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New Brunswick is noted for its ethnic diversity. At one time, one quarter of the Hungarian population of New Jersey resided in the city and in the 1930s one out of three city residents was Hungarian. The Hungarian community continues to exist, alongside growing Asian and Hispanic communities that have developed around French Street near Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital.
Origins of the name
The area around present-day New Brunswick was first inhabited by the LenapeNative Americans. The first European settlement at the site of New Brunswick was made in 1681. The settlement here was called Prigmore's Swamp (1681-1697), then known as Inian's Ferry (1691-1714). In 1714, the settlement was given the name New Brunswick, after the city of Braunschweig (called Brunswick in the Low German language), in state of Lower Saxony, in Germany. Braunschweig was an influential and powerful city in the Hanseatic League and was an administrative seat for the Duchy of Hanover. Shortly after the first settlement of New Brunswick in colonial New Jersey, George, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and Elector of Hanover, became King George I of Great Britain. Alternatively, the city gets its name from King George II of Great Britain, the Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg.
The Trustees of Queen's College (now Rutgers University), founded in 1766, voted to locate the young college in New Brunswick, selecting the city over Hackensack, in Bergen County, New Jersey. Classes began in 1771 with one instructor, one sophomore, Matthew Leydt, and several freshmen at a tavern called the 'Sign of the Red Lion' on the corner of Albany and Neilson Streets (now the grounds of the Johnson & Johnson corporate headquarters). The Sign of the Red Lion was purchased on behalf of Queens College in 1771, and later sold to the estate of Jacob Rutsen Hardenbergh in 1791. Classes were held through the American Revolution in various taverns and boarding houses, and at a building known as College Hall on George Street, until Old Queens was erected in 1808. It remains the oldest building on the Rutgers University campus. The Queen's College Grammar School (now Rutgers Preparatory School) was established also in 1766, and shared facilities with the College until 1830, when it located in a building (now known as Alexander Johnston Hall) across College Avenue from Old Queens. After Rutgers University became the state university of New Jersey in 1945, the Trustees of Rutgers divested itself of Rutgers Preparatory School, which relocated in 1957 to an estate purchased from the Colgate-Palmolive Company in Franklin Township in neighboring Somerset County.
The New Brunswick Theological Seminary, founded in 1784 in New York, moved to New Brunswick in 1810, sharing its quarters with the fledgling Queen's College. (Queen's closed from 1810 to 1825 due to financial problems, and reopened in 1825 as Rutgers College.) The Seminary, due to overcrowding and differences over the mission of Rutgers College as a secular institution, moved to tract of land covering 7 acres (2.8 ha) located less than one-half mile (800 m) west, which it still occupies, although the land is now in the middle of Rutgers University's College Avenue campus.
New Brunswick was formed by royal charter on December 30, 1730, within other townships in Middlesex and Somerset counties and was reformed by royal charter with the same boundaries on February 12, 1763, at which time it was divided into north and south wards. New Brunswick was incorporated as a city by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on September 1, 1784.
Old Queens, the oldest building at Rutgers University
The existence of an African American community in New Brunswick dates back to the 18th century, when racial slavery was a part of life in the city and the surrounding area. Local slaveholders routinely bought and sold African American children, women, and men in New Brunswick in the late-eighteenth and early-nineteenth century. In this period, the Market-House was the center of commercial life in the city. It was located at the corner of Hiram Street and Queen Street (now Neilson Street) adjacent to the Raritan Wharf. The site was a place where residents of New Brunswick sold and traded their goods which made it an integral part of the city's economy. The Market-House also served as a site for regular slave auctions and sales.:101
By the late-eighteenth century, New Brunswick also became a hub for newspaper production and distribution. The Fredonian, a popular newspaper, was located less than a block away from the aforementioned Market-House and helped facilitate commercial transactions. A prominent part of the local newspapers were sections dedicated to private owners who would advertise their slaves for sale. The trend of advertising slave sales in newspapers shows that the New Brunswick residents typically preferred selling and buying slaves privately and individually rather than in large groups.:103 The majority of individual advertisements were for female slaves, and their average age at the time of the sale was 20 years old, which was considered the prime age for childbearing. Slave owners would get the most profit from the women who fit into this category because these women had the potential to reproduce another generation of enslaved workers. Additionally, in the urban environment of New Brunswick, there was a high demand for domestic labor, and female workers were preferred for cooking and housework tasks.:107
The New Jersey legislature passed An Act for the Gradual Abolition of Slavery in 1804. Under the provisions of this law, children born to enslaved women after July 4, 1804, would serve their master for a term of 21 years (for girls) or a term of 25 years (for boys), and after this term, they would gain their freedom. However, all individuals who were enslaved before July 4, 1804, would continue to be slaves for life and would never attain freedom under this law. New Brunswick continued to be home to enslaved African Americans alongside a growing community of free people of color. The 1810 United States Census listed 53 free Blacks and 164 slaves in New Brunswick.
