Neng%C5%8D
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Neng%C5%8D

The Japanese era name (, neng?, "year name"), also known as geng? (), is the first of the two elements that identify years in the Japanese era calendar scheme. The second element is a number which indicates the year number within the era (with the first year being "gan (?)"), followed by the literal "nen (?)" meaning "year".

Era names originated in 140 BCE in China, during the reign of the Emperor Wu of Han.[1][2] As elsewhere in East Asia, the use of era names was originally derived from Chinese imperial practice,[2][3][4] although the Japanese system is independent of the Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese era-naming systems. Unlike these other similar systems, Japanese era names are still in use. Government offices usually require era names and years for official papers.

The five era names used since the end of the Edo period in 1868 can be abbreviated by taking the first letter of their romanized names. For example, S55 means Sh?wa 55 (i.e. 1980), and H22 stands for Heisei 22 (2010). At 62 years and 2 weeks, Sh?wa is the longest era to date.

The current era is Reiwa (),[5] which began on 1 May 2019, following the 31st (and final) year of the Heisei era (31?). While the Heisei era () started on the day after the death of the Emperor Hirohito (8 January 1989), the Reiwa era () began the day after the planned and voluntary abdication[6] of the 125th Emperor Akihito. Emperor Akihito received special one-time permission to abdicate,[7] rather than serving in his role until his death, as is the rule.[8] His elder son, Naruhito, ascended to the throne as the 126th Emperor of Japan on 1 May 2019.[9]

Overview

Keiz? Obuchi, Chief Cabinet Secretary, announces the name of the new era "Heisei" (), on 7 January 1989.
Yoshihide Suga, Chief Cabinet Secretary, announces the name of the new era "Reiwa" () at the Prime Minister's Official Residence, on 1 April 2019.
External Timeline A graphical timeline is available at
Timeline of Japanese era names

The system on which the Japanese era names are based originated in China in 140 BC, and was adopted by Japan in 645 CE, during the reign of Emperor K?toku.

The first era name to be assigned was "Taika" (), celebrating the political and organizational changes which were to flow from the great Taika reform () of 645. Although the regular practice of proclaiming successive era names was interrupted in the late seventh century, it was permanently re-adopted in 701 during the reign of Emperor Monmu (697-707). Since then, era names have been used continuously up through the present day.[10]

Historical neng?

Prior to the Meiji period, era names were decided by court officials and were subjected to frequent change. A new era name was usually proclaimed within a year or two after the ascension of a new emperor. A new era name was also often designated on the first, fifth and 58th years of the sexagenary cycle, because they were inauspicious years in Onmy?d?. These three years are respectively known as kakurei, kakuun, and kakumei, and collectively known as sankaku. Era names were also changed due to other felicitous events or natural disasters.

In historical practice, the first day of a neng? (, gannen) starts whenever the emperor chooses; and the first year continues until the next lunar new year, which is understood to be the start of the neng?'s second year.[11]

Era names indicate the various reasons for their adoption. For instance, the neng? Wad? (), during the Nara period, was declared due to the discovery of copper deposits in Chichibu. Most neng? are composed of two kanji, except for a short time during the Nara period when four-kanji names were sometimes adopted to follow the Chinese trend. Tenpy? Kanp? (?), Tenpy? Sh?h? (?), Tenpy? H?ji (?) and Tenpy? Jingo (?) are some famous neng? names that use four characters. Since the Heian period, Confucian thoughts and ideas have been reflected in era names, such as Daid? (), K?nin () and Tench? ().[] Although there currently exist a total of 248 Japanese era names, only 73 kanji have been used in composing them. Out of these 73 kanji, 31 of them have been used only once, while the rest have been used repeatedly in different combinations.

Neng? in modern Japan

Mutsuhito assumed the throne in 1867, during the third year of the Kei? () era. On 23 October 1868, the era name was changed to "Meiji" (), and a "one reign, one era name" (?, issei-ichigen) system was adopted, wherein era names would change only upon immediate imperial succession. This system is similar to the now-defunct Chinese system used since the days of the Ming dynasty. The Japanese neng? system differs from Chinese practice, in that in the Chinese system the era name was not updated until the year following the emperor's death.

In modern practice, the first year of a neng? (, gannen) starts immediately upon the emperor's accession and ends on 31 December. Subsequent years follow the Gregorian calendar. For example, the Meiji era lasted until 30 July 1912, when the Emperor died and the Taish? () era was proclaimed. 1912 is therefore known as both "Meiji 45" and "Taish? 1" (?, Taish? gannen), although Meiji technically ended on 30 July with Mutsuhito's death.

