National Anthems
Get National Anthems essential facts below. View Videos or join the National Anthems discussion. Add National Anthems to your topic list for future reference or share this resource on social media.
National Anthems
Rouget de Lisle, the composer of the French national anthem "La Marseillaise", sings it for the first time. The anthem is one of the earliest to be adopted by a modern state, in 1795.

Most nation states have an anthem, defined as "a song, as of praise, devotion, or patriotism";[1] most anthems are either marches or hymns in style. A song or hymn can become a national anthem under the state's constitution, by a law enacted by its legislature, or simply by tradition.[2] A royal anthem is a patriotic song similar to a national anthem, but it specifically praises or prays for a monarch or royal dynasty. Such anthems are usually performed at public appearances by the monarch or during other events of royal importance.[3] Some states use their royal anthem as the national anthem, such as the state anthem of Jordan.

There are multiple claimants to the position of oldest national anthem.[4] Among the national anthems, the first to be composed was the Dutch national anthem, the "Wilhelmus", which was written between 1568 and 1572.[5] This has both Dutch and English language versions and is unusual in being an acrostic in both languages. The Japanese anthem, "Kimigayo", employs the oldest lyrics of any national anthem, taking its words from the "Kokin Wakash?", which was first published in 905, yet these words were not set to music until 1880.[6] The first anthem to be officially adopted as such was the Spanish anthem "La Marcha Real", in 1770; its origins remain unclear; it is suggested that it has 16th century Venetian origins, or even that it was composed by king Frederick the Great himself; it is also one of the few national anthems that has never had official lyrics.[7] Anthems became increasingly popular among European states in the 18th century.[8] For example, the British national anthem "God Save the Queen" was first performed as "God Save the King" in 1745.[9] The French anthem "La Marseillaise" was written half a century later in 1792, and adopted in 1795.[10]

National anthems are usually written in the most common language of the state, whether de facto or official. States with multiple national languages may offer several versions of their anthem. For instance, Switzerland's national anthem has different lyrics for each of the country's four official languages: French, German, Italian, and Romansh.[11] One of New Zealand's two national anthems is commonly sung with the first verse in M?ori ("Aotearoa") and the second in English ("God Defend New Zealand"). The tune is the same but the lyrics have different meanings. South Africa's national anthem is unique in that it is two different songs put together with five of the country's eleven official languages being used, in which each language comprises a stanza.[12]

National anthems of UN member states and observer states

Only United Nations member states and observer states are included in this table.[13][14] National anthems of sovereign states which are not UN members or observers are listed in a separate table below. An English translation of the title is provided in parentheses where appropriate.