African American spaces and institutions in the early 19th century
By the 1810s, some free African Americans lived in a section of the city called Halfpenny Town, which was located along the Raritan River by the east side of the city, near Queen (now Neilson) Street. Halfpenny Town was a place populated by free blacks and poorer white people who did not own slaves. This place was known as a social gathering for free blacks that was not completely influenced by white scrutiny and allowed free blacks to socialize among themselves. This does not mean that it was free from white eyes and was still under the derogatory effects of the slavery era.:99 In the early decades of the nineteenth century, White and either free or enslaved African Americans shared many of the same spaces in New Brunswick, particularly places of worship. The First Presbyterian Church, Christ Church, and First Reformed Church were popular among both Whites and Blacks, and New Brunswick was notable for its lack of spaces where African Americans could congregate exclusively. Most of the time Black congregants of these churches were under the surveillance of Whites.:113 That was the case until the creation of the African Association of New Brunswick in 1817.:114-115
Both free and enslaved African Americans were active in the establishment of the African Association of New Brunswick, whose meetings were first held in 1817.:112 The African Association of New Brunswick held a meeting every month, mostly in the homes of free blacks. Sometimes these meetings were held at the First Presbyterian Church. Originally intended to provide financial support for the African School of New Brunswick, the African Association grew into a space where blacks could congregate and share ideas on a variety of topics such as religion, abolition and colonization. Slaves were required to obtain a pass from their owner in order to attend these meetings. The African Association worked closely with Whites and was generally favored amongst White residents who believed it would bring more racial peace and harmony to New Brunswick.:114-115
The African Association of New Brunswick decided to establish the African School in 1822. The African School was first hosted in the home of Caesar Rappleyea in 1823.:114 The school was located on the upper end of Church Street in the downtown area of New Brunswick about two blocks away from the jail that held escaped slaves. Both free and enslaved Blacks were welcome to be members of the School.:116 Reverend Huntington (pastor of the First Presbyterian Church) and several other prominent Whites were trustees of the African Association of New Brunswick. These trustees supported the Association which made some slave owners feel safe sending their slaves there by using a permission slip process.:115 The main belief of these White supporters was that Blacks were still unfit for American citizenship and residence, and some trustees were connected with the American Colonization Society that advocated for the migration of free African Americans to Africa. The White trustees only attended some of the meetings of the African Association, and the Association was still unprecedented as a space for both enslaved and free Blacks to get together while under minimal supervision by Whites.:116-117
The African Association appears to have disbanded after 1824. By 1827, free and enslaved Black people in the city, including Joseph and Jane Hoagland, came together to establish the Mount Zion African Methodist Episcopal Church and purchased a plot of land on Division Street for the purpose of erecting a church building. This was the first African American church in Middlesex County. The church had approximately 30 members in its early years. The church is still in operation and is currently located at 39 Hildebrand Way.
Records from the April 1828 census, conducted by the New Brunswick Common Council, state that New Brunswick was populated with 4,435 white residents and 374 free African Americans. The enslaved population of New Brunswick in 1828 consisted of 57 slaves who must serve for life and 127 slaves eligible for manumission at age 21 or 25 due to the 1804 Act for the Gradual Abolition of Slavery. Free and enslaved African Americans made up 11 percent of New Brunswick's population in 1828, a relatively high percentage for New Jersey.:94 By comparison, as of the 1830 U.S. census, African Americans made up approximately 6.4% of the total population of New Jersey.
Jail and curfew in the 19th century
In 1824, the New Brunswick Common Council adopted a curfew for free people of color. Free African Americans were not allowed to be out after 10 PM on Saturday night. The Common Council also appointed a committee of white residents who were charged with rounding up and detaining free African Americans who appeared to be out of place according to white authorities.:98
New Brunswick became a notorious city for slave hunters, who sought to enforce the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850. Strategically located on the Raritan River, the city was also a vital hub for New Jersey's Underground Railroad. For runaway slaves in New Jersey, it served as a favorable route for those heading to New York and Canada. When African Americans tried to escape either to or from New Brunswick, they had a high likelihood of getting discovered and captured and sent to New Brunswick's gaol (pronounced "jail"), which was located on Prince Street, which by now is renamed Bayard Street.:96
New Brunswick began attracting a Hungarian immigrant population around the turn of the 20th century. Hungarians were primarily attracted to the city by employment at Johnson & Johnson factories located in the city. Hungarians settled mainly in what today is the Fifth Ward.