This practice, implemented successfully since the days of Meiji but never formalized, became law in 1979 with the passage of the Era Name Law (, geng?-h?). Thus, since 1868, there have only been five era names assigned: Meiji, Taish?, Sh?wa, Heisei, and Reiwa, each corresponding with the rule of only one emperor. Upon death, the emperor is thereafter referred to by the era of his reign. For example, Mutsuhito is posthumously known as "Emperor Meiji" (?, Meiji Tenn?).

It is protocol in Japan that the reigning emperor be referred to as Tenn? Heika (?, "His Imperial Majesty the Emperor") or Kinj? Tenn? (?, "current emperor"). To call the current emperor by the current era name, i.e. "Reiwa", even in English, is a faux pas, as this is -- and will be -- his posthumous name. Use of the emperor's given name (i.e., "Naruhito") is rare, and is considered vulgar behaviour in Japanese.

The Emperor Akihito abdicated on 30 April 2019, necessitating a change in neng?. The new name, made public on the morning of April 1 of the same year, is Reiwa ().[5]

Periods without era names

The era name system that was introduced by Emperor K?toku was abandoned after his death; no era names were designated between 654 and 686. The system was briefly reinstated by Emperor Tenmu in 686, but was again abandoned upon his death about two months later. In 701, Emperor Monmu once again reinstated the era name system, and it has continued uninterrupted through today.

Although use of the Gregorian calendar for historical dates became increasingly common in Japan, the traditional Japanese system demands that dates be written in reference to era names. The apparent problem introduced by the lack of era names was resolved by identifying the years of an imperial reign as a period.[12]

Although in modern Japan posthumous imperial names correspond with the eras of their reign, this is a relatively recent concept, introduced in practice during the Meiji period and instituted by law in 1979. Therefore, the posthumous names of the emperors and empresses who reigned prior to 1868 may not be taken as era names by themselves. For example, the year 572--the year in which Emperor Bidatsu assumed the Chrysanthemum Throne - is properly written as "" (Bidatsu-Tenn? Gannen, "the first year of Emperor Bidatsu"), and not "?" (Bidatsu Gannen, "the first year of Bidatsu"), although it may be abbreviated as such.[13] By incorporating both proper era names and posthumous imperial names in this manner, it is possible to extend the neng? system to cover all dates from 660 BC through today.[14]

Unofficial era name system

In addition to the official era name system, in which the era names are selected by the imperial court, one also observes--primarily in the ancient documents and epigraphs of shrines and temples--unofficial era names called shineng? (, "personal era name"), also known as gineng? () or ineng? (). Currently, there are over 40 confirmed shineng?, most of them dating from the middle ages. Shineng? used prior to the reestablishment of the era name system in 701 are usually called itsuneng? ().[a]

Because official records of shineng? are lacking, the range of dates to which they apply is often unclear. For example, the well-known itsuneng? Hakuh? () is normally said to refer to 650-654 CE; a poetic synonym for the Hakuchi era. However, alternate interpretations exist. For example, in the Nich?reki, Hakuh? refers to 661-683 CE, and in some medieval temple documents, Hakuh? refers to 672-685 CE. Thus, shineng? may be used as an alternative way of dating periods for which there is no official era name.

Other well-known itsuneng? and shineng? include H?k? () (591-621+ CE), Suzaku () (686), Fukutoku () (1489-1492), Miroku () (1506-1507 or 1507-1509) and Meiroku () (1540-1543).

The most recent shineng? is Seiro () (1904-1905), named for the Russo-Japanese War.

Ky?sh? neng?

Edo period scholar Tsurumine Shigenobu proposed that Ky?sh? neng? (?), said to have been used in ancient Kumaso, should also be considered a form of shineng?. This claim is not generally recognized by the academic community. Lists of the proposed Ky?sh? neng? can be seen in the Japanese language entries ? and .

Software support

Character sets

Certain era names have specific characters assigned to them, for instance ? for the Reiwa period, which can also be written as . These are included in Unicode: Code points U+32FF (?), U+337B (?), U+337C (?), U+337D (?) and U+337E (?) are used for the Reiwa, Heisei, Sh?wa, Taish? and Meiji eras, respectively.

Calendar libraries

Certain calendar libraries support the conversion from and to the era system, as well as rendering of dates using it.

Since the release of Java 8, the Japanese calendar is supported in the new Date and time API for the year Meiji 6 (1873) onwards.[15]

Support for the new era in Japanese imperial transition of 2019

Computers and software manufacturers needed to test their systems in preparation for the new era which began on 1 May 2019. Windows provided a test mechanism to simulate a new era ahead of time.[16] Java Development Kit 11 supported this era using the placeholders "" for Japanese, "NewEra" for other languages.[17] The final name was added in JDK 12.0.1, after it was announced by the Japanese government.[18]

Unicode code point U+32FF (?) was reserved for representing the new era name, Reiwa.[19][20][21][22][23][24]

The list of Japanese era names is the result of a periodization system which was established by Emperor K?toku in 645. The system of Japanese era names (, neng?, "year name") was irregular until the beginning of the 8th century.[25] After 701, sequential era names developed without interruption across a span of centuries.[10] As of April 1, 2019, there have been 239 era names.