Nation/Country National anthem Date adopted
(de jure)
Lyricist Composer/ Artist Audio Ref.
 Afghanistan "Mill? Sur?d"
("National Anthem")
2006 Abdul Bari Jahani Babrak Wassa
"Mill? Sur?d"
 Albania "Betimi mbi Flamur"
("The Pledge on the Flag")
1912 Aleksandër Stavre Drenova Ciprian Porumbescu
"Himni i Flamurit"
 Algeria "Kassaman"
("We Pledge")
1962 Moufdi Zakaria Mohamed Fawzi
 Andorra "El Gran Carlemany"
("The Great Charlemagne")
1914 Enric Marfany Bons Juan Benlloch y Vivó
"El Gran Carlemany"
 Angola "Angola Avante"
("Onward Angola")
1975 Manuel Rui Alves Monteiro Rui Alberto Vieira Dias Mingas [pt]
"Angola Avante"
 Antigua and Barbuda "Fair Antigua, We Salute Thee"[a] 1981 Novelle Hamilton Richards Walter Garnet Picart Chambers
"Fair Antigua, We Salute Thee"
 Argentina "Himno Nacional Argentino"
("Argentine National Anthem")
1813 Vicente López y Planes Blas Parera
"Himno Nacional Argentino"
 Armenia "Mer Hayrenik"
("Our Fatherland")
1918, 1991 Mikael Nalbandian Barsegh Kanachyan
"Mer Hayrenik"
 Australia "Advance Australia Fair"[a] 1984 Peter Dodds McCormick Peter Dodds McCormick
"Advance Australia Fair"
 Austria "Bundeshymne der Republik Österreich"
("National Anthem of the Republic of Austria")
1947 Paula von Preradovi? Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart/Johann Holzer
"National Anthem of the Republic of Austria"
 Azerbaijan "Az?rbaycan mar"
("Azerbaijan's Anthem")
1918 Ahmed Javad Uzeyir Hajibeyov
"Az?rbaycan Dövl?t Himni"
 Bahamas "March On, Bahamaland"[a] 1973 Timothy Gibson Timothy Gibson
"March On, Bahamaland"
 Bahrain "Bahrainona"
("Our Bahrain")
1971 Mohamed Sudqi Ayyash unknown
"Our Bahrain"
 Bangladesh "Amar Shonar Bangla"
("My Golden Bengal")
1972 Rabindranath Tagore Samar Das
"Amar Shonar Bangla"
 Barbados "In Plenty and In Time of Need" 1966 Irving Burgie C. Van Roland Edwards
"In Plenty and In Time of Need"
 Belarus "My Belarusy"
("We, the Belarusians")[b]
1955 Michael Klimovich Nestar Sakalowski
"My Belarusy"
 Belgium The "Brabançonne" 1830 Jenneval (Louis-Alexandre Dechet) François Van Campenhout
"The Brabançonne"
 Belize "Land of the Free" 1981 Samuel Alfred Haynes Selwyn Walford Young
"Land of the Free"
 Benin "L'Aube Nouvelle"
("The Dawn of a New Day")
1960 Gilbert Jean Dagnon Gilbert Jean Dagnon
"L'Aube Nouvelle"
 Bhutan "Druk tsendhen"
("The Thunder Dragon Kingdom")
1953 Dasho Gyaldun Thinley Aku Tongmi
"Druk tsendhen"
 Bolivia "Himno Nacional de Bolivia"
("National Anthem of Bolivia")
1852 José Ignacio de Sanjinés Leopoldo Benedetto Vincenti
"Himno Nacional de Bolivia"
 Bosnia and Herzegovina "Dr?avna himna Bosne i Hercegovine"
("The National Anthem of Bosnia and Herzegovina")
1999 Awaiting official approval Du?an ?esti? [46]
 Botswana "Fatshe leno la rona"
("Blessed Be This Noble Land")
1966 Kgalemang Tumedisco Motsete Kgalemang Tumedisco Motsete
"Fatshe leno la rona"
 Brazil "Hino Nacional Brasileiro"
("Brazilian National Anthem")
1831 Joaquim Osório Duque Estrada Francisco Manuel da Silva
"Hino Nacional Brasileiro"
 Brunei "Allah Peliharakan Sultan"
("God Bless the Sultan")
1951 Pengiran Haji Mohamed Yusuf bin Abdul Rahim Besar bin Sagap
"Allah Peliharakan Sultan"
 Bulgaria "Mila Rodino"
("Dear Motherland")
1964 Tsvetan Radoslavov Tsvetan Radoslavov
"Mila Rodino"
 Burkina Faso "Une Seule Nuit"
("One Single Night")
1984 Thomas Sankara Thomas Sankara
"Une Seule Nuit"
 Burundi "Burundi Bwacu"
("Our Burundi")
1962 Jean-Baptiste Ntahokaja and others Marc Barengayabo
"Burundi Bwacu"
 Cambodia "Nokor Reach"
("Royal Kingdom")
1941 Samdach Chuon Nat F. Perruchot and J. Jekyll
 Cameroon "O Cameroun, Berceau de nos Ancêtres"
("O Cameroon, Cradle of Our Forefathers")
1957 René Djam Afame, Samuel Minkio Bamba, Moïse Nyatte Nko'o (French),
Dr Bernard Fonlon (English)
René Djam Afame
"O Cameroun, Berceau de nos Ancêtres"
 Canada "Ô Canada"
("O Canada")[a]
1980 Adolphe-Basile Routhier (French);
Robert Stanley Weir (English)
Calixa Lavallée
"O Canada"
 Cape Verde "Cântico da Liberdade"
("Song of Freedom")
1996 Amílcar Spencer Lopes Adalberto Higino Tavares Silva
"Cântico da Liberdade"
 Central African Republic "La Renaissance"
("The Rebirth")
1960 Barthélémy Boganda Herbert Pepper [fr]
"La Renaissance"
 Chad "La Tchadienne"
("People of Chad")
1960 Louis Gidrol and others Paul Villard
"La Tchadienne"
 Chile "Himno Nacional de Chile"
("National Anthem of Chile")
1941 Eusebio Lillo Ramón Carnicer
"Himno Nacional de Chile"
 China "Yìy?ngj?n Jìnxíngq?"
("March of the Volunteers")
1949 (provisional)
1982 (official)
2004 (constitutional)
Tian Han Nie Er
"Yìy?ngj?n Jìnxíngq?"
 Colombia "Himno Nacional de la República de Colombia"
("National Anthem of the Republic of Colombia")
1886 Rafael Núñez Oreste Sindici
"Himno Nacional de la República de Colombia"
 Comoros "Udzima wa ya Masiwa"
("The Union of the Great Islands")
1978 Said Hachim Sidi Abderemane Said Hachim Sidi Abderemane and Kamildine Abdallah
"Udzima wa ya Masiwa"
 Democratic Republic of the Congo "Debout Congolais"
("Arise Congolese")
1960, 1997 Joseph Lutumba Simon-Pierre Boka di Mpasi Londi
"Debout Congolais"
 Republic of the Congo "La Congolaise"
("The Congolese")
1959, 1991 Jacques Tondra and Georges Kibanghi Jean Royer and Joseph Spadilière
"La Congolaise"
 Costa Rica "Himno Nacional de Costa Rica"
("National Anthem of Costa Rica")
1853 José María Zeledón Brenes Manuel María Gutiérrez
"Himno Nacional de Costa Rica"
 Croatia "Lijepa na?a domovino"
("Our Beautiful Homeland")[c]
1972 Antun Mihanovi? Josip Runjanin
"Lijepa na?a domovino"
 Cuba "El Himno de Bayamo"
("The Anthem of Bayamo")
1902 Perucho Figueredo Perucho Figueredo
"El Himno de Bayamo"
 Cyprus "Ýmnos eis t?n Eleutherían"
("Hymn to Liberty")[d][e]
1960 Dionýsios Solomós Nikolaos Mantzaros
"Ýmnos eis t?n Eleutherían"
 Czech Republic "Kde domov m?j"
("Where My Home is")[f]
1918 Josef Kajetán Tyl Franti?ek ?kroup
"Kde domov m?j"
 Denmark "Kong Christian stod ved højen mast"
("King Christian stood by the lofty mast")[g]
1780 Johannes Ewald Unknown
"Kong Christian stod ved højen mast"
 Djibouti "Djibouti" 1977 Aden Elmi Abdi Robleh
 Dominica "Isle of Beauty, Isle of Splendour" 1978 Wilfred Oscar Morgan Pond Lemuel McPherson Christian