The immigrant population grew until the end of the early century immigration boom. During the Cold War, the community was revitalized by the decision to house refugees from the failed 1956 Hungarian Revolution at Camp Kilmer, in nearby Edison. Even though the Hungarian population has been largely supplanted by newer immigrants, there continues to be a Hungarian Festival in the city held on Somerset Street on the first Saturday of June each year. Many Hungarian institutions set up by the community remain and are active in the neighborhood, including: Magyar Reformed Church, Ascension Lutheran Church, St. Ladislaus Roman Catholic Church, St. Joseph Byzantine Catholic Church, Hungarian American Athletic Club, Aprokfalva Montessori Preschool, Széchenyi Hungarian Community School & Kindergarten, Teleki Pál Scout Home, Hungarian American Foundation, Vers Hangja, Hungarian Poetry Group, Bolyai Lecture Series on Arts and Sciences, Hungarian Alumni Association, Hungarian Radio Program, Hungarian Civic Association, Committee of Hungarian Churches and Organizations of New Brunswick, and Cs?rdöngöl? Folk Dance Ensemble.
Several landmarks in the city also testify to its Hungarian heritage. There is a street and a recreation park named after Lajos Kossuth, the famous leader of the Hungarian Revolution of 1848. The corner of Somerset Street and Plum Street is named Mindszenty Square where the first ever statue of Cardinal Joseph Mindszenty was erected. A stone memorial to the victims of the 1956 Hungarian Revolution also stands nearby.
About 50% of New Brunswick's population is self-identified as Hispanic, the 14th highest percentage among municipalities in New Jersey. Since the 1960s, many of the new residents of New Brunswick have come from Latin America. Many citizens moved from Puerto Rico in the 1970s. In the 1980s, many immigrated from the Dominican Republic, and still later from Guatemala, Honduras, Ecuador and Mexico.
New Brunswick contains a number of examples of urban renewal in the United States. In the 1960s-1970s, the downtown area became blighted as middle class residents moved to newer suburbs surrounding the city, an example of the phenomenon known as "white flight." Beginning in 1975, Rutgers University, Johnson & Johnson and the local government collaborated through the New Jersey Economic Development Authority to form the New Brunswick Development Company (DevCo), with the goal of revitalizing the city center and redeveloping neighborhoods considered to be blighted and dangerous (via demolition of existing buildings and construction of new ones). Johnson & Johnson decided to remain in New Brunswick and built a new world headquarters building in the area between Albany Street, Amtrak's Northeast Corridor, Route 18, and George Street, requiring many old buildings and historic roads to be removed. The Hiram Market area, a historic district that by the 1970s had become a mostly Puerto Rican and Dominican-American neighborhood, was demolished to build a Hyatt hotel and conference center, and upscale housing. Johnson & Johnson guaranteed Hyatt Hotels' investment as they were wary of building an upscale hotel in a run-down area.
New Brunswick is one of nine cities in New Jersey designated as eligible for Urban Transit Hub Tax Credits by the state's Economic Development Authority. Developers who invest a minimum of $50 million within a half-mile of a train station are eligible for pro-rated tax credit.
The Gateway tower, a 22-story redevelopment project next to the train station, was completed in 2012. The structure consists of apartments and condominiums (named "The Vue") built above a multi-story parking structure with a bridge connecting it to the station. Boraie Development, a real estate development firm based in New Brunswick, has developed projects using the incentive.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city had a total area of 5.789 square miles (14.995 km2), including 5.227 square miles (13.539 km2) of land and 0.562 square miles (1.456 km2) of water (9.71%). New Brunswick is in Raritan Valley (a line of cities in central New Jersey). New Brunswick is on the south side of Raritan Valley along with Piscataway Township, Highland Park, Edison Township, and Franklin Township (Somerset County). New Brunswick lies southwest of Newark and New York City and northeast of Trenton and Philadelphia.
There were 14,119 households out of which 31.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 29.2% were married couples living together, 17.5% had a female householder with no husband present, and 45.1% were non-families. 25.8% of all households were made up of individuals, and 7.2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.36 and the average family size was 3.91.
