National Poet
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National Poet

A national poet or national bard is a poet held by tradition and popular acclaim to represent the identity, beliefs and principles of a particular national culture.[1] The national poet as culture hero is a long-standing symbol, to be distinguished from successive holders of a bureaucratically-appointed poet-laureate office. The idea and honoring of national poets emerged primarily during Romanticism, as a figure that helped consolidation of the nation states, as it provided validation of their ethno-linguistic groups.[1]

Most national poets are historic figures, though a few contemporary writers working in relatively new or revived national literatures are also considered "national poets." Some nations may have more than one national poet; the idea of a single one is always a simplification. It has been argued that a national poet "must write poetry that closely identifies with the nation's cause - or is thought to do so",[2] with an additional assumption being "that a national poet must write in a national language".[3]

The following is a list of nations, with their associated national poets. It is not a list of sovereign states or countries, though many of the nations listed may also be such. The terms "nation" (as cultural concept), "country" (as geographical concept) and "state" (as political concept) are not synonyms.

Africa

Asia

Country Poet
 Afghanistan Rumi, Khushal Khattak[5]
 Azerbaijan Fuzûlî, Imadaddin Nasimi, Samad Vurgun
 Bangladesh Kazi Nazrul Islam
 China Du Fu, Li Bai, Lu Xun
 Cambodia Preah Botumthera Som, Krom Ngoy, Chuon Nath
 India Valmiki, Vedavyasa, Kalidasa, Tulsidas, Rabindranath Tagore, Subramanya Bharathi, Kuvempu, M. Govinda Pai, G.S. Shivarudrappa
 Indonesia Chairil Anwar
 Iran Ferdowsi, Rumi, Hafez, Attar, Abu Sa'eed, Sanai, Rudaki, Nezami Ganjavi, Saadi, Omar Khayyám, Nasir Khusraw, Aref Qazvini, Simin Behbahani, Adib Boroumand
 Iraq Maarouf Al Rasafi
 Israel Hayim Nahman Bialik
 Japan Koizumi Yakumo, Murasaki Shikibu, Matsuo Bash?
 Jordan Mustafa Wahbi al-Tal
 Kazakhstan Abai Qunanbaiuli
 Korea Yun Dongju, Ko Un
 Kurdistan Khana Qubadi, Ahmad Khani, Haji Qadir Koyi, Faqi Tayran, Malaye Jaziri
 Kyrgyzstan Toktogul Satylganov
 Lebanon Kahlil Gibran, Said Akl
 Malaysia Usman Awang
 Mongolia Dashdorjiin Natsagdorj, Byambyn Rinchen, Hadaa Sendoo
 Myanmar Min Thu Wun
   Nepal Laxmi Prasad Devkota, Motiram Bhatta, Madhav Prasad Ghimire
 Pakistan Allama Muhammad Iqbal
 Palestine Mahmoud Darwish
 Philippines Francisco Balagtas
 Saudi Arabia Ghazi Abdul Rahman Al Gosaibi
 Sri Lanka Ananda Samarakoon
 Syria Nizar Qabbani
 Tajikistan Rudaki, Ferdowsi, Saadi, Molavi, Nasir Khusraw, Sadriddin Ayni, Gulnazar Keldi
 Thailand Sunthorn Phu
 Turkmenistan Magtymguly Pyragy
 Uzbekistan Abdulla Oripov, Erkin Vohidov, G?afur G?ulom, Mirtemir
 Vietnam Nguy?n Du, Nguy?n ?ình Chi?u, Hàn M?c T?
 Yemen Abdullah Al-Baradouni