"Isle of Beauty, Isle of Splendour"
 Dominican Republic "Himno Nacional"
("National Anthem")
1934 Emilio Prud'Homme José Rufino Reyes y Siancas
"Himno Nacional"
 East Timor "Pátria"
2002 Francisco Borja da Costa Afonso de Araujo
 Ecuador "Salve, Oh Patria"
("We Salute You, Our Homeland")
1948 Juan León Mera Antonio Neumane
"Salve, Oh Patria"
 Egypt "Bilady, Bilady, Bilady"
("My Country, My Country, My Country")
1979 Mohamed Younis Al-Qady
(adapted from a speech by
Mustafa Kamil)
Sayed Darwish
"Bilady, Bilady, Bilady"
 El Salvador "Himno Nacional de El Salvador"
("National Anthem of El Salvador")
1879 Juan José Cañas Juan Aberle
"Himno Nacional de El Salvador"
 Equatorial Guinea "Caminemos pisando las sendas de nuestra inmensa felicidad"
("Let Us Tread the Path of our Immense Happiness")
1968 Atanasio Ndongo Miyone Ramiro Sánchez Lopes
"Caminemos pisando las sendas de nuestra inmensa felicidad"
 Eritrea "Ertra, Ertra, Ertra"
("Eritrea, Eritrea, Eritrea")
1993 Solomon Tsehaye Beraki Isaac Abraham Meharezghi and Aron Tekle Tesfatsion
"Ertra, Ertra, Ertra"
 Estonia "Mu isamaa, mu õnn ja rõõm"
("My Fatherland, My Happiness and Joy")
1920 Johann Voldemar Jannsen Fredrik Pacius
"Mu isamaa, mu õnn ja rõõm"
 Eswatini "Nkulunkulu Mnikati wetibusiso temaSwati"
("O Lord our God of the Swazi")
1968 Andrease Enoke Fanyana Simelane David Kenneth Rycroft
"Nkulunkulu Mnikati wetibusiso temaSwati"
 Ethiopia "Wodefit Gesgeshi, Widd Innat Ityopp'ya"
("March Forward, Dear Mother Ethiopia")
1992 Dereje Melaku Mengesha Solomon Lulu Mitiku
"Wodefit Gesgeshi, Widd Innat Ityopp'ya"
 Fiji "Meda Dau Doka"
("God Bless Fiji")
1970 Michael Francis Alexander Prescott Charles Austin Miles
"Meda Dau Doka"
 Finland Swedish: "Vårt Land"
("Our Land")
1917 Johan Ludvig Runeberg (Swedish)
Paavo Cajander (Finnish)
Fredrik Pacius
 France "La Marseillaise"
("The Marseillaise")
1795 Claude Joseph Rouget de Lisle Claude Joseph Rouget de Lisle
"La Marseillaise"
 Gabon "La Concorde"
1960 Georges Aleka Damas Georges Aleka Damas
"La Concorde"
 The Gambia "For The Gambia Our Homeland" 1965 Virginia Julie Howe Jeremy Frederick Howe
"For The Gambia Our Homeland"
 Georgia "Tavisupleba"
2004 David Magradze Zakaria Paliashvili
 Germany "Lied der Deutschen"
("Song of the Germans")[h]
1922 August Heinrich Hoffmann von Fallersleben Joseph Haydn
"Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit"
 Ghana "God Bless Our Homeland Ghana" 1957 Michael Kwame Gbordzoe Philip Gbeho
"God Bless Our Homeland Ghana"
 Greece "Ýmnos eis t?n Eleutherían"
("Hymn to Liberty" or "Hymn to Freedom")[d]
1865 Dionýsios Solomós Nikolaos Mantzaros
"Ýmnos eis t?n Eleutherían"
 Grenada "Hail Grenada" 1974 Irva Merle Baptiste Louis Arnold Masanto
"Hail Grenada"
 Guatemala "Himno Nacional de Guatemala"
("National Anthem of Guatemala")
1896 José Joaquín Palma Rafael Álvarez Ovalle
"Himno Nacional de Guatemala"
 Guinea "Liberté"
1958 Unknown Kodofo Moussa
 Guinea-Bissau "Esta É a Nossa Pátria Bem Amada"
("This Is Our Beloved Country")
1974 Amílcar Cabral Xiao He
"Esta É a Nossa Pátria Bem Amada"
 Guyana "Dear Land of Guyana, of Rivers and Plains" 1966 Archibald Leonard Luker Robert Cyril Gladstone Potter
"Dear Land of Guyana, of Rivers and Plains"
 Haiti "La Dessalinienne"
("Song of Dessalines")
1904 Justin Lhérisson Nicolas Geffrard
"La Dessalinienne"
 Honduras "Himno Nacional de Honduras"
("National Anthem of Honduras")
1915 Augusto Constancio Coello Carlos Hartling
"Himno Nacional de Honduras"
 Hungary "Himnusz"
1989 Ferenc Kölcsey Ferenc Erkel
 Iceland "Lofsöngur"
1944 Matthías Jochumsson Sveinbjörn Sveinbjörnsson
 India "Jana Gana Mana"
("Hail the ruler of all minds")
1950 Rabindranath Tagore Rabindranath Tagore
"Jana Gana Mana"
 Indonesia "Indonesia Raya"
("Great Indonesia")
1945 Wage Rudolf Soepratman Wage Rudolf Soepratman
"Indonesia Raya"
 Iran "Soroud-e Melli-e Jomhouri-e Eslami-e Iran"
("National Anthem of Iran")
1990 multiple Hassan Riyahi
"Mehre Khâvarân"
 Iraq "Mawtini" ("My Homeland") 2004 Ibrahim Touqan Mohammed Flayfel
 Ireland "Amhrán na bhFiann"
("The Soldier's Song")
1926 Peadar Kearney (English)
Liam Ó Rinn (Irish)
Peadar Kearney and Patrick Heeney
"Amhrán na bhFiann"
 Israel "HaTikvah"
("The Hope")
2004 Naftali Herz Imber Samuel Cohen
 Italy "Il Canto degli Italiani"
("The Song of the Italians")
2017 Goffredo Mameli Michele Novaro
"Il Canto degli Italiani"
 Ivory Coast "L'Abidjanaise"
("Song of Abidjan")
1960 Mathieu Vangah Ekra [fr], Joachim Bony
and Pierre Marie Coty
Pierre-Michel Pango [fr]
 Jamaica "Jamaica, Land We Love"[a] 1962 Hugh Sherlock Robert Lightbourne
"Jamaica, Land We Love"
 Japan "Kimigayo"
("His Majesty's Reign")[109]
1999 Traditional Waka poem from the Kokin Wakash? (first published in 905) Yoshiisa Oku and Akimori Hayashi; usually credited to Hiromori Hayashi
"Kimi ga Yo"
 Jordan "Al-salam Al-malaki Al-urdoni"
("The Royal Anthem of Jordan")
1946 Abdul Monem Al-Refai Abdul Qader al-Taneer
"Al-salam Al-malaki Al-urdoni"
 Kazakhstan "Meniñ Qazaqstan?m"
("My Kazakhstan")
2006 Zhumeken Nazhimedenov
(with modifications by
Nursultan Nazarbayev)
Shamshi Kaldayakov
"Meniñ Qazaqstan?m"
 Kenya "Ee Mungu Nguvu Yetu"
("Oh God of All Creation")
1963 Graham Hyslop, G. W. Senoga-Zake, Thomas Kalume, Peter Kibukosya, and Washington Omondi The Anthem Commission
"Ee Mungu Nguvu Yetu"
 Kiribati "Teirake Kaini Kiribati"
("Stand up, Kiribati")
1979 Urium Tamuera Ioteba Urium Tamuera Ioteba
"Teirake Kaini Kiribati"
 North Korea "Aegukka"
("The Patriotic Song")
1947 Pak Sey?ng Kim W?n'gyun
 South Korea "Aegukga"
("The Patriotic Song")
1948 An Chang-ho Ahn Eak-tae
 Kuwait "Al-Nasheed Al-Watani"
("National Anthem")
1978 Ahmad Meshari Al-Adwani Ibrahim Al-Soula
"Al-Nasheed Al-Watani"
 Kyrgyzstan "Kyrgyz Respublikasynyn Mamlekettik Gimni"
("National Anthem of the Kyrgyz Republic")
1992 Djamil Sadykov and Eshmambet Kuluev Nasyr Davlesov and Kalyi Moldobasanov
"Kyrgyz Respublikasynyn Mamlekettik Gimni"
 Laos "Pheng Xat Lao"
("Hymn of the Lao People")
1947 Sisana Sisane Thongdy Sounthonevichit
"Pheng Xat Lao"
 Latvia "Dievs, sv?t? Latviju!"
("God Bless Latvia")
1920 K?rlis Baumanis K?rlis Baumanis
"Dievs, sv?t? Latviju!"