In the city, the population was spread out with 21.1% under the age of 18, 33.2% from 18 to 24, 28.4% from 25 to 44, 12.2% from 45 to 64, and 5.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 23.3 years. For every 100 females there were 105.0 males. For every 100 females ages 18 and older there were 105.3 males.
The Census Bureau's 2006-2010 American Community Survey showed that (in 2010 inflation-adjusted dollars) median household income was $44,543 (with a margin of error of +/- $2,356) and the median family income was $44,455 (+/- $3,526). Males had a median income of $31,313 (+/- $1,265) versus $28,858 (+/- $1,771) for females. The per capita income for the borough was $16,395 (+/- $979). About 15.5% of families and 25.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.4% of those under age 18 and 16.9% of those age 65 or over.
There were 13,057 households of which 29.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 29.6% were married couples living together, 18.0% had a female householder with no husband present, and 44.8% were non-families. 24.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.23 and the average family size was 3.69.
20.1% of the population were under the age of 18, 34.0% from 18 to 24, 28.1% from 25 to 44, 11.3% from 45 to 64, and 6.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 24 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.8 males.
The median household income in the city was $36,080, and the median income for a family was $38,222. Males had a median income of $25,657 versus $23,604 for females. The per capita income for the city was $14,308. 27.0% of the population and 16.9% of families were below the poverty line. Out of the total people living in poverty, 25.9% were under the age of 18 and 13.8% were 65 or older.
Portions of the city are part of an Urban Enterprise Zone, one of 27 zones in the state. In addition to other benefits to encourage employment within the zone, shoppers can take advantage of a reduced 3.3125% sales tax rate (versus the 6.625% rate charged statewide, effective January 1, 2018) at eligible merchants. Established in 2004, the city's Urban Enterprise Zone status expires in December 2024.
The "Grease Trucks" at Rutgers University's College Avenue campus
The "Grease Trucks" were a group of truck-based food vendors located on the College Avenue campus of Rutgers University. They were known for serving "Fat Sandwiches," sub rolls containing several ingredients such as steak, chicken fingers, French fries, falafel, cheeseburgers, mozzarella sticks, gyro meat, bacon, eggs and marinara sauce. In 2013 the grease trucks were removed for the construction of a new Rutgers building and were forced to move into various other areas of the Rutgers-New Brunswick Campus.
New Brunswick's bar scene has been the home to many original rock bands, including some which went on to national prominence such as The Smithereens and Bon Jovi, as well as a center for local punk rock and underground music. Many alternative rock bands got radio airplay thanks to Matt Pinfield who was part of the New Brunswick music scene for over 20 years at Rutgers University radio station WRSU. Local pubs and clubs hosted many local bands, including the Court Tavern until 2012 (since reopened), and the Melody Bar during the 1980s and 1990s. As the New Brunswick basement scene grows in popularity, it was ranked the number 4 spot to see Indie bands in New Jersey. In March 2017, NewJersey.com wrote that "even if Asbury Park has recently returned as our state's musical nerve center, with the brick-and-mortar venues and infrastructure to prove it, New Brunswick remains as the New Jersey scene's unadulterated, pounding heart."
The City of New Brunswick is governed within the Faulkner Act, formally known as the Optional Municipal Charter Law, under the Mayor-Council system of municipal government. The governing body consists of a mayor and a five-member City Council, all elected at-large in partisan elections to four-year terms of office in even years as part of the November general election. The City Council's five members are elected on a staggered basis, with either two or three seats coming up for election every other year. As the legislative body of New Brunswick's municipal government, the City Council is responsible for approving the annual budget, ordinances and resolutions, contracts, and appointments to boards and commissions. The Council President, elected to a two-year term by the members of the Council, presides over all meetings.
As of 2018[update], DemocratJames Cahill is the 62nd Mayor of New Brunswick; he was sworn in as Mayor on January 1, 1991 and is serving a term that expires on December 31, 2018. Members of the City Council are Council President Glenn J. Fleming Sr. (D, 2020), Council Vice President John A. Andersen (D, 2020), Kevin P. Egan (D, 2018), Rebecca H. Escobar (D, 2018) and Suzanne M. Sicora Ludwig (D, 2020).
The New Brunswick police department has received attention for various incidents over the years. In 1991, the fatal shooting of Shaun Potts, an unarmed black resident, by Sergeant Zane Grey led to multiple local protests. In 1996, Officer James Consalvo fatally shot Carolyn "Sissy" Adams, an unarmed prostitute who had bit him. The Adams case sparked calls for reform in the New Brunswick police department, and ultimately was settled with the family. Two officers, Sgt. Marco Chinchilla and Det. James Marshall, were convicted of running a bordello in 2001. Chinchilla was sentenced to three years and Marshall was sentenced to four. In 2011, Officer Brad Berdel fatally shot Barry Deloatch, a black man who had run from police (although police claim he struck officers with a stick); this sparked daily protests from residents.
