Nephrozoa
Get Nephrozoa essential facts below. View Videos or join the Nephrozoa discussion. Add Nephrozoa to your PopFlock.com topic list for future reference or share this resource on social media.
Nephrozoa

Nephrozoa is a major clade of bilaterians, divided into the protostomes and the deuterostomes, containing almost all animal phyla and over a million extant species. Its sister clade is the Xenacoelomorpha. The Ambulacraria (conventionally deuterostomes) was formerly thought to be sister to the Xenacoelomorpha, forming the Xenambulacraria as basal Deuterostomes, or basal Bilateria invalidating Nephrozoa and Deuterostomes in earlier studies.[1][2][3] The coelom, the digestive tract and excretory organs, and nerve cords developed in the Nephrozoa.[4] It has been argued that, because protonephridia are only found in protostomes, they can not be considered a synapomorphy of this group. This would make Nephrozoa an improper name, leaving Eubilateria as this clade's name.[5]

Chordates (which include all the vertebrates) are deuterostomes.[6] It seems very likely that the 555 million year old Kimberella was a member of the protostomes.[7][8] If so, this means that the protostome and deuterostome lineages must have split some time before Kimberella appeared -- at least 558 million years ago, and hence well before the start of the Cambrian 541 million years ago.[6]


Bilateria

Xenacoelomorpha Proporus sp.png

Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia

Chordata Cyprinus carpio3.jpg

525 mya
Ambulacraria

Echinodermata Portugal 20140812-DSC01434 (21371237591).jpg

Hemichordata Balanoglossus by Spengel 1893.png

Protostomia

Ecdysozoa Long nosed weevil edit.jpg

Spiralia Grapevinesnail 01.jpg

610 mya
650 mya

References

  1. ^ Philippe, Hervé; Poustka, Albert J.; Chiodin, Marta; Hoff, Katharina J.; Dessimoz, Christophe; Tomiczek, Bartlomiej; Schiffer, Philipp H.; Müller, Steven; Domman, Daryl; Horn, Matthias; Kuhl, Heiner; Timmermann, Bernd; Satoh, Noriyuki; Hikosaka-Katayama, Tomoe; Nakano, Hiroaki; Rowe, Matthew L.; Elphick, Maurice R.; Thomas-Chollier, Morgane; Hankeln, Thomas; Mertes, Florian; Wallberg, Andreas; Rast, Jonathan P.; Copley, Richard R.; Martinez, Pedro; Telford, Maximilian J. (2019). "Mitigating Anticipated Effects of Systematic Errors Supports Sister-Group Relationship between Xenacoelomorpha and Ambulacraria". Current Biology. 29 (11): 1818-1826.e6. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2019.04.009. hdl:21.11116/0000-0004-DC4B-1. ISSN 0960-9822. PMID 31104936. S2CID 155104811.
  2. ^ Marlétaz, Ferdinand (2019-06-17). "Zoology: Worming into the Origin of Bilaterians". Current Biology. 29 (12): R577-R579. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2019.05.006. ISSN 0960-9822. PMID 31211978.
  3. ^ Kapli, Paschalia; Telford, Maximilian J. (11 Dec 2020). "Topology-dependent asymmetry in systematic errors affects phylogenetic placement of Ctenophora and Xenacoelomorpha". Science Advances. 6 (10). doi:10.1126/sciadv.abc5162. Retrieved 2020.
  4. ^ Cannon, Johanna Taylor; Vellutini, Bruno Cossermelli; Smith, Julian; Ronquist, Fredrik; Jondelius, Ulf; Hejnol, Andreas (2016). "Xenacoelomorpha is the sister group to Nephrozoa". Nature. 530 (7588): 89-93. Bibcode:2016Natur.530...89C. doi:10.1038/nature16520. PMID 26842059. S2CID 205247296.
  5. ^ "Animal Evolution: Interrelationships of the Living Phyla. Third Edition. By Claus Nielsen. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. $135.00 (hardcover); $69.99 (paper). x + 402 p. + 9 pl.; ill.; systematic and subject indexes. ISBN: 978-0-19-960602-3 (hc); 978-0-19-960603-0 (pb). 2012". The Quarterly Review of Biology. 87 (3): 258. September 2012. doi:10.1086/666815. ISSN 0033-5770.
  6. ^ a b Erwin, Douglas H.; Eric H. Davidson (1 July 2002). "The last common bilaterian ancestor". Development. 129 (13): 3021-3032. PMID 12070079.
  7. ^ New data on Kimberella, the Vendian mollusc-like organism (White sea region, Russia): palaeoecological and evolutionary implications (2007), "Fedonkin, M.A.; Simonetta, A; Ivantsov, A.Y.", in Vickers-Rich, Patricia; Komarower, Patricia (eds.), The Rise and Fall of the Ediacaran Biota, Special publications, 286, London: Geological Society, pp. 157-179, doi:10.1144/SP286.12, ISBN 9781862392335, OCLC 156823511CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  8. ^ Butterfield, N.J. (December 2006). "Hooking some stem-group "worms": fossil lophotrochozoans in the Burgess Shale". BioEssays. 28 (12): 1161-6. doi:10.1002/bies.20507. PMID 17120226. S2CID 29130876.

Further reading

External links


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

Nephrozoa
 



 



 
Music Scenes