository, via a spatial service provider, to a user. As mentioned earlier it is often wished that the data provider is able to update spatial data stored in a repository. Hence, the basic software components of an SDI are:
Besides these software components, a range of (international) technical standards are necessary that allow interaction between the different software components. Among those are geospatial standards defined by the Open Geospatial Consortium (e.g., OGC WMS, WFS, GML, etc.) and ISO (e.g., ISO 19115) for the delivery of maps, vector and raster data, but also data format and internet transfer standards by W3C consortium.
List by country or administrative zone. It is not complete, is a sample of NSDIs with stable official website.
|Admin. Region||NSDI name and ext. link|
|Europe||The European INSPIRE initiative|
|India||National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI)|
|Basque Country||Spatial Data Infrastructure and Portal of the Basque Country. geoEuskadi|
|Swiss||Swiss Federal Spatial Data Infrastructure|
|Colombia||Colombian Spatial Data Infrastructure (ICDE)|
|Bogota||Bogota Spatial Data Infrastructure|
|Chile||Blog Chilean Spatial Data Infrastructure|
|United Nations||The United Nations Spatial Data Infrastructure (UNSDI)|
|United States||US National Spatial Data Infrastructure|
|Australia||Australian Spatial Data Infrastructure and its centre|
|Canada||Canadian Geospatial Data Infrastructure|
|Chile||Chilean Spatial Data Infrastructure|
|Estonia||Estonian National Spatial Data Infrastructure|
|Finland||Finnish National Spatial Data Infrastructure|
|Germany||German National Spatial Data Infrastructure|
|Netherlands||Dutch Geo register|
|Lithuania||Lithuanian geographic information infrastructure|
|Spain||Spanish National Spatial Data Infrastructure (IDEE)|
|Catalonia||Catalonia Spatial Data Infrastructure|
|Gipuzkoa||Gipuzkoa Spatial Data Infrastructure|
|Andalusia||Andalusian Spatial Data Infrastructure|
|Canary Islands||Canary Islands Spatial Data Infrastructure (IDECanarias)|
|Andorra||Andorran Spatial Data Infrastructure (IDEAnd)|
|Brazil||Brazilian Spatial Data Infrastructure (INDE)|
|Malaysia||Malaysia Geospatial Data Infrastructure (MyGDI)|
|Bolivia||Bolivia Spatial Data Infraestructure (IDE-EPB)|
|Abu Dhabi||Abu Dhabi SDI|