Following the Deloatch shooting, sergeant Richard Rowe was formally charged with mishandling 81 Internal Affairs investigations; Mayor Cahill explained that this would help "rebuild the public's trust and confidence in local law enforcement."
Federal, state and county representation
New Brunswick is located in the 6th Congressional District and is part of New Jersey's 17th state legislative district.
Middlesex County is governed by a Board of Chosen Freeholders, whose seven members are elected at-large on a partisan basis to serve three-year terms of office on a staggered basis, with either two or three seats coming up for election each year as part of the November general election. At an annual reorganization meeting held in January, the board selects from among its members a Freeholder Director and Deputy Director. As of 2015[update], Middlesex County's Freeholders (with party affiliation, term-end year, residence and committee chairmanship listed in parentheses) are
Freeholder Director Ronald G. Rios (D, term ends December 31, 2015, Carteret; Ex-officio on all committees),
Freeholder Deputy Director Carol Barrett Bellante (D, 2017; Monmouth Junction, South Brunswick Township; County Administration),
Kenneth Armwood (D, 2016, Piscataway; Business Development and Education),
Charles Kenny ( D, 2016, Woodbridge Township; Finance),
H. James Polos (D, 2015, Highland Park; Public Safety and Health),
Charles E. Tomaro (D, 2017, Edison; Infrastructure Management) and
Blanquita B. Valenti (D, 2016, New Brunswick; Community Services). Constitutional officers are
County Clerk Elaine M. Flynn (D, Old Bridge Township),
Sheriff Mildred S. Scott (D, 2016, Piscataway) and Surrogate
Kevin J. Hoagland (D, 2017; New Brunswick).
As of March 23, 2011, there were a total of 22,742 registered voters in New Brunswick, of which 8,732 (38.4%) were registered as Democrats, 882 (3.9%) were registered as Republicans and 13,103 (57.6%) were registered as Unaffiliated. There were 25 voters registered to other parties.
In the 2012 presidential election, Democrat Barack Obama received 83.4% of the vote (9,176 cast), ahead of Republican Mitt Romney with 14.3% (1,576 votes), and other candidates with 2.2% (247 votes), among the 11,106 ballots cast by the township's 23,536 registered voters (107 ballots were spoiled), for a turnout of 47.2%. In the 2008 presidential election, Democrat Barack Obama received 83.3% of the vote (10,717 cast), ahead of Republican John McCain with 14.8% (1,899 votes) and other candidates with 1.1% (140 votes), among the 12,873 ballots cast by the township's 23,533 registered voters, for a turnout of 54.7%. In the 2004 presidential election, Democrat John Kerry received 78.2% of the vote (8,023 ballots cast), outpolling Republican George W. Bush with 19.7% (2,018 votes) and other candidates with 0.7% (143 votes), among the 10,263 ballots cast by the township's 20,734 registered voters, for a turnout percentage of 49.5.
In the 2013 gubernatorial election, Democrat Barbara Buono received 66.5% of the vote (2,604 cast), ahead of Republican Chris Christie with 31.2% (1,220 votes), and other candidates with 2.3% (92 votes), among the 3,991 ballots cast by the township's 23,780 registered voters (75 ballots were spoiled), for a turnout of 16.8%. In the 2009 gubernatorial election, Democrat Jon Corzine received 68.2% of the vote (4,281 ballots cast), ahead of Republican Chris Christie with 20.9% (1,314 votes), Independent Chris Daggett with 6.2% (387 votes) and other candidates with 2.0% (128 votes), among the 6,273 ballots cast by the township's 22,534 registered voters, yielding a 27.8% turnout.
The New Brunswick Public Schools serve students in pre-kindergarten through twelfth grade. The district is one of 31 former Abbott districts statewide, which are now referred to as "SDA Districts" based on the requirement for the state to cover all costs for school building and renovation projects in these districts under the supervision of the New Jersey Schools Development Authority. The district's nine-member Board of Education is elected at large, with three members up for election on a staggered basis each April to serve three-year terms of office; until 2012, the members of the Board of Education were appointed by the city's mayor.
Rutgers University has three campuses in the city: College Avenue Campus (seat of the University), Douglass Campus, and Cook Campus, which extend into surrounding townships. Rutgers has also added several buildings downtown in the last two decades, both academic and residential.