Conversion table

1729 Japanese calendar, which used the J?ky? calendar procedure, published by Ise Grand Shrine.

To convert a Japanese year to a Gregorian calendar year, find the first year of the Japanese era name (also called neng?). When found, add the number of the Japanese year, then subtract 1.

Gregorian calendar years and equivalent neng? years
Gregorian calendar year Name of era Notes
(AD) Kanji Romanization of Japanese
Asuka period (538-710)
498 Earliest date for which recorded shi-neng? are identified; "Unofficial neng? system" section below
645[26] Taika Emperor K?toku, 645-654.[27]
650[28] Hakuchi also Hakuh?[12][29]
654 Era not named; see "Non-Neng? periods" section below
686[30] Shuch? also Such?, Akamitori or Akamidori; Emperor Tenmu, 672-686.[31]
686 Era not named; see "Non-Neng? periods" section below
701[32] Taih? also Daih?; Emperor Monmu, 697-707.[33]
704 Keiun also Ky?un; Empress Genmei, 707-715.[34]
708 Wad?
Nara period (710-794)
715 Reiki Empress Gensh?, 715-724.[35]
717 Y?r?
724 Jinki also Shinki; Emperor Sh?mu, 724-749.[36]
729 Tenpy? also Tenby? or Tenhei
749 ? Tenpy?-kanp? also Tenby?-kanp?
749 ? Tenpy?-sh?h? also Tenby?-sh?b? or Tenpei-sh?h?; Empress K?ken, 749-758.[37]
757 ? Tenpy?-h?ji also Tenby?-h?ji or Tenpei-h?ji; Emperor Junnin, 758-764;[38]Empress Sh?toku, 764-770.[39]
765 ? Tenpy?-jingo also Tenby?-jingo or Tenhei-jingo
767 ? Jingo-keiun
770 H?ki Emperor K?nin, 770-781.[40]
781 Ten'? Emperor Kanmu, 781-806.[41]
782 Enryaku
Heian period (794-1185)
806 Daid? Emperor Heizei, 806-809;[42]Emperor Saga, 809-823.[43]
810 K?nin Emperor Junna, 823-833.[44]
824 Tench? Emperor Ninmy?, 833-850.[45]
834 J?wa also Sh?wa or S?wa
848 Kash? also Kaj?; Emperor Montoku, 850-858.[46]
851 Ninju
854 Saik?
857 Ten'an also Tennan; Emperor Seiwa, 858-876.[47]
859 J?gan Emperor Y?zei, 876-884.[48]
877 Gangy? also Ganky? or Genkei; Emperor K?k?, 884-887.[49]
885 Ninna also Ninwa; Emperor Uda, 887-897.[50]
889 Kanpy? also Kanpei or Kanby? or Kanbei or Kanhei; Emperor Daigo, 887-930.[51]
898 Sh?tai
901 Engi
923 Ench? Emperor Suzaku, 930-946.[52]
931 J?hei also Sh?hei
938 Tengy? also Tenkei or Tenky?; Emperor Murakami, 946-967.[53]
947 Tenryaku also Tenreki
957 Tentoku
961 ?wa
964 K?h? Emperor Reizei, 967-969.[54]
968 Anna also Anwa; Emperor En'y?, 969-984.[55]
970 Tenroku
973 Ten'en
976 J?gen also Teigen
978 Tengen
983 Eikan also Y?kan; Emperor Kazan, 984-986.[56]
985 Kanna also Kanwa; Emperor Ichij?, 986-1011.[57]
987 Eien also Y?en
988 Eiso also Y?so
990 Sh?ryaku also J?ryaku or Sh?reki
995 Ch?toku
999 Ch?h?
1004 Kank? Emperor Sanj?, 1011-1016.[58]
1012 Ch?wa Emperor Go-Ichij?, 1016-1036.[59]
1017 Kannin
1021 Jian also Chian
1024 Manju
1028 Ch?gen Emperor Go-Suzaku, 1036-1045.[60]
1037 Ch?ryaku also Ch?reki
1040 Ch?ky?
1044 Kantoku Emperor Go-Reizei, 1045-1068.[61]
1046 Eish? also Eij? or Y?j?
1053 Tengi also Tenki
1058 K?hei
1065 Jiryaku also Chiryaku
1069 Enky? Emperor Go-Sanj?, 1068-1073.[62]
1074 J?h? also Sh?h? or Sh?ho; Emperor Shirakawa, 1073-1086.[63]
1077 J?ryaku also Sh?ryaku or Sh?reki
1081 Eih? also Y?h?
1084 ?toku
1087 Kanji Emperor Horikawa, 1087-1107.[64]
1094 Kah?
1096 Eich? also Y?ch?
1097 J?toku also Sh?toku
1099 K?wa
1104 Ch?ji
1106 Kaj? also Kash? or Kas?; Emperor Toba, 1107-1123.[65]
1108 Tennin
1110 Ten'ei also Ten'y?
1113 Eiky? also Y?ky?
1118 Gen'ei
1120 H?an Emperor Sutoku, 1123-1142.[66]
1124 Tenji also Tenchi
1126 Daiji also Taiji
1131 Tensh? also Tenj?
1132 Ch?sh? also Ch?j?
1135 H?en
1141 Eiji
1142 K?ji Emperor Konoe, 1142-1155.[67]
1144 Ten'y? also Tenny?
1145 Ky?an
1151 Ninpei also Ninpy? or Ninby? or Ninhy? or Ninhei
1154 Ky?ju Emperor Go-Shirakawa, 1155-1158.[68]
1156 H?gen also Hogen; Emperor Nij?, 1158-1165.[69]
1159 Heiji also By?ji
1160 Eiryaku also Y?ryaku
1161 ?h?
1163 Ch?kan also Ch?gan
1165 Eiman also Y?man; Emperor Rokuj?, 1165-1168.[70]
1166 Nin'an also Ninnan; Emperor Takakura, 1168-1180.[70]
1169 Ka?
1171 J?an also Sh?an