 Lebanon "Lebanese National Anthem" 1927 Rashid Nakhle Wadih Sabra
"Lebanese National Anthem"
 Lesotho "Lesotho Fat?e La Bontata Rona"
("Lesotho, Land of Our Fathers")
1966 François Coillard Ferdinand-Samuel Laur
"Lesotho Fat?e La Bontata Rona"
 Liberia "All Hail, Liberia, Hail!" 1847 Daniel Bashiel Warner Olmstead Luca
"All Hail, Liberia, Hail!"
 Libya "Libya, Libya, Libya" 2011 Al Bashir Al Arebi Mohammed Abdel Wahab
"Libya, Libya, Libya!"
 Liechtenstein "Oben am jungen Rhein"
("High on the young Rhine")
1963 Jakob Josef Jauch unknown
"Oben am jungen Rhein"
 Lithuania "Tauti?ka giesm?"
("National Song")
1919 Vincas Kudirka Vincas Kudirka
"Tauti?ka giesm?"
 Luxembourg "Ons Heemecht"
("Our Homeland")
1993 Michel Lentz Jean Antoine Zinnen
"Ons Hémécht"
 Madagascar "Ry Tanindrazanay malala ô!"
("Oh, Beloved Land of our Ancestors")
1958 Pastor Rahajason Norbert Raharisoa
"Ry Tanindrazanay malala ô!"
 Malawi "Mulungu dalitsa Mala?i"
("God Bless Malawi")
1964 Michael-Fredrick Paul Sauka Michael-Fredrick Paul Sauka
"Mulungu dalitsa Mala?i"
 Malaysia "Negaraku"
("My Country")
1957 multiple Pierre-Jean de Béranger
 Maldives "Gaumii salaam"
("National Salute")
1972 Muhammad Jameel Didi Pandit Wannakuwattawaduge Don Amaradeva
"Gaumii salaam"
 Mali "Le Mali"
1962 Seydou Badian Kouyate Banzumana Sissoko
"Le Mali"
 Malta "L-Innu Malti"
("The Maltese Hymn")
1964 Dun Karm Psaila Robert Samut
"L-Innu Malti"
 Marshall Islands "Forever Marshall Islands" 1991 Amata Kabua Amata Kabua
"Forever Marshall Islands"
 Mauritania "Bilada-l ubati-l hudati-l kiram"
("Country of the Proud, Guiding Noblemen")
2017 unknown Rageh Daoud
"Bilada-l ubati-l hudati-l kiram"
 Mauritius "Motherland" 1968 Jean Georges Prosper Philippe Gentil (M.B.E. Esq.)
 Mexico "Himno Nacional Mexicano"
("Mexican National Anthem")
1943 Francisco González Bocanegra Jaime Nunó
"Himno Nacional Mexicano"
 Micronesia "Patriots of Micronesia" 1991 unknown Traditional German song (Ich hab' mich ergeben)
"Patriots of Micronesia"
 Moldova "Limba noastr?"
("Our Language")
1994 Alexei Mateevici Alexandru Cristea
"Limba noastr?"
 Monaco "Hymne Monégasque"
("Monégasque Anthem")
1848 Louis Notari Charles Albrecht
"Hymne Monégasque"
 Mongolia "Mongol ulsiin töriin duulal"
("National Anthem of Mongolia")
1950 Tsendiin Damdinsüren Bilegiin Damdinsüren and Luvsanjambyn Mördorj
"Mongol ulsiin töriin duulal"
 Montenegro "Oj, svijetla majska zoro"
("O, Bright Dawn of May")
2004 folk song ?arko Mirkovi?
"Oj, svijetla majska zoro"
 Morocco "Hymne Chérifien"
("Cherifian Anthem")
1956 Ali Squalli Houssaini Léo Morgan
"Hymne Chérifien"
 Mozambique "Pátria Amada"
(Beloved Homeland")
2002 Salomão J. Manhiça and Mia Couto Justino Sigaulane Chemane
"Pátria Amada"
 Myanmar "Kaba Ma Kyei"
("Till the End of the World")
1948 Tsaya Ting Tsaya Ting
"Kaba Ma Kyei"
 Namibia "Namibia, Land of the Brave" 1991 Axali Doëseb Axali Doëseb
"Namibia, Land of the Brave"
 Nauru "Nauru Bwiema"
("Song of Nauru")
1968 Margaret Hendrie Laurence Henry Hicks
   Nepal "Sayaun Thunga Phulka"
("Made of Hundreds of Flowers")
2007 Byakul Maila Amber Gurung
"Sayaun Thunga Phulka"
 Netherlands "Wilhelmus"
1932 Philips of Marnix, or Dirck Coornhert or Petrus Dathenus Adrianus Valerius
"The Wilhelmus"
 New Zealand "God Defend New Zealand"[a] 1940 (national hymn)
1977 (national anthem)
Thomas Bracken (English version)
Thomas H. Smith (M?ori version)[i]
John Joseph Woods[i]
"God Defend New Zealand"
 Nicaragua "Salve a ti, Nicaragua"
("Hail to Thee, Nicaragua")
1918 Salomón Ibarra Mayorga Luis A. Delgadillo
"Salve a ti, Nicaragua"
 Niger "La Nigérienne"
("The Nigerien")
1961 Maurice Albert Thiriet Robert Jacquet and Nicolas Abel François Frionnet
"La Nigérienne"
 Nigeria "Arise, O Compatriots" 1978 John A. Ilechukwu, Eme Etim Akpan, B. A. Ogunnaike, Sotu Omoigui, and P. O. Aderibighe Nigerian Police Band, under the directorship of B. E. Odiase
"Arise O compatriots, Nigeria's Call Obey"
 North Macedonia "Denes nad Makedonija"
("Today Over Macedonia")
1992 Vlado Maleski Todor Skalovski
"Denes nad Makedonija"
 Norway "Ja, vi elsker dette landet"
("Yes, We Love This Country")[j]
2019[k] Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson Rikard Nordraak
"Ja, vi elsker dette landet"
 Oman "Nashid as-Salaam as-Sultani"{"Sultanic Salute")
1932 Rashid bin Uzayyiz Al Khusaidi James Frederick Mills, arranged by Bernard Ebbinghaus
"Nashid as-Salaam as-Sultani"
 Pakistan "Qaum? Tar?na"
("National Anthem")
1954 Hafeez Jullundhri Ahmed Ghulamali Chagla
"Qaum? Tar?na"
 Palau "Belau rekid"
("Our Palau")
1980 multiple Ymesei O. Ezekiel
"Belau rekid"
 Palestine "Fida'i"
("My Country")
1996 Said Al Muzayin Ali Ismael
 Panama "Himno Istmeño"
("Hymn of the Isthmus")
1925 Jeronimo de la Ossa Santos Jorge
"Himno Istmeño"
 Papua New Guinea "O Arise, All You Sons"[a] 1975 Tom Shacklady Tom Shacklady
"O Arise, All You Sons"
 Paraguay "Himno Nacional Paraguayo"
("Paraguayan National Anthem")
1933 Francisco Acuña de Figueroa Francisco José Debali
"Paraguayos, República o Muerte"
 Peru "Himno Nacional del Perú"
("National Anthem of Peru")
1821 José de la Torre Ugarte y Alarcón Jose Bernardo Alcedo
"Himno Nacional del Perú"
 Philippines "Lupang Hinirang"
("Chosen Land")
1898 José Palma Julián Felipe
"Lupang Hinirang"
 Poland "Mazurek D?browskiego"
("Poland Is Not Yet Lost")[l]
1926 Józef Wybicki unknown
"Mazurek D?browskiego"
 Portugal "A Portuguesa"
("The Portuguese")
1911 Henrique Lopes de Mendonça Alfredo Keil
"A Portuguesa"
 Qatar "As Salam al Amiri"
("Peace to the Amir")
1996 Sheikh Mubarak bin Saïf al-Thani Abdul Aziz Nasser Obaidan
"As Salam Al Amiri"
 Romania "De?teapt?-te, române!"
("Awaken Thee, Romanian!")
1990 Andrei Mure?anu Anton Pann and Gheorghe Ucenescu
"De?teapt?-te, române!"
 Russia "Gosudarstvenny Gimn Rossiyskoy Federatsii"
("State Hymn of the Russian Federation")
2000 Sergey Mikhalkov Alexander Vasilyevich Alexandrov
"Gosudarstvenny Gimn Rossiyskoy Federatsii"
 Rwanda "Rwanda Nziza"
("Beautiful Rwanda")
2002 Faustin Murigo Jean-Bosco Hashakimana
"Rwanda Nziza"
 Saint Kitts and Nevis "O Land of Beauty!"[a] 1983 Kenrick Georges Kenrick Georges
"O Land of Beauty!"
 Saint Lucia "Sons and Daughters of Saint Lucia" 1979 Charles Jesse Leton Felix Thomas