On April 18, 1872, at New Brunswick, William Cameron Coup developed the system of loading circus equipment and animals on railroad cars from one end and through the train, rather than from the sides. This system would be adopted by other railroad circuses and used through the golden age of railroad circuses and even by the Ringling shows today.
William H. Johnson (1829-1904), painter and wallpaper hanger, businessman and local crafts person, whose home (c. 1870) was placed on the State of New Jersey and National Registers of Historic Places in 2006.
^"A wet day in the Hub City", Home News Tribune, September 23, 1999. "A few days short of 60 years, on Wednesday, Sept. 16, a dreary, drizzly day just ahead of the deluge of Hurricane Floyd, the Home News Tribune sent 24 reporters, 9 photographers and one artist into the Hub City, as it is known, to take a peek into life in New Brunswick as it is in 1999."
^Staff. "NEW-JERSEY.; Miscellaneous Notes about New-Brunswick.", The New York Times, July 27, 1854. Accessed August 29, 2017. "If the 'desperately hot' weather permit, I purpose to give you a few items of general interest respecting this ancient Dutch settlement. However, with the mercury ranging from 78° to 98° in the shade, during the sixteen hours of sunshine, you will not expect much exertion on my part. DANIEL COOPER (says GORDON,) was the first recorded inhabitant of 'Prigmore's Swamp.'"
^Lee, Eunice. "Statue of New Brunswick Revolutionary War figure planned", The Star-Ledger, July 31, 2011. Accessed August 18, 2013. "New Brunswick Public Sculpture, a nonprofit, is commissioning a life-size bronze statue of Col. John Neilson, a New Jersey native who gave one of the earliest readings of the Declaration of Independence on July 9, 1776, while standing before a crowd in New Brunswick."
^History, Rutgers University. Accessed July 13, 2016. "In 1945 and 1956, state legislative acts designated Rutgers as The State University of New Jersey, a public institution."
^Rutgers College Grammar School, Rutgers University Common Repository. Accessed August 18, 2013. "The Rutgers Preparatory School remained in New Brunswick until 1957, when it moved to its current location in Somerset, N.J."
^ ab2016-17 Academic Catalog, New Brunswick Theological Seminary. Accessed August 29, 2017. "In 1796, the school moved to Brooklyn and in 1810 to New Brunswick, to serve better the church and its candidates for ministry. Since 1856, New Brunswick Seminary has carried on its life and work on its present New Brunswick campus."
^ abcdefghijklmnoArmstead, Shaun; Sutter, Brenann; Walker, Pamela; Wiesner, Caitlin (2016). ""And I Poor Slave Yet": The Precarity of Black Life in New Brunswick, 1766-1835". In Fuentes, Marisa; White, Deborah Gray. Scarlet and Black: Slavery and Dispossession in Rutgers History. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press. JSTORj.ctt1k3s9r0.9.
^New Jersey's African American Tour Guide, New Jersey Commerce and Economic Growth Commission. Accessed December 17, 2014. "At the southern edge of the Gateway Region is New Brunswick, a town with much culture to offer and African American history to explore. African Americans were living here as far back as 1790, and by 1810, the Census listed 53 free Blacks--and 164 slaves--out of the 469 families then living in town. One of the state's oldest Black churches, Mt. Zion A.M.E., at 25 Division Street, was founded in 1825."
^Martin, Antoinette. "In New Brunswick, a Mixed-Use Project Is Bustling", The New York Times, February 11, 2011. Accessed August 18, 2013. "The 624,000-square-foot building will have a public parking structure at the core of its first 10 stories; that core is to be wrapped in commercial and office space. A glass residential tower 14 stories tall will sit atop the parking structure ... As for the residences -- 10 floors of rentals and 4 levels of penthouse condos -- they are scheduled to be complete by April 2012."
^Raum, John O. The History of New Jersey: From Its Earliest Settlement to the Present Time, Volume 1, p. 246, J. E. Potter and company, 1877. Accessed August 18, 2013. "New Brunswick is divided into six wards. Its population in 1850 was 10,008; in 1860, 11,156; and in 1870, 15,058. It was incorporated as a city in 1784. Rutgers College built of a dark red freestone and finished in 1811 is located here." Census 1850 lists total population of 10,019.
^About the Museum, Zimmerli Art Museum at Rutgers University. Accessed August 29, 2017. "Founded in 1966 as the Rutgers University Art Gallery, the Jane Voorhees Zimmerli Art Museum was established in 1983 in response to the growth of the permanent collection."