1175 Angen
1177 Jish? also Jij? or Chish?; Emperor Antoku, 1180-1185.[71]
1181 Y?wa
1182 Juei Emperor Go-Toba, 1183-1198.[72]
1184 Genryaku
Kamakura period (1185-1333)
1185 Bunji also Monchi
1190 Kenky? Emperor Tsuchimikado, 1198-1210.[73]
1199 Sh?ji
1201 Kennin
1204 Genky?
1206 Ken'ei also Ken'y?
1207 J?gen also Sh?gen; Emperor Juntoku, 1210-1221.[74]
1211 Kenryaku
1213 Kenp? also Kenh?
1219 J?ky? also Sh?ky?; Emperor Ch?ky?, 1221.[75]Emperor Go-Horikawa, 1221-1232.[76]
1222 J also Tei?
1224 Gennin
1225 Karoku
1227 Antei also Anj?
1229 Kangi also Kanki
1232 J?ei also Teiei; Emperor Shij?, 1232-1242.[77]
1233 Tenpuku also Tenfuku
1234 Bunryaku also Monryaku or Monreki
1235 Katei
1238 Ryakunin also Rekinin
1239 En'? also Enn?
1240 Ninji also Ninchi; Emperor Go-Saga, 1242-1246.[78]
1243 Kangen Emperor Go-Fukakusa, 1246-1260.[79]
1247 H?ji
1249 Kench?
1256 K?gen Emperor Kameyama, 1260-1274.[80]
1257 Sh?ka
1259 Sh?gen
1260 Bun'? also Bunn?
1261 K?ch?
1264 Bun'ei Emperor Go-Uda, 1274-1287.[81]
1275 Kenji
1278 K?an Emperor Fushimi, 1287-1298.[82]
1288 Sh
1293 Einin Emperor Go-Fushimi, 1298-1301.[83]
1299 Sh?an Emperor Go-Nij?, 1301-1308.[84]
1302 Kengen
1303 Kagen
1306 Tokuji
1308 Enky? also Engy? or Enkei; Emperor Hanazono, 1308-1318.[85]
1311 ?ch?
1312 Sh?wa
1317 Bunp? also Bunh?; Emperor Go-Daigo, 1318-1339.[86]
1319 Gen'? also Genn?
1321 Genk?
1324 Sh?ch?
1326 Karyaku
1329 Gentoku
1331 Genk?
Nanboku-ch? period (1334-1392)
Southern Court
1334 Kenmu also Kenbu
1336 Engen
1340 K?koku
1346 Sh?hei
1370 Kentoku
1372 Bunch?
1375 Tenju
1381 K?wa
1384 Gench? Gench? 9 becomes Meitoku 3 in post Nanboku-ch? reunification
Northern Court
1332 Sh?kei also Sh?ky?
1334 Kenmu also Kenbu
1338 Ryaku? also Reki?
1342 K?ei
1345 J?wa also Teiwa
1350 Kann? also Kan'?
1352 Bunna also Bunwa
1356 Enbun
1361 K?an
1362 J?ji also Teiji
1368 ?an
1375 Eiwa
1379 K?ryaku
1381 Eitoku
1384 Shitoku
1387 Kakei also Kaky?
1389 K
1390 Meitoku Meitoku 3 replaces Gench? 9 in post-Nanboku-ch? reunification
Muromachi period (1392-1573)
1394 ?ei Emperor Sh?k?, 1412-1428.[87]
1428 Sh?ch? Emperor Go-Hanazono, 1428-1464.[88]
1429 Eiky? also Eik?
1441 Kakitsu also Kakichi
1444 Bun'an also Bunnan
1449 H?toku
1452 Ky?toku
1455 K?sh?
1457 Ch?roku
1460 Kansh? Emperor Go-Tsuchimikado, 1464-1500.[89]
1466 Bunsh? also Monsh?
1467 ?nin
1469 Bunmei
1487 Ch?ky?
1489 Entoku
1492 Mei? Emperor Go-Kashiwabara, 1500-1526.[90]
1501 Bunki
1504 Eish?
1521 Daiei Emperor Go-Nara, 1526-1557.[91]
1528 Ky?roku
1532 Tenbun also Tenmon
1555 K?ji Emperor ?gimachi, 1557-1586.[92]
1558 Eiroku
1570 Genki
Azuchi-Momoyama period (1573-1603)
1573 Tensh? Emperor Go-Y?zei, 1586-1611.[93]
1592 Bunroku
1596 Keich? also Ky?ch?; Emperor Go-Mizunoo, 1611-1629.[94]
Edo period (1603-1868)
1615 Genna also Genwa
1624 Kan'ei Empress Meish?, 1629-1643;[95]Emperor Go-K?my?, 1643-1654.[96]
1644 Sh?h?
1648 Keian also Ky?an
1652 J also Sh; Emperor Go-Sai, 1655-1663.[97]
1655 Meireki also My?ryaku or Meiryaku
1658 Manji
1661 Kanbun Emperor Reigen, 1663-1687.[98]
1673 Enp? also Enh?, formerly written
1681 Tenna also Tenwa
1684 J?ky? Emperor Higashiyama, 1687-1709.[99]
1688 Genroku
1704 H?ei Emperor Nakamikado, 1709-1735.[100]
1711 Sh?toku
1716 Ky?h? Emperor Sakuramachi, 1735-1747.[101]
1736 Genbun
1741 Kanp? also Kanh?
1744 Enky? Emperor Momozono, 1747-1762.[102]
1748 Kan'en
1751 H?reki also H?ryaku; Empress Go-Sakuramachi, 1762-1771.[103]
1764 Meiwa Emperor Go-Momozono, 1771-1779.[104]
1772 An'ei Emperor K?kaku, 1780-1817.[105]
1781 Tenmei
1789 Kansei
1801 Ky?wa
1804 Bunka Emperor Nink?, 1817-1846.[106]
1818 Bunsei
1830 Tenp? also Tenh?
1844 K?ka Emperor K?mei, 1846-1867.
1848 Kaei
1854 Ansei
1860 Man'en
1861 Bunky?
1864 Genji
1865 Kei? Emperor Meiji, 1867-1868.
Modern Japan (from 1868)
1868 Meiji Emperor Meiji, 1868-1912.
1912 Taish? Emperor Taish?, 1912-1926.
1926 Sh?wa Emperor Sh?wa, 1926-1989.
1989 Heisei Akihito, 1989-2019.
2019 Reiwa Naruhito, 2019-present.