"Sons and Daughters of Saint Lucia"
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines "Saint Vincent, Land so beautiful" 1979 Phyllis Punnett Joel Bertram Miguel
"Saint Vincent, Land so Beautiful"
 Samoa "The Banner of Freedom" 1962 Sauni Iiga Kuresa Sauni Iiga Kuresa
 San Marino "Inno Nazionale della Repubblica"
("The National Anthem of the Republic")
1894 No official lyrics Federico Consolo
"Inno Nazionale della Repubblica"
 São Tomé and Príncipe "Independência total"
("Total Independence")
1975 Alda Neves da Graça do Espírito Santo Manuel dos Santos Barreto de Sousa e Almeida
"Independência total"
 Saudi Arabia "As-Salam Al Malaki"
("The Royal Salute")
1950 Ibrahim Khafaji Abdul Rahman Al-Khateeb
"As-Salam Al Malaki"
 Senegal "Pincez Tous vos Koras, Frappez les Balafons"
("Strum your Koras, Strike the Balafons")
1960 Léopold Sédar Senghor Herbert Pepper [fr]
"Pincez Tous vos Koras, Frappez les Balafons"
 Serbia "Bo?e pravde"
("God of Justice")
2006 Jovan ?or?evi? Davorin Jenko
"Bo?e pravde"
 Seychelles "Koste Seselwa"
("Join together all Seychellois")
1996 David François Marc André and George Charles Robert Payet David François Marc André and George Charles Robert Payet
"Koste Seselwa"
 Sierra Leone "High We Exalt Thee, Realm of the Free" 1961 Clifford Nelson Fyle John Akar
"High We Exalt Thee, Realm of the Free"
 Singapore "Majulah Singapura"
("Onward Singapore")
1965 Zubir Said Zubir Said
"Majulah Singapura"
 Slovakia "Nad Tatrou sa blýska"
("Lightning Over the Tatras")[f]
1918 Janko Matú?ka folk tune
"Nad Tatrou sa blýska"
 Slovenia "Zdravljica"
("A Toast")[m]
1989 France Pre?eren Stanko Premrl
 Solomon Islands "God Save Our Solomon Islands"[a] 1978 Panapasa Balekana and Matila Balekana Panapasa Balekana
 Somalia "Qolobaa Calankeed"
("Praise to the Flag")
2012 Abdullahi Qarshe Abdullahi Qarshe
"Qolobaa Calankeed"
 South Africa "National anthem of South Africa"[n] 1997 Enoch Sontonga and C. J. Langenhoven Enoch Sontonga and Marthinus Lourens de Villiers
"National Anthem of South Africa"
 South Sudan "South Sudan Oyee!" 2011 Students and teachers of Juba University, 2011[116] Students and teachers of Juba University, 2011[116]
"South Sudan Oyee!"
 Spain "La Marcha Real"
("The Royal March")
none unknown
"La Marcha Real"
 Sri Lanka "Sri Lanka Matha"
("Mother Sri Lanka")
1951 Ananda Samarakoon Ananda Samarakoon
"Sri Lanka Matha"
 Sudan "Nahnu Jund Allah Jund Al-watan"
("We Are the Army of God and of Our Land")
1956 Sayyed Ahmed Mohammed Salih Ahmad Murjan
"Nahnu Jund Allah Jund Al-watan"
 Suriname "God zij met ons Suriname"
("God Be With Our Suriname")
1959 Cornelis Atses Hoekstra and Henry de Ziel Johannes Corstianus de Puy
"God zij met ons Suriname"
 Sweden "Du gamla, Du fria"
("Thou Ancient, Thou Free")[p]
Richard Dybeck folk tune
"Du gamla, Du fria"
  Switzerland "Schweizerpsalm"
("Swiss Psalm")
1981 Leonhard Widmer (German),
Charles Chatelanat (French),
Camillo Valsangiacomo (Italian),
and Flurin Camathias (Romansch)
Alberich Zwyssig
 Syria "Hum?t ad-Diy?r"
("Guardians of the Homeland")
1936 Khalil Mardam Bey Mohammed Flayfel and Ahmad Salim Flayfel
"Hum?t ad-Diy?r"
 Tajikistan "Surudi Milli"
("National Anthem")
1991 Gulnazar Keldi Suleiman Yudakov
"Surudi Milli"
 Tanzania "Mungu ibariki Afrika"
("God Bless Africa")
1961 collectively Enoch Sontonga
"Mungu ibariki Afrika"
 Thailand "Phleng Chat"
("National Song")[q]
1939 Luang Saranupraphan Peter Feit
"Phleng Chat"
 Togo "Salut à toi, pays de nos aïeux"
("Hail to Thee, Land of our Forefathers")
1960 Alex Casimir-Dosseh Alex Casimir-Dosseh
"Salut à toi, pays de nos aïeux"
 Tonga "Ko e fasi ʻo e tuʻi ʻo e ʻOtu Tonga"
("Song of the King of the Tonga Islands")
1875 Uelingatoni Ng? Tupoumalohi Carl Gustav Schmitt
"Ko e fasi ?o e tu?i ?o e ?Otu Tonga"
 Trinidad and Tobago "Forged from the Love of Liberty" 1962 Patrick Castagne Patrick Castagne
"Forged from the Love of Liberty"
 Tunisia "Humat al-Hima"
("Defenders of the Homeland")
1987 Mustafa Sadiq Al-Rafi'i and Aboul-Qacem Echebbi Mohammed Abdel Wahab
"Humat al-Hima"
 Turkey "?stiklâl Mar"
("The March of Independence")
1921 Mehmet Akif Ersoy Osman Zeki Üngör
"?stiklâl Mar"
 Turkmenistan "Gara?syz, Bitarap Türkmenistany? Döwlet Gimni"
("The State Anthem of Independent and Neutral Turkmenistan")
2008 collectively Veli Mukhatov
"Türkmenba?y? guran beýik binasy"
 Tuvalu "Tuvalu mo te Atua"
("Tuvalu for the Almighty")[a]
1978 Afaese Manoa Afaese Manoa
 Uganda "Oh Uganda, Land of Beauty" 1962 George Wilberforce Kakoma George Wilberforce Kakoma
"Oh Uganda, Land of Beauty"
 Ukraine "Shche ne vmerla Ukraina"
("Ukraine's Glory Has Not Perished")
1917 Pavlo Chubynsky Mykhaylo Verbytsky
"Shche ne vmerla Ukrainy"
 United Arab Emirates "Ishy Biladi"
("Long Live my Homeland")
1971 Arif Al Sheikh Abdullah Al Hassan Saad Abdel Wahab
"Ishy Biladi"
 United Kingdom "God Save the Queen" Henry Carey unknown
"God Save the Queen"
 United States "The Star-Spangled Banner" 1931 Francis Scott Key John Stafford Smith
"The Star-Spangled Banner"
 Uruguay "Himno Nacional"
("National Anthem")
1848 Francisco Acuña de Figueroa Francisco José Debali
"Himno Nacional"
 Uzbekistan "O`zbekiston Respublikasining Davlat Madhiyasi"
("National Anthem of the Republic of Uzbekistan")
1991 Abdulla Aripov Mutal Burhanov
"O`zbekiston Respublikasining Davlat Madhiyasi"
 Vanuatu "Yumi, Yumi, Yumi"
("We, We, We")
1980 François Vincent Ayssav François Vincent Ayssav
"Yumi, Yumi, Yumi"
  Vatican City "Marche Pontificale"
("Pontifical Anthem and March")
1949 Antonio Allegra Charles Gounod
"Marche Pontificale"
 Venezuela "Gloria al Bravo Pueblo"
("Glory to the Brave People")
1881 Vicente Salias Juan José Landaeta
"Gloria al Bravo Pueblo"
 Vietnam "Ti?n Quân Ca"
("Marching Song")
1945 V?n Cao V?n Cao
"Ti?n Quân Ca"
 Yemen "National anthem of Yemen" 1990 Abdallah Abdulwahab Noman Ayoob Tarish
"National anthem of Yemen"
 Zambia "Stand and Sing of Zambia, Proud and Free" 1964 collectively Enoch Sontonga
"National anthem of Zambia"
 Zimbabwe "Simudzai Mureza WeZimbabwe"
("O Lift High the Banner of Zimbabwe")
1994 Solomon Mutswairo Fred Changundega
"Blessed be the land of Zimbabwe"