^About Us, Rutgers University Geology Museum. Accessed August 29, 2017. "The Rutgers Geology Museum, one of the oldest collegiate geology collections in the United States, was founded by state geologist and Rutgers professor George Hammell Cook in 1872."
^Vostell - I disastri della pace/The Disasters of Peace. Varlerio Dehò, Edizioni Charta, Milano 1999, ISBN88-8158-253-8.
^Charles Be DeMille, Charles in Charge, Season 5, Prod. Michael Jacobs, Dir. Scott Baio, Writers, Jennifer Burton, David Lang, Perf. Scott Baio, Syndication, December 22, 1990. At about 7'35" into the episode, Charles says in a telephone conversation that someone will come "here to New Brunswick" to visit him.
^Morris, Wesley. "'Harold & Kumar' aims low, but achieves a high", The Boston Globe, July 30, 2004. Accessed January 11, 2015. "When they can't find a White Castle in their New Brunswick, N.J., neighborhood, a simple jaunt for slyders stretches into a Garden State odyssey that ends up capturing the feeling of being bored and nonwhite in New Jersey."
^About ALFWC, Abundant Life Family Worship Church. Accessed September 9, 2015. "The Abundant Life Family Worship Church was established in February 1991 and has become a place of inspiration and spiritual revitalization for many people in New Brunswick and surrounding communities."
^HistoryArchived 2015-09-25 at the Wayback Machine, Anshe Emeth Memorial Temple. Accessed August 29, 2017. "Anshe Emeth Memorial Temple, the fourth Jewish congregation founded in New Jersey, was established in New Brunswick on October 11, 1859."
^Varga, Emil, et. al. "History of Ascension Evangelical Lutheran Church"Archived 2015-09-30 at the Wayback Machine, Lutherans Online. Accessed September 9, 2015. "What persistence the original founders of the Hungarian Lutheran Church (now Ascension Lutheran Church) of New Brunswick had, who, in spite of many difficulties in securing a minister to be their pastor kept on having meetings, trying to find ways of making their religious dreams become a reality. They were immigrants from Hungary - most of them quite young- who brought with them their religious faith."
^David Abeel 1804 ~ 1846Archived 2015-08-05 at the Wayback Machine, Biographical Dictionary of Chinese Christianity. Accessed January 11, 2015. "Born in New Brunswick, New Jersey, Abeel had begun medical studies when a religious conversion turned him toward the Christian ministry."
^Schneider, Dan. "The Dan Schneider Interview 16: James Berardinelli", Cosmoetica.com, December 12, 2008. Accessed July 14, 2016. "I was born in New Brunswick, lived in Old Bridge for a year, then spent my childhood in Morristown and my teenage years in Cherry Hill."
^"Where PJ Feels At Home: An Interview With PJ Bond Part 2", Define the Meaning, January 7, 2011. Accessed September 9, 2015. "Once Out Smarting Simon stopped touring I started to live in New Brunswick permanently. It wasn't until 2008-2009 that I actually moved out of New Brunswick. I was pretty much there for about ten years on and off. That to me is why I call it home."
^Makin, Bob. "Hub City Music Fest commissions '48 Hour Musicals'", Courier News, April 5, 2015. Accessed August 29, 2017. "Producer-DJ Derrick 'Drop' Braxton, a New Brunswick native and lifelong resident, not only has created several songs within 48 hours with Red Giant partner, Chelsea 'Foxanne' Gohd, but also with nationally known Chicago rapper Lupe Fiasco."
^Gary Brokaw, Basketball-Reference.com. Accessed September 17, 2007.
^Tynes, Tyler. "Villanova recruit Jalen Brunson has basketball in his blood", SB Nation, April 3, 2015. Accessed September 9, 2015. "The Brunsons' level of winning isn't restricted to the hardwoods of Lincolnshire, Illinois, or the mean streets of New Brunswick, New Jersey, where Jalen was born, but their triumphs in athletics do tell part of their story."
^Howard, Cory. The Man Who Inspired The Words Of Forrest Gump Walks Across The Country ... Again", KHQ-TV, September 11, 2010. Accessed November 15, 2012. "To give Bobby hope, Louis promised he would run across America for him. In 1982, the teenager set out from New Brunswick, New Jersey for San Francisco, raising money and awareness along the way for the American Cancer Society. Sixty days later, he became the fastest and youngest runner to run across America."