Non-nengo periods

Unofficial non-neng? periods (shineng?) before 701 are called itsuneng? ().[a] Pre-Taika chronology intervals include:

  • Reign of Emperor Jimmu, 660-581 BC
  • Reign of Emperor Suizei, 581-548 BC
  • Reign of Emperor Annei, 548-510 BC
  • Reign of Emperor Itoku, 510-475 BC
  • Reign of Emperor K?sh?, 475-392 BC
  • Reign of Emperor K?an, 392-290 BC
  • Reign of Emperor K?rei, 290-214 BC
  • Reign of Emperor K?gen, 214-157 BC
  • Reign of Emperor Kaika, 157-97 BC
  • Reign of Emperor Sujin, 97-29 BC
  • Reign of Emperor Suinin, 29 BC-AD 71
  • Reign of Emperor Keik?, AD 71-131
  • Reign of Emperor Seimu, 131-192
  • Reign of Emperor Ch?ai, 192-201
  • Regency of Empress Jing?, 201-270
  • Reign of Emperor ?jin, 270-313
  • Reign of Emperor Nintoku, 313-400
  • Reign of Emperor Rich?, 400-406
  • Reign of Emperor Hanzei, 406-412
  • Reign of Emperor Ingy?, 412-454
  • Reign of Emperor Ank?, 454-457
  • Reign of Emperor Y?ryaku, 457-480
  • Reign of Emperor Seinei, 480-485
  • Reign of Emperor Kenz?, 485-488
  • Reign of Emperor Ninken, 488-499
  • Reign of Emperor Buretsu, 499-507
  • Reign of Emperor Keitai, 507-534
  • Reign of Emperor Ankan, 534-536
  • Reign of Emperor Senka, 536-540
  • Reign of Emperor Kinmei, 540-572
  • Reign of Emperor Bidatsu, 572-586
  • Reign of Emperor Y?mei, 586-588
  • Reign of Emperor Sushun, 588-593
  • Reign of Emperor Suiko, 593-629[107]
  • Reign of Emperor Jomei, 629-645

