Dryer defined three different types of negative markers in language. Beside negative particles and negative affixes, negative verbs play a role in various languages. The negative verb is used to implement a clausal negation. The negative predicate counts as a semantic function and is localized and therefore grammaticalized in different languages. Negation verbs are often used as an auxiliary type which also carries ?-feature content. This could be visualized for example in the inflectional character of the negation verb while combined with the main verb. This is some sort of tendency by Dryer to place the negation verb before the finite verb. Miestamo researched four different types of negations and proposed a distinction between symmetric negation in which a negative marker is added and asymmetric negation in which beside the added negation marker, other structural changes appear.
In English a standard negation (SN) is used to negate declarative main clauses. The verbal negation predicate is 'not'. To negate other clauses, the negation construction differs from SN. The English auxiliary 'do' performs in combination with the negative verb that indicates whether one or multiple individuals are involved while the verb referring to the negated activity remains non-inflected.[clarification needed] Concluding this, ordinary verbs take the auxiliary do when negated by not.
|With a negative verb||With a negative adverb|
|Nonpast||I go there
he goes there
|I don't go there
he doesn't go there
|I never go there|
he never goes there
|Past||I went there
he went there
|I didn't go there
he didn't go there
|I never went there|
he never went there
Uralic languages differ in the use of negation predicates from each other but show specific similarities. For defining different patterns of negation predicates it is necessary to know about the lexical verb (LV) and the finite form (FE). Miestamo defined four types of asymmetry in negation verbs. The first type shows a prominent appearance in Uralic languages. It is defined as A/Fin (A = asymmetry | Fin = finiteness) and describes that influenced by the negation verb, the finiteness of the LV is reduced or lost. For example, the LV loses the finiteness because the clause is marked by the de-verbalizing negative morphem. Therefore, the copula is added as a type which holds the finite status (FE). In some uralic languages speaker produce[clarification needed]connegatives to construct the syntactically acceptable word form used in negative clauses.
The standard negation (SN) in Finnish language is realized by a verbal complex. First the LV with a non-finite character is formed followed by the finite element which is presented as the negative auxiliary. The root of the auxiliary is 'e-'. The ending gives information about person and number. The marker for tense is not presented on the auxiliary and is only dependent from the clausal context. Therefore, tense is marked on the LV separated from the auxiliary and appears as connegative form in present tense and past participle in past tense.
|SN in main clauses||- AUX(iliary) 'ei': 'e-' + Person/Number marking
- Main verb: connegative or participle
|Imperatives/Prohibitive sentences||AUX 'äl-' + idiosyncratic Person and mood marking|
|Negation in dependent clauses||Finite: SN|
The Estonian language uses a particle-like non-inflectional negative auxiliary which is hierarchical presented on a pre-verbal slot. The auxiliary is realized as 'ei'. A special form differs from the SN while forming the connegative in the present tense, in the past form or the active past participle. Differing to other Uralic languages, in Estonian language the flectional character doesn't seem to be a necessary feature for the negative auxiliary. This is important because the question appears, if the auxiliary has to show a flectional marker even if the LV is not showing any flectional marker without using the negation modus.
|Clausal SN; finite: indicative, conditional, evidental||'ei-' (uninflected) + verb in connegative|
||'ära' (inflected) + verb in connegative or inflected (variation)|
|Negation in locative, equative, inclusive, attributive constructions||'ei' (uninflected) + copula in connegative|
|SN||- Negation AUX: 'ij' + LV
- Negation copula (replaces Positive copula) + verb
|Negation of imperatives
||Negation AUX + Imperative + verb|
|Negation of non-verbal predicates||-SN
- Negation copula (general stative negator, alternative to SN)
|Negation in dependent clauses||- finite: SN
- non-finite: verbal absessive
In South Saami the SN is realized by a negative auxiliary. This form is used in present tense and the preterite. The LV is presented as a connegative form. A special case is presented while creating the imperative. In this case the negative auxiliary gets a full personal paradigm except for the third person 'dual'. The third person in singular in present tense of the negative auxiliary is prohibited as a negative reply.
|SN||Negative AUX + connegative verb|
||- Negative AUX 'aell-' (prohibitive) + connegative verb
- Negative AUX 'oll-' (apprehensive) + connegative verb
|Negation of non-verbal predicates||Negative AUX + connegative verb|
|Negation in dependent clauses||Negative AUX + connegative verb|
The negative verb is conjugated in moods and personal forms in Inari Sami.
The negative verb is conjugated in moods and personal forms in Northern Sami.
The negative verb is conjugated in moods and personal forms in Lule Sami.
Hungarian has lost most evidence of a negative verb, but the negation particle 'nem' becomes 'ne' before verbs in the jussive/imperative (also sometimes called the conditional mood, or J-mood). Furthermore, the 3rd person present indicative of the copular verb ('lenni') has unique negative forms 'nincs(en)' and 'nincsenek' as opposed to 'nem van' and 'nem vannak', but only when the particle and verb would occur adjacently. In all other instances the copular verb acts regularly. These forms are also unique in that they have an existential role "there is (not)" and "there are (not)". In the present indicative 3rd person, copular verbs are not used; rather the absence of a verb (with or without a negation particle) implies the copula.
In Komi language, the negative marker and the form of the negative construction is dependent of the clausal tense. If the corresponding affirmative predicate is based in a verbal form, a negative auxiliary is used. This is not convertible for affirmative verbs with nominal forms. The negative auxiliary is used in present tense, future tense, 1st past tense of indicative and in the imperative and optative mood.
||- present & future tense
- 1st past tense
- 2nd past tense
- 3rd past tense
- 4th past tense
- 5th past tense
- 6th past tense
|'o-' + V - Connegative (CNG)
'e-' + V - Connegative
'abu' + V
'veli' + 'o-' + V - Connegative
a) 'abu' + 'veli' + V
b) 'e-' + 'be' - CNG + V
'velem' + 'o-' + V - CNG
'velem' + 'ab' + V
|Negation of imperatives
||Imperative (2nd person only)
Optative (3rd person only)
Conditional (all tenses)
|'e-' + V - CNG
'med' + 'o-' + V - CNG
'(v)éske(u)' + SN
|Negation in dependent/subordinate clauses||- finite subordinate clauses
- non-finite subordinate verb forms:
'?e' + V-infinitve
V + 'tem'
V + 'teg'
Korean verbs can be negated by the negative verbs anta and mothada or by the negative adverbs ? an and ? mot. The copula ida has a corresponding negative copula anida. (anida is an independent word like anta and mothada, unlike ida which cannot stand on its own and must be attached to a noun.)
|Verb||Tense||Affirmative||With a negative verb||With a negative adverb|
|anta||mothada||? an||? mot|