^Uhlar, Janet. Liberty's Martyr: The Story of Dr. Joseph Warren, p. 320. Dog Ear Publishing, 2009. ISBN9781608440122. Accessed January 23, 2018. "Margaret Kemble Gage was born and reared in New Brunswick, New Jersey. After marrying British General Thomas Gage, she found her loyalties to be divided. Though no evidence exists that she informed Joseph Warren of her husband's plans the night of April 18, 1775, circumstantial evidence points to her indiscretion."
^"Dr. Vera Mae Green", The New York Times, January 18, 1982. Accessed January 23, 2018. "Dr. Vera Mae Green, an associate professor of anthropology at Rutgers University, died Saturday at the Princeton (N.J.) Medical Center after a long illness.She was 53 years old and lived in New Brunswick, N.J."
^Lawler, Sylvia. "Mel Harris Mindful Of What's Meaningful", The Morning Call, September 27, 1992. Accessed January 11, 2015. "She told me she was Mary Ellen Donegan ('very Irish'); that she'd left Bethlehem when she was six months old and was raised in New Brunswick, N.J., but that she still got back to Bethlehem because she had nearly a dozen cousins there."
^Feitl, Steve. "UFC 218 fighter Sabah Homasi got athletic start in East Brunswick", Asbury Park Press, November 30, 2017. Accessed January 22, 2018. "While Sabah Homasi only spent the first decade of his life in East Brunswick, he has vivid memories of growing up in the Garden State. ... The New Brunswick-born Homasi will be in Detroit on Saturday, competing for the Ultimate Fighting Championship in a preliminary bout on the UFC 218 event in the Motor City."
^Lawson, Edward. "In the News Columns", p. 119 in Opportunity: A Journal of Negro Life, Volumes 17-18. Accessed January 23, 2018. "When Governor A. Harry Moore of New Jersey recently reappointed Mrs. Christine Moore Howell of New Brunswick as one of the five commissioners on the State Board of Cosmetology, he paid tribute to a woman whose tireless energy and keen business acumen have won for her a unique place in American life."
^Home Page, Friends of the William H. Johnson House. Accessed January 11, 2015. "William H. Johnson was a prosperous New Brunswick businessman who owned a wallpaper hanging and house painting company, with business addresses on Church Street and Morris Street in New Brunswick."
^Staff. "Obituary: Robert Wood Johnson", p. 145. National Druggist, Volume 40. Accessed June 25, 2015. "Robert Wood Johnson, one of the founders and president of the well-known firm of Johnson & Johnson died after a brief illness at his home in New Brunswick, N. J., February 7, 1910."
^Joyce Kilmer Birthplace Open House, City of New Brunswick, December 6, 2016. Accessed August 29, 2017. "Alfred Joyce Kilmer, author of the well-known poem 'Trees,' was born in New Brunswick on December 6, 1886, 130 years ago."
^Olivier, Bobby. "Midtown reunion just part of NJ revival at Skate and Surf this weekend", NJ Advance Media for NJ.com, May 16, 2014. Accessed June 25, 2015. "Gabe Saporta could only dodge the discussion for so long. For years, the singer and his former bandmates were asked to reunite Midtown, their daring New Brunswick foursome that burned alongside pop-punk's brightest incendiaries in the early 2000s, only to smolder and disband in 2005."
^Bosso, Joe. "Ron 'Bumblefoot' Thal on DIY music distribution, Guns N' Roses and more", MusicRadar.com, April 22, 2011. Accessed March 24, 2013. "As a member of Guns N' Roses, Ron 'Bumblefoot' Thal has spent the better part of two years crisscrossing the globe on the Chinese Democracy tour and playing to packed enormodomes. But, for time being, the New Jersey resident, who has called the city of New Brunswick his home for the past 12 years, is enjoying a bit of normalcy in the Garden State."
^Staff. "The Story of His Life", The New York Times, December 9, 1885. Accessed March 24, 2013. "William H. Vanderbilt was the eldest son of Commodore Vanderbilt. He was born in New-Brunswick, N.J., in the old house where the Commodore lived a good part of his time at that period of his life, on May 8, 1821."
^"Young signs with Rangers", The Star-Ledger, August 12, 2006. "Young, out of Rutgers and New Brunswick, has played in 15 major- league seasons, including 2004 for the Rangers when they were in contention for the AL West title until the final week of the regular season."
^Miller, Randy. "Angels' Eric Young Jr., shares sad story of losing his 'angel'", NJ Advance Media for NJ.com, June 9, 2017. Accessed July 5, 2017. "Shortly after joining the club in an Aug. 31, trade, the Yankees were in Baltimore for a Labor Day weekend series when the New Brunswick native and Piscataway High alum learned he was going to be a first-time father."