Post-Taika chronology intervals not covered by the neng? system include:

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b A list of shineng? and more information can be seen in the Japanese language entry on .

Citations

  1. ^ Lü, Zongli (2003). Power of the words: Chen prophecy in Chinese politics, AD 265-618.
  2. ^ a b Sogner, Sølvi (2001). Making Sense of Global History: The 19th International Congress of the Historical Sciences, Oslo 2000, Commemorative Volume.
  3. ^ "International Congress of Historical Sciences". International Congress of Historical Sciences. 19. 2000. Retrieved 2019.
  4. ^ "Ancient tradition carries forward with Japan's new era". Retrieved 2019.
  5. ^ a b Reiwa Neng? Announcement Footage, 1 April 2019
  6. ^ Rich, Motoko (30 April 2019). "Emperor Akihito, Who Gave Japan's Monarchy a Human Face, Abdicates Throne". New York Times. Retrieved 2019.
  7. ^ "? ? ("His Majesty The Emperor Indicates His Intention to 'Abdicate'")" (in Japanese). NHK. 13 July 2016. Archived from the original on 13 July 2016. Retrieved 2016.
  8. ^ "Japanese Emperor Akihito 'wishes to abdicate'". BBC News. 13 July 2016. Retrieved 2016.
  9. ^ "Japan rings in new era as Naruhito becomes emperor". Al Jazeera. 30 April 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  10. ^ a b Brown & Ishida (1979), p. 32.
  11. ^ Ponsonby-Fane, Richard. (1956). Kyoto: the Old Capital of Japan, 794-1869, p. 321.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h Murray (1894) p. 402, citing Bramsen (1880) pp. 54-55.The year-periods (neng?) do not ordinarily overlap with the reigns of the early monarchs; and generally, a new one was chosen whenever it was deemed necessary to commemorate an auspicious or ward off a malign event.
  13. ^ "The Japanese Calendar", National Diet Library, Japan
  14. ^ "?" (in Japanese). Archived from the original on 19 October 2007.
  15. ^ "JapaneseDate (Java Platform SE 8 )". Archived from the original on 15 May 2015.
  16. ^ "The Japanese Calendar's Y2K Moment".
  17. ^ "JDK 11 Release Notes, Important Changes, and Information". www.oracle.com. Retrieved 2018. Japanese calendars, both in java.time.chrono and java.util packages support the upcoming Japanese new era, which will be in effect from May 1st, 2019. While the name of the era was yet to be known, placeholder names ("" for Japanese, "NewEra" for other languages) are provided for its display names. The placeholder names will be replaced with the legitimate era name, Reiwa, in a future update, thus applications should not depend on those placeholder names.
  18. ^ Kishida, Naoki (14 July 2018). "Java 11 API Change Proposals". DZone Java. Retrieved 2018.
  19. ^ Request to reserve the code point for square Japanese new era name (PDF), 19 December 2017
  20. ^ The Japan National Body (23 May 2018), Update on SC2 N4577 "Request to reserve the code point for square Japanese new era name" (PDF)
  21. ^ "RESOLUTION M 23-10", Resolutions of the 23rd ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 2 Plenary Meeting, 28 June 2018
  22. ^ Future Additions to ISO/IEC 10646 (January 2018) (PDF), 25 January 2018
  23. ^ "Proposed New Characters: Pipeline Table". Unicode Consortium. 30 June 2018.
  24. ^ Whistler, Ken (16 July 2018), Unicode 12.1 Planning Considerations