Anthems of partially recognized states and territories

This table includes anthems of de facto sovereign states which are not members or observers of the United Nations. Many of them have received little or no recognition from the international community; some are widely considered to be part of one of the countries listed above.

Note: This list is for those who have declared independence and are partially recognized.

Territory Territorial anthem Date adopted Lyricist Officially known as Composer Audio Ref.
 Abkhazia "Aiaaira"
1992 Genady Alamiya "State Anthem of the Republic of Abkhazia" Valera Çkaduwa
 Artsakh "Azat u ankakh Artsakh"
("Free and independent Artsakh")
1992 Vardan Hakobyan "Unofficial State Anthem of the Republic of Artsakh" Armen Nasibyan
"Azat u anakh Artsakh"
 Kosovo "Europe" 2008 No lyrics "State Anthem of the Republic of Kosovo" Mendi Mengjiqi
 Northern Cyprus "?stiklâl Mar"
("Independence March")
1921 Mehmet Akif Ersoy "The Turkish Cypriot State Anthem" Zeki Üngör
"?stiklâl Mar"
 Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic "Y? Ban?y As-Sahar?"
("O Sons of the Sahara")
1979 unknown "Western Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republican Anthem" unknown
"Ya Baniy As-Sahara"
 Somaliland "Samo ku waar" 1991 Hassan Sheikh Mumin "Somaliland" Hassan Sheikh Mumin
"Samo ku waar"
 South Ossetia "Respublikæ Hussar Irystony Paddzahadon Gimn"
("National Anthem of South Ossetia")
1995 Totraz Kokaev "Respwlikæ Hwßar ?risân? Pa?zahadân ?im?" Felix Alborov
 Taiwan "San Min Chu-i"
("Three Principles of the People")[r]
1937 (de facto)
1943 (de jure)
Sun Yat-sen "National Anthem of the Republic of China"[s] Ch'eng Mao-yün
"San Min Chu I"
 Transnistria "My slavim tebia, Pridnestrovie"
("We glorify you, Pridnestrovie")
1992 Boris Parmenov, Vitaly Pishenko, Nicholas Bozhko "M? slavim tebia Prîdnestrâvi?" Boris Alexandrov
"My slavim tebia"

National anthems by key

National anthems by key
Key Countries
A major Equatorial Guinea, South Korea, Kyrgyzstan
A minor Bulgaria, Japan, Kenya, Tajikistan
A? major Algeria, Bangladesh, Burundi, Eswatini, Lithuania, Malaysia, Mongolia, Myanmar, Rwanda, San Marino, Trinidad and Tobago
B? major Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Benin, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Cameroon, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Fiji, Grenada, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Ireland, Jamaica, Kiribati, Kuwait, Lesotho, Liberia, Madagascar, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Serbia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, Tuvalu, United States, Vanuatu, Vietnam
C major Angola, Chile, Colombia, Croatia, Dominica, East Timor, Ethiopia, Gambia, Jordan, North Korea, Luxembourg, North Macedonia, Marshall Islands, Mexico, Namibia, Panama, Russia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Spain, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Togo, Uruguay, Yemen
C? major Cape Verde, Pakistan
D major Bahamas, Bahrain, Denmark, El Salvador, Eritrea, Estonia, Finland, Mauritius, Nicaragua, Seychelles, Sudan
D minor Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan
D? major Haiti, Norway
E major Bhutan, Ecuador, Iceland, Libya
E minor Iraq, Israel, Romania
E? major Afghanistan, Austria, Canada, Costa Rica, Cuba, Czech Republic, Dominican Republic, Germany, Hungary, India, Mauritania, Palau, Portugal, São Tomé and Príncipe, Senegal, South Sudan, Suriname
F major Armenia, Belarus, Belize, Brunei, Burkina Faso, Chad, Comoros, Republic of the Congo, Cyprus, Djibouti, Egypt, Gabon, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Laos, Malawi, Maldives, Malta, Federated States of Micronesia, Moldova, Nauru, Niger, Nigeria, Palestine, Paraguay, Peru, Poland, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Somalia, Syria, Tanzania, Tonga, Tunisia, Turkmenistan, United Arab Emirates, Vatican City, Venezuela, Western Sahara
F? major Ivory Coast, Uganda
G major Albania, Andorra, Barbados, China, France, Indonesia, Iran, Kosovo, Latvia, Lebanon, Mali, Monaco, Mozambique, Netherlands, New Zealand, Oman, Qatar, Sierra Leone, Solomon Islands, Ukraine, United Kingdom, Uzbekistan, Zambia, Zimbabwe
G minor Cambodia, Nepal, Slovakia, Turkey
Any key or
mixed keys
Brazil, Central African Republic, Georgia, Honduras, Italy, Montenegro, Morocco, Philippines, South Africa

See also


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "God Save the Queen" is the royal anthem of Antigua and Barbuda, Australia, the Bahamas, Canada, Jamaica, Papua New Guinea, Saint Kitts and Nevis, the Solomon Islands, and Tuvalu, and one of New Zealand's two national anthems.
  2. ^ "My Belarusy" was originally adopted by the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic.
  3. ^ "Lijepa na?a domovino" was originally adopted by the Socialist Republic of Croatia.
  4. ^ a b "Hymn to Liberty" or "Hymn to Freedom" is the national anthem of both Cyprus and Greece.
  5. ^ By the power of the Constitution of Cyprus, the Turkish national anthem "?stiklâl Mar" was used when a Turkish Cypriot representative was present. The practice lasted up to 1963.
  6. ^ a b Originally adopted by Czechoslovakia as a part of its hymn in 1918 (together with Slovak "Nad Tatrou sa blýska"), and latter in 1993 by the Czech Republic (already without the Slovak part).
  7. ^ "Der er et yndigt land" ("There is a lovely country") is the second national anthem of Denmark. Both anthems have equal status.
  8. ^ Also known as "Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit" ("Unity and justice and freedom"); only the third stanza of the song is the official national anthem.
  9. ^ a b c d This refers to "God Defend New Zealand", not "God Save the Queen".
  10. ^ Until the early 20th century, "Sønner av Norge" was the most recognised national anthem of Norway. Also "Norges Skaal" and "Mitt lille land" have at times been described as national anthems. Norway's unofficial royal anthem is "Kongesangen".
  11. ^ "Ja, vi elsker dette landet" was first performed in 1864, but only gradually came to replace the older national anthem "Sønner av Norge" as de facto national anthem. It was adopted as the official national anthem 11 December 2019.
  12. ^ Also known by its incipit: "Jeszcze Polska nie zgina, kiedy my ?yjemy" ("Poland Is Not Yet Lost, So long as we still live").
  13. ^ "Zdravljica" was originally adopted by the Socialist Republic of Slovenia. Only the seventh stanza of the song is used as the national anthem.
  14. ^ The "National Anthem of South Africa" is a hybrid of "Nkosi Sikelel' iAfrika" ("God Bless Africa") and "Die Stem van Suid-Afrika"
    ("The Call of South Africa").
  15. ^ Declared official "Honor March" by Charles III in 1770, abolished 1820-1823,adopted as official anthem under Isabel II (r. 1833–1868), co-official during 1873-1874 and again abolished 1931-1939. Re-introduced in 1939.
  16. ^ Sweden's royal anthem is "Kungssången".
  17. ^ Thailand's royal anthem is "Phleng Sansoen Phra Barami".
  18. ^ "National Banner Song" is used as the alternate state anthem for Taiwan at international sporting events such as the Olympic Games and World Baseball Classic.
  19. ^ The official state name of Taiwan is the "Republic of China".