Europe

Country Poet
 Albania Gjergj Fishta, Naim Frashëri
 Andorra Albert Salvadó
 Armenia Grigor Narekatsi, Sayat-Nova, Hovhannes Tumanyan, Yeghishe Charents
 Austria Franz Grillparzer, Peter Rosegger, Johann Nepomuk Nestroy
 Belarus Yanka Kupala, Yakub Kolas
 Belgium Emile Verhaeren, Maurice Maeterlinck
 Flanders Hendrik Conscience, Guido Gezelle, Hugo Claus
 Bosnia and Herzegovina Izet Sarajli?
 Republika Srpska Aleksa ?anti?, Gordana Kuki?
 Bulgaria Hristo Botev,[6]Ivan Vazov
 Croatia Marko Maruli?, Miroslav Krle?a
 Cyprus Vasilis Michaelides
 Czech Republic Karel Hynek Mácha, Bo?ena N?mcová, Jan Neruda
 Denmark Adam Oehlenschläger, Søren Kierkegaard
 Faroe Islands William Heinesen
 England Geoffrey Chaucer, William Shakespeare,[7]William Blake, William Wordsworth, Samuel Taylor Coleridge
 Estonia Lydia Koidula, Friedrich Reinhold Kreutzwald
 Finland Johan Ludvig Runeberg, Elias Lönnrot
 France Victor Hugo, Charles Baudelaire
 Georgia Shota Rustaveli
 Germany Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Friedrich Schiller
 Gibraltar Héctor Licudi
 Greece Homer, Dionysios Solomos
 Guernsey George Métivier
 Hungary Sándor Pet?fi, János Arany
 Iceland Jónas Hallgrímsson, Hallgrímur Pétursson, Halldór Laxness
 Ireland Thomas Moore, William Butler Yeats
 Italy Dante Alighieri, Giosuè Carducci, Giacomo Leopardi, Ugo Foscolo, Gabriele D'Annunzio
 Latvia Rainis, Andrejs Pumpurs
 Liechtenstein Peter Kaiser
 Lithuania Kristijonas Donelaitis, Maironis
 Luxembourg Edmond de la Fontaine, Michel Rodange, Michel Lentz
 Malta Dun Karm Psaila
 Moldova Grigore Vieru
 Monaco Louis Notari
 Montenegro Petar II Petrovi?-Njego?
 Netherlands Joost van den Vondel, Jacob Cats
 Friesland Gysbert Japicx (or Japiks)
 North Macedonia Ko?o Racin, Georgi Pulevski and Kole Nedelkovski
 Norway Henrik Wergeland
 Poland Adam Mickiewicz, Juliusz S?owacki, Zygmunt Krasi?ski, Jan Kochanowski, Cyprian Norwid
 Portugal Luís de Camões, Fernando Pessoa
 Romania Mihai Eminescu
 Russia Alexander Pushkin, Sergei Yesenin, Mikhail Lermontov, Gavrila Derzhavin, Nikolay Nekrasov, Vladimir Vysotsky
 Dagestan Rasul Gamzatov
 North Ossetia-Alania Kosta Khetagurov
 San Marino Pio Chiaruzzi
 Scotland Robert Burns, Hugh MacDiarmid, Hamish Henderson
 Serbia Petar II Petrovi?-Njego?, Vladislav Petkovi? Dis, Oskar Davi?o, Desanka Maksimovi? (Yugoslavia, Serbia and Montenegro)[8]
 Kosovo Din Mehmeti, Ali Podrimja
 Slovakia Pavol Országh Hviezdoslav
 Slovenia France Pre?eren
 Spain Miguel de Cervantes, Lope de Vega,[1]Federico García Lorca
 Sweden Carl Michael Bellman, Gustaf Fröding, Verner von Heidenstam, Esaias Tegnér
  Switzerland Gottfried Keller, Carl Spitteler
 Turkey Mehmet Akif Ersoy, Nâz?m Hikmet
 Ukraine Taras Shevchenko, Ivan Franko, Lesya Ukrainka
 Wales Dylan Thomas, Dafydd ap Gwilym

North America

Oceania

South America

References

  1. ^ a b c Nemoianu, Virgil (2002). Esterhammer, Angela (ed.). "'National Poets' in the Romantic Age: Emergence and Importance." Romantic Poetry. John Benjamins Publishing. p. 537. ISBN 9789027234506.
  2. ^ John Neubauer, "Figures of National Poets", in Marcel Cornis-Pope and John Neubauer, eds., Figures of National Poets (2004), p. 11.
  3. ^ Michael Baron, Language and Relationship in Wordsworth's Writing (1995), p. 13.
  4. ^ J. Cameron; W. A. Dodd (17 May 2014). Society, Schools and Progress in Tanzania: The Commonwealth and International Library: Education and Educational Research. Elsevier Science. pp. 57-. ISBN 978-1-4831-5914-0.
  5. ^ Morgenstierne, G. (1960). "Khushhal Khan--the national poet of the Afghans". Journal of the Royal Central Asian Society. 47: 49-57. doi:10.1080/03068376008731684.
  6. ^ Hristo Botev's birth anniversary Archived 2007-09-27 at the Wayback Machine, Radio Bulgaria History and Religion, posted January 6, 2007, updated on January 12, 2007, accessed 9 March 2007
  7. ^ Michael Dobson (17 November 1994), The Making of the National Poet - Shakespeare, Adaptation and Authorship, 1660-1769, Clarendon Press, ISBN 978-0-19-818323-5
  8. ^ Balazsr2=Michal Kopecek (1 November 2006). National Romanticism: The Formation of National Movements. Central European University Press. p. 431. ISBN 978-963-7326-60-8. Characteristically, although Njego? saw himself as a definitely Serbian poet, his epic came to be later canonized as the most important work of 'Yugoslav' literature [...]
  9. ^ Daniel Balderston, Mike (2004). Encyclopedia of Latin American and Caribbean Literature, 1900-2003. Routledge. p. 666. ISBN 0-415-30687-6.
  10. ^ James Woodall, Borges: A Life, Basic Books (1996). ISBN 0-465-04361-5. Relevant excerpt available on the New York Times web site, accessed 9 March 2007.

Further reading


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