  25. ^ Tsuchihashi (1952), p. 16.
  26. ^ NengoCalc (645) Taika
  27. ^ Brown & Ishida (1979) pp. 266-267; Varley (1980) pp. 132-133; Titsingh (1834) pp. 47-50
  28. ^ NengoCalc (650) Hakuchi
  29. ^ a b Compare Nussbaum (2005) "Hakuh?" p. 280; "Hakuhou jidai". JAANUS (Japanese Architecture and Art Net Users System). 2001. Retrieved 2011.
  30. ^ NengoCalc (686) Such?
  31. ^ Brown & Ishida (1979) pp. 268-269; Varley (1980), pp. 135-136; Titsingh (1834) pp. 58-59
  32. ^ NengoCalc (701) Taih?
  33. ^ Brown & Ishida (1979) pp. 270-271; Varley (1980), pp. 137-140; Titsingh (1834) pp. 60-63
  34. ^ Brown & Ishida (1979) p. 271; Varley (1980), p. 140; Titsingh (1834) pp. 63-65
  35. ^ Brown & Ishida (1979) pp. 271-272; Varley (1980), pp. 140-141; Titsingh (1834) pp. 65-67
  36. ^ Brown & Ishida (1979) pp. 272-273; Varley (1980), pp. 141-143; Titsingh (1834) pp. 67-73
  37. ^ Brown & Ishida (1979) pp. 274-275; Varley (1980), p. 143; Titsingh (1834) pp. 73-75
  38. ^ Brown & Ishida (1979) p. 275; Varley (1980), pp. 143-144; Titsingh (1834) pp. 75-78
  39. ^ Brown & Ishida (1979) p. 276; Varley (1980), pp. 144-147; Titsingh (1834) pp. 78-81
  40. ^ Brown & Ishida (1979) pp. 276-277; Varley (1980), pp. 147-148; Titsingh (1834) pp. 81-85
  41. ^ Brown & Ishida (1979) pp. 277-279; Varley (1980), pp. 148-150; Titsingh (1834) pp. 86-95
  42. ^ Brown & Ishida (1979) pp. 279-280; Varley (1980), p. 151; Titsingh (1834) pp. 96-97
  43. ^ Brown & Ishida (1979) pp. 280-282; Varley (1980), pp. 151-164; Titsingh (1834) pp. 97-102
  44. ^ Brown & Ishida (1979) pp. 282-283; Varley (1980), p. 164; Titsingh (1834) pp. 103-106
  45. ^ Brown & Ishida (1979) pp. 283-284; Varley (1980), pp. 164-165; Titsingh (1834) pp. 106-112
  46. ^ Brown & Ishida (1979) pp. 285-286; Varley (1980), p. 165; Titsingh (1834) pp. 112-115
  47. ^ Brown & Ishida (1979) pp. 286-288; Varley (1980), pp. 166-170; Titsingh (1834) pp. 115-121
  48. ^ Brown & Ishida (1979) pp. 288-289; Varley (1980), pp. 170-171; Titsingh (1834) pp. 121-124
  49. ^ Brown & Ishida (1979) p. 289; Varley (1980), pp. 171-175; Titsingh (1834) pp. 124-125
  50. ^ Brown & Ishida (1979) pp. 289-290; Varley (1980), pp. 175-179; Titsingh (1834) pp. 125-129
  51. ^ Brown & Ishida (1979) pp. 290-293; Varley (1980), pp. 179-181; Titsingh (1834) pp. 129-134
  52. ^ Brown & Ishida (1979) pp. 294-295; Varley (1980), pp. 181-183; Titsingh (1834) pp. 134-138
  53. ^ Brown & Ishida (1979) pp. 295-298; Varley (1980), pp. 183-190; Titsingh (1834) pp. 139-142
  54. ^ Brown & Ishida (1979) p. 298; Varley (1980), pp. 190-191; Titsingh (1834) pp. 142-143
  55. ^ Brown & Ishida (1979) pp. 299-300; Varley (1980), pp. 191-192; Titsingh (1834) pp. 144-148
  56. ^ Brown & Ishida (1979) pp. 300-302; Varley (1980), p. 192; Titsingh (1834) pp. 148-149
  57. ^ Brown & Ishida (1979) pp. 302-307; Varley (1980), pp. 192-195; Titsingh (1834) pp. 150-154
  58. ^ Brown & Ishida (1979) p. 307; Varley (1980), p. 195; Titsingh (1834) pp. 154-155
  59. ^ Brown & Ishida (1979) pp. 307-310; Varley (1980), pp. 195-196; Titsingh (1834) pp. 156-160
  60. ^ Brown & Ishida (1979) pp. 310-311; Varley (1980), p. 197; Titsingh (1834) pp. 160-162
  61. ^ Brown & Ishida (1979) pp. 311-314; Varley (1980), pp. 197-198; Titsingh (1834) pp. 162-166