  • Bristow, Michael Jamieson (2006-10-28). National Anthems of the World. Cassell. ISBN 0-304-36826-1.
  • Hang, Xing (2003-09-28). Encyclopedia of National Anthems. The Scarecrow Press. ISBN 0-8108-4847-3.
  • Leonard, Hal (1996-01-01). National Anthems from Around the World. Hal Leonard Corporation. ISBN 0-7935-6079-9.
  • "National Anthems of the World". National Anthems of the World. Flagdom. Retrieved 2012.


  1. ^ "Anthem". Lexico Publishing Group. Retrieved .
  2. ^ "National anthem". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2008.
  3. ^ "Royal anthem "God Save The Queen"". Department of Canadian Heritage. Archived from the original on 2008-08-08. Retrieved .
  4. ^ "What are the world's oldest national anthems?". Archived from the original on 2011-12-22. Retrieved .
  5. ^ "The Dutch Royal House". Dutch Royal House. Archived from the original on 2008-02-10. Retrieved .
  6. ^ Japan Policy Research Institute JPRI Working Paper No. 79. Published July 2001. Retrieved July 7, 2007
  7. ^ "Lost for words". The Economist. 2007-07-26. Retrieved .
  8. ^ "'Bird's Nest' Ballads: Olympic National Anthems". NPR. 2008-08-07. Retrieved .
  9. ^ "God Save the King". 15. The Gentleman's Magazine. October 1745: 552. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  10. ^ a b "La Marseillaise". Fordham University. Retrieved .
  11. ^ "Facts and figures". Government of Switzerland. Archived from the original on 2008-06-11. Retrieved .
  12. ^ Ash, Timothy Garton (2008-01-17). "There are great national anthems - now we need an international one". "The Guardian". Retrieved .
  13. ^ "List of Member States". United Nations. Retrieved .
  14. ^ "List of Observer States". United Nations. Archived from the original on 2009-05-09. Retrieved .
  15. ^ "The Constitution of Afghanistan". Retrieved .
  16. ^ "National Anthems of the World" (7th edn), pp. 12-13.
  17. ^ "National Anthems of the World" (7th edn), pp. 14-17.
  18. ^ "National Anthems of the World" (7th edn), pp. 18-21.
  19. ^ "Angola". The World Factbook. CIA. Retrieved 2014.
  20. ^ "Rui Alberto Vieira Dias Mingas". Naxos Records. Retrieved 2014.
  21. ^ Agency, Central Intelligence (2016-11-22). The CIA World Factbook 2017. Skyhorse Publishing, Inc. p. 32. ISBN 9781510712898.
  22. ^ Minahan, James (2009-12-23). The Complete Guide to National Symbols and Emblems [2 Volumes]. ABC-CLIO. p. 658. ISBN 9780313344978.
  23. ^ "Símbolos Nacionales" [National Symbols] (in Spanish). Presidency of the Argentine Nation. Retrieved 2011. La necesidad de tener una canción patriótica, que surgió con la Revolución de Mayo y que el Triunvirato supo comprender, se ve plasmada hoy en el Himno Nacional Argentino, con música de Blas Parera, letra de Vicente López y Planes, y arreglo de Juan P. Esnaola.
  24. ^ Vega, Carlos (1962). El Himno Nacional Argentino [The Argentine National Anthem] (in Spanish). Buenos Aires: Eudeba.
  25. ^ Dowsett, Charles James Frank; Suny, Ronald Grigor (14 March 2017). "Armenia - History". Encyclopedia Britannica. Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc. Retrieved 2017.
  26. ^ Whitlam, G 1973, 'National Anthem', Australia Day Broadcast
  27. ^ "The Australian National Anthem". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Archived from the original on 23 October 2007. Retrieved 2007.
  28. ^ "Parliamentary Handbook of the Commonwealth of Australia - National Symbols". Parliament of Australia. 21 September 2005. Archived from the original on 30 August 2007. Retrieved 2007. (proclamation by Governor-General dated 19 April 1984)
  29. ^ Diederichs, Joachim (2018). "Von wem stammt die Melodie der österreichischen Bundeshymne?" [From whom is the melody of the Austrian national anthem?]. Österreichische Musikzeitschrift (in German). Vienna: Hollitzer Verlag. pp. 79-82. Retrieved 2019., year 73
  30. ^ Bundesgesetzblatt I Nr. 127/2011, 27 December 2011 (in German)
  31. ^ "The National Symbols of the Republic of Azerbaijan". Heydar Aliyev Foundation. Retrieved 2015.
  32. ^ "Az?rbaycan Respublikas?n?n Dövl?t himni haqq?nda" (PDF). Retrieved 2018.
  33. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2003-10-28. Retrieved .CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  34. ^ "Middle East :: Bahrain -- The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency".
  35. ^ Komol, Khalid Hasan (2012). "Das, Samar". In Islam, Sirajul; Jamal, Ahmed A. (eds.). Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
  36. ^ "Central America :: Barbados -- The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency".
  37. ^ "The National Anthem of Belarus". A Belarus Miscellany. 2005. Archived from the original on 2008-10-12.
  38. ^ "? No 350 2 ?i? 2002 ?." (in Belarusian). 2002-07-02. Archived from the original on 2008-03-04.
  39. ^ "Courrier des Pays-Bas: La Brabançonne". Retrieved 2013.
  40. ^ Francis Martens, La Belgique en chantant, pp. 19-40, in Antoine Pickels and Jacques Sojcher (eds.), Belgique: toujours grande et belle, issues 1-2, Éditions Complexe, Brussels, 1998
  41. ^ "Central America :: Belize -- The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency".
  42. ^ "Africa :: Benin -- The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency".
  43. ^ Penjore, Dorji; Kinga, Sonam (2002). The Origin and Description of The National Flag and National Anthem of The Kingdom of Bhutan (PDF). Thimphu: The Centre for Bhutan Studies. p. 14. ISBN 99936-14-01-7. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-23. Retrieved .
  44. ^ Blackwell, Amy Hackney (2009). Independence Days: Holidays and Celebrations. Infobase Publishing. p. 15. ISBN 1-60413-101-2. Retrieved .
  45. ^ "South America :: Bolivia -- The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency".
  46. ^ "Bosnia Anthem Gets Lyrics After 10 Years", Bosnia Insight, February 23, 2009.
  47. ^ "Africa :: Botswana -- The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency".
  48. ^ Antunes, Anderson. "A Brief History Of The Brazilian National Anthem, And Why It Is The Tune Of The World Cup". Forbes.
  49. ^ "East Asia/Southeast Asia :: Brunei -- The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency".
  50. ^ " ? ?". Retrieved 2018.
  51. ^ "Africa :: Burkina Faso -- The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency".
  52. ^ "Africa :: Burundi -- The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency".
  53. ^ "East Asia/Southeast Asia :: Cambodia -- The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency".
  54. ^ "Africa :: Cameroon -- The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency".
  55. ^ Department of Canadian Heritage. "Patrimoine canadien - Hymne national du Canada". Queen's Printer for Canada. Archived from the original on February 26, 2016. Retrieved 2008.
  56. ^ Canada. Parliament, House of Commons. (1964). House of Commons debates, official report. 11. Queen's Printer. p. 11806.
  57. ^ DeRocco, David (2008). From sea to sea to sea : a newcomer's guide to Canada. Full Blast Productions. pp. 121-122. ISBN 978-0-9784738-4-6.
  58. ^ Berg, Tiago José (2012-11-26). Hinos de todos os países do mundo. Panda Books. p. 75. ISBN 9788578881917.
  59. ^ "Africa :: Central African Republic -- The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency".
  60. ^ Zuchora-Walske, Christine (2009-01-01). Chad in Pictures. Twenty-First Century Books. ISBN 9781575059563.
