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Nefrusy was an ancient Egyptian city which location is north of modern day cities of El Ashmunein and El Quseyya. It is known for being the site of Battle of Nefrusy between the forces of Kamose and Hyksos forces, which saw the first attested use of chariots in the history of Military of ancient Egypt.[1] Its location has been suggested by Gaston Maspero to be at modern village of Etlidem 27 km (17 mi) south of Minya, and by Georges Daressy to be at modern village of Balansourah on the canal of Bahr Yussef 12 km (7.5 mi) west of Abu Qirqas.[2]

in hieroglyphs
in hieroglyphs
in hieroglyphs

Nefrusy is first attested in a tomb at Hebenu in the Old Kingdom where Hathor, mistress of Nefrusy is mentioned. In the Middle Kingdom, the place is mentioned several times in the tombs of Beni Hassan where Hathor, lady of Nefrusy is also mentioned. Hetepet, consort of the prince Amenemhet was a priest of Hathor of Nefrusy.[4] Under Teti son of Pepi, Nefrusy is described in the victory stela of Kamose as a 'nest of Asiatics'.[5] Kamose destroyed Nefrusy on his campaign against the Hyksos.[6] Another mayors resided there in the New Kingdom, Iuno, Mahu, Iamunefer, Pahahauti are known by name.[7]

See also


  1. ^ Amstutz, L.J. (2015). Ancient Egypt. Minneapolis: ABDO Publishing. p. 86. ISBN 9781624035371.
  2. ^ a b c d e Gauthier, Henri (1926). Dictionnaire des Noms Géographiques Contenus dans les Textes Hiéroglyphiques Vol. 3. pp. 89-90.
  3. ^ a b c Wallis Budge, E. A. (1920). An Egyptian hieroglyphic dictionary: with an index of English words, king list and geological list with indexes, list of hieroglyphic characters, coptic and semitic alphabets, etc. Vol II. John Murray. p. 1006.
  4. ^ Newberry, Percy E. (1893). Beni Hasan Vol. 1. London: Gilbert and Rivington Ltd. p. Plate XVIII. Retrieved 2020.
  5. ^ Pritchard, James B., ed. (1969). Ancient Near Eastern Texts relating to the Old Testament (3rd with supplement ed.). New Jersey: Princeton University Press. p. 233. ISBN 0-691-03503-2.
  6. ^ James, T.G.H. (1965). Egypt: From the Expulsion of the Hyksos to Amenophis I, The Cambridge Ancient History, Vol. 2, Part 1. ed. Edwards, I.E.S, et al. p. 291. Cambridge University Press.
  7. ^ Helck, Wolfgang (1958). Zur Verwaltung des Mittleren und Neuen Reichs, Probleme der Ägyptologie. Vol. 3. Leiden: Brill publishing. p. 224.


  • Wilkinson, Toby. The Rise and Fall of Ancient Egypt. Random House, New York, 2010. ISBN 978-0-679-60429-7
  • Ryholt, Kim SB. The Political Situation in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period. Carsten Niebuhr Institute Publications, Copenhagen, 1997. ISBN 87-7289-421-0

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