  62. ^ Brown & Ishida (1979) pp. 314-315; Varley (1980), pp. 198-199; Titsingh (1834) pp. 166-168
  63. ^ Brown & Ishida (1979) pp. 315-317; Varley (1980), pp. 199-202; Titsingh (1834) pp. 169-171
  64. ^ Brown & Ishida (1979) pp. 317-320; Varley (1980), p. 202; Titsingh (1834) pp. 172-178
  65. ^ Brown & Ishida (1979) pp. 320-322; Varley (1980), pp. 203-204; Titsingh (1834) pp. 178-181
  66. ^ Brown & Ishida (1979) pp. 322-324; Varley (1980), pp. 204-205; Titsingh (1834) pp. 181-185
  67. ^ Brown & Ishida (1979) pp. 324-326; Varley (1980), p. 205; Titsingh (1834) pp. 186-188
  68. ^ Brown & Ishida (1979) pp. 326-327; Varley (1980), pp. 205-208; Titsingh (1834) pp. 188-190188-190.
  69. ^ Brown & Ishida (1979) pp. 327-329; Varley (1980), pp. 208-212; Titsingh (1834) pp. 191-194
  70. ^ a b Brown & Ishida (1979) pp. 329-330; Varley (1980), p. 212; Titsingh (1834) pp. 194-195
  71. ^ Brown & Ishida (1979) pp. 333-334; Varley (1980), pp. 214-215; Titsingh (1834) pp. 20-207
  72. ^ Brown & Ishida (1979) pp. 334-339; Varley (1980), pp. 215-220; Titsingh (1834) pp. 207-221
  73. ^ Brown & Ishida (1979) pp. 339-341; Varley (1980), p. 220; Titsingh (1834) pp. 221-230
  74. ^ Brown & Ishida (1979) pp. 341-343; Varley (1980), pp. 221-223; Titsingh (1834) pp. 230-238
  75. ^ Brown & Ishida (1979) pp. 343-344; Varley (1980), pp. 223-226; Titsingh (1834) pp. 236-238
  76. ^ Brown & Ishida (1979) pp. 344-349; Varley (1980), pp. 226-227; Titsingh (1834) pp. 238-241
  77. ^ Varley (1980), p. 227; Titsingh (1834) pp. 242-245
  78. ^ Varley (1980), pp. 228-231; Titsingh (1834) pp. 245-247
  79. ^ Varley (1980), pp. 231-232; Titsingh (1834) pp. 248-253
  80. ^ Varley (1980), pp. 232-233; Titsingh (1834) pp. 253-261
  81. ^ Varley (1980), pp. 233-237; Titsingh (1834) pp. 262-269
  82. ^ Varley (1980), pp. 237-238; Titsingh (1834) pp. 269-274
  83. ^ Varley (1980), pp. 238-239; Titsingh (1834) pp. 274-275
  84. ^ Varley (1980), p. 239; Titsingh (1834) pp. 275-278
  85. ^ Varley (1980), pp. 239-241; Titsingh (1834) pp. 278-281
  86. ^ Varley (1980), pp. 241-269; Titsingh (1834) pp. 281-286, 290-294
  87. ^ Titsingh (1834) pp. 327-331
  88. ^ Titsingh (1834) pp. 331-351
  89. ^ Titsingh (1834) pp. 352-364
  90. ^ Titsingh (1834) pp. 364-372
  91. ^ Titsingh (1834) pp. 372-382
  92. ^ Titsingh (1834) pp. 382-402
  93. ^ Titsingh (1834) pp. 402-409
  94. ^ Titsingh (1834) pp. 410-411
  95. ^ Titsingh (1834) pp. 411-412
  96. ^ Titsingh (1834) pp. 412-413
  97. ^ Titsingh (1834) p. 413
  98. ^ Titsingh (1834) pp. 414-415
  99. ^ Titsingh (1834) pp. 415-416
  100. ^ Titsingh (1834) pp. 416-417
  101. ^ Titsingh (1834) pp. 417-418
  102. ^ Titsingh (1834) pp. 418-419
  103. ^ Titsingh (1834) p. 419
  104. ^ Titsingh (1834) pp. 419-420
  105. ^ Titsingh (1834) pp. 420-421
  106. ^ Titsingh (1834) p. 421
  107. ^ The National Diet Library (NDL) website explains that "Japan organized its first calendar in the 12th year of Suiko (604)", which was a pre-neng? time frame; Nussbaum (2005) "Jikkan J?nishi" p. 420.
  108. ^ NengoCalc (655) Saimei
  109. ^ NengoCalc (622) Tenji
  110. ^ NengoCalc (672) K?bun
  111. ^ NengoCalc (673) Tenmu
  112. ^ NengoCalc (687) Jit?
  113. ^ NengoCalc (697) Monmu

References

External links


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