  61. ^ Gobierno de Chile. "Himno Nacional". Archived from the original on 2013-05-25. Retrieved .
  62. ^ [Zh?nghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó Guóg?, "National Anthem of the People's Republic of China"]. State Council of the People's Republic of China (Beijing), 2015. Accessed 21 January 2015. (in Chinese)
  63. ^ "South America :: Colombia -- The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency".
  64. ^ "Africa :: Comoros -- The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency".
  65. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-01-24. Retrieved .CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  66. ^ "Africa :: Congo, Republic of the -- The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency".
  67. ^ "Central America :: Costa Rica -- The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency".
  68. ^ "lijep". Hrvatski jezi?ni portal (in Croatian). Novi Liber / Srce. Retrieved 2016.
  69. ^ "State emblems". Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs (Croatia).
  70. ^ "Symbols of the cuban nation".
  71. ^ "Europe :: Cyprus -- The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency".
  72. ^ "Ro?ník 1993 - Sbírka Zákon? ?eské Republiky" (PDF) (in Czech). Ministry of the Interior of the Czech Republic. 1993. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 May 2011.
  73. ^ Gössel, Gabriel; et al. (2008). Kde domov m?j: státní hymna ?eské republiky v prom?nách doby [The Czech Republic's national anthem down the ages]. Government of the Czech Republic. ISBN 978-80-87041-42-0.
  74. ^ Udenrigsministeriet (6 August 2001). "Instruks for Udenrigstjenesten". Retsinformation. Retrieved 2013.
  75. ^ "NCNA Reports on Djibouti Independence Ceremony". Djibouti: U.S. Foreign Broadcast Information Service. 27 June 1977.
  76. ^ "National Anthem - Government of the Commonwealth of Dominica".
  77. ^ "Central America :: Dominican Republic -- The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency".
  78. ^ "Símbolu Nasionál" (in Tetum). Governul Timor-Leste. Retrieved 2014.
  79. ^ Presidency of Ecuador Archived 2009-06-19 at the Wayback Machine
  80. ^ "Egypt National Anthem". Egypt Cairo. Archived from the original on 2018-10-25. Retrieved .
  81. ^ "Central America :: El Salvador -- The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency".
  82. ^ Cusack, Igor (2005). "African National Anthems: 'Beat the Drums, the Red Lion Has Roared'". Journal of African Cultural Studies. 17 (2): 235-51. doi:10.1080/13696850500448337. JSTOR 4141312.
  83. ^ "Africa :: Eritrea -- The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency".
  84. ^ "The President of the Republic of Estonia: National Symbols". 14 January 2006. Archived from the original on 14 January 2006.
  85. ^ "National anthem of the Republic of Estonia". Translated by Jenny Wahl. Republic of Estonia. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 2019.
  86. ^ "Africa :: Eswatini -- The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency".
  87. ^ Minahan, James (2009). The Complete Guide to National Symbols and Emblems [2 Volumes]. ABC-CLIO. p. 830. ISBN 0313344973. Retrieved 2017.
  88. ^ "About Ethiopia". Embassy of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia in Ireland. December 4, 2010.
  89. ^ "Australia - Oceania :: Fiji -- The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency".
  90. ^ "The Finnish national anthem". This Is Finland. Retrieved .
  91. ^ "Africa :: Gabon -- The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency".
  92. ^ "Africa :: Gambia, The -- The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency".
  93. ^ Parliament of Georgia. The Constitutional Law on the National Anthem of Georgia (No 72-2s; " ? ?"). Retrieved April 4, 2006 .
  94. ^ "Wie die deutsche Nationalhymne nach feucht-fröhlicher Runde entstand" by Claus-Stephan Rehfeld, Deutschlandfunk, 26 August 2016
  95. ^ "National Anthem and Pledge Ghana High Commission". Brazil Consulate.
  96. ^ ? [National Anthem] (in Greek). Archived from the original on 3 May 2011. Retrieved 2011.
  97. ^ "Central America :: Grenada -- The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency".
  98. ^ "Central America :: Guatemala -- The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency".
  99. ^ "Africa :: Guinea -- The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency".
  100. ^ "Africa :: Guinea-Bissau -- The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency".
  101. ^ Cambridge, Vibert C. (May 21, 2015). Musical Life in Guyana: History and Politics of Controlling Creativity. University Press of Mississippi. p. 209-213. ISBN 9781626746442.
  102. ^ Hall, Michael R. (2012). "Historical Dictionary of Haiti". p. 182. ISBN 9780810878105. Retrieved 2015.
  103. ^ "Central America :: Honduras -- The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency".
  104. ^ "A Himnusz története" [History of Himnusz] (in Hungarian). Retrieved .
  105. ^ "A Himnusz ügye az Országgy?lés el?tt" [The matter of the anthem before Parliament] (in Hungarian). Retrieved .
  106. ^ "Iceland - History". Worldmark Encyclopedia of Nations (12th ed.). Thomson Gale. 2007. Retrieved 2017.
  107. ^ Britannica, Editors of Encyclopedia (2008), Britannica Encyclopedia of India (Set of 5 Volumes), Encyclopedia Britannica India, p. 167, ISBN 978-81-8131-008-8CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  108. ^ "Error".
  109. ^ "Elementary schools face new mandate: Patriotism, 'Kimigayo'". The Japan Times Online. Kyodo News. 2008-03-29. Retrieved .
  110. ^ () (in Japanese). Government of Japan. 1999-08-13. Archived from the original on 2010-05-21. Retrieved .
  111. ^ "". Archived from the original on 2012-07-02. Retrieved .
  112. ^ Christine Zuchora-Walske (2008). Nepal in Pictures. Twenty-First Century Books. p. 69. ISBN 0-8225-8578-2. Retrieved . Sayaun Thunga Phulka.
  113. ^ "Nepali Cabinet Approves New National Anthem". People's Daily. 2007-04-20. Retrieved .
  114. ^ "«Ja, vi elsker» blir nasjonalsong". NRK. December 11, 2019.
  115. ^ "Representantforslag om å vedta at «Ja, vi elsker dette landet» skal anerkjennes som Norges offisielle nasjonalsang". Stortinget. June 4, 2019.
  116. ^ a b Martell, Peter (2011-01-11). "A Song for South Sudan: Writing a New National Anthem". BBC News. Retrieved 2011.
  117. ^ Royal anthem in a number of Commonwealth realms, including the United Kingdom, but no official status as national anthem.
  118. ^ "Useful information - State symbols". Retrieved .
  119. ^ "State Symbols - NKR". Retrieved .
  120. ^ "Kosovo Approves Anthem with No Lyrics". Balkan Insight. 2008-06-11. Archived from the original on 2008-06-12. Retrieved . Most of the parliamentary groups said they listened to all three shortlisted proposals but opted for the composition called 'Europe' by Mehdi Mengjiqi, which has no lyrics as it would respect the multi-ethnic nature of Kosovo.
  121. ^ Hakki, Murat Metin (2007). The Cyprus Issue: A Documentary History, 1878-2006. I.B.Tauris. ISBN 978-1-84511-392-6.
  122. ^ Minahan, James B. (2009-12-23). The Complete Guide to National Symbols and Emblems [2 volumes]. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-0-313-34497-8.
  123. ^ "National anthem". Office of the President. Retrieved 2020.
  124. ^ "Hopes Rise in Transnistria of a Russian Annexation". Spiegel Online. Retrieved 2018.

External links

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.



Music Scenes