Newt Gingrich
Get Newt Gingrich essential facts below. View Videos or join the Newt Gingrich discussion. Add Newt Gingrich to your topic list for future reference or share this resource on social media.
Newt Gingrich

Newt Gingrich
Newt Gingrich (16649199256) (cropped).jpg
50th Speaker of the United States House of Representatives

January 3, 1995 - January 3, 1999
Tom Foley
Dennis Hastert
Leader of the
House Republican Conference

January 3, 1995 - January 3, 1999
Robert H. Michel
Dennis Hastert
House Minority Whip

March 20, 1989 - January 3, 1995
LeaderRobert H. Michel
Dick Cheney
David Bonior
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Georgia's 6th district

January 3, 1979 - January 3, 1999
John Flynt
Johnny Isakson
Personal details
Newton Leroy McPherson

(1943-06-17) June 17, 1943 (age 78)
Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, U.S.
Political partyRepublican
Jackie Battley
(m. 1962; div. 1981)

Marianne Ginther
(m. 1981; div. 2000)

(m. 2000)
RelativesCandace Gingrich (half-sibling)
EducationEmory University (BA)
Tulane University (MA, PhD)
  • Politician
  • professor
  • businessman
  • author
WebsiteOfficial website

Newton Leroy Gingrich (; né McPherson; born June 17, 1943) is an American politician and author who served as the 50th speaker of the United States House of Representatives from 1995 to 1999. A member of the Republican Party, he was the U.S. representative for Georgia's 6th congressional district serving north Atlanta and nearby areas from 1979 until his resignation in 1999. In 2012, Gingrich unsuccessfully ran for the Republican nomination for President of the United States.

A professor of history and geography at the University of West Georgia in the 1970s, Gingrich won election to the U.S. House of Representatives in November 1978, the first Republican in the history of Georgia's 6th congressional district to do so. He served as House Minority Whip from 1989 to 1995.[1][2] A co-author and architect of the "Contract with America", Gingrich was a major leader in the Republican victory in the 1994 congressional election. In 1995, Time named him "Man of the Year" for "his role in ending the four-decades-long Democratic majority in the House".[3]

As House Speaker, Gingrich oversaw passage by the House of welfare reform and a capital gains tax cut in 1997. Gingrich played a key role in several government shutdowns, and impeached President Bill Clinton on a party-line vote in the House. The poor showing by Republicans in the 1998 congressional elections, a reprimand from the House for Gingrich's ethics violation, and pressure from Republican colleagues resulted in Gingrich's resignation from the speakership on November 6, 1998.[4] He resigned altogether from the House on January 3, 1999.[5] Political scientists have credited Gingrich with playing a key role in undermining democratic norms in the United States and hastening political polarization and partisanship.[6][7][8][9][10]

Since leaving the House, Gingrich has remained active in public policy debates and worked as a political consultant. He founded and chaired several policy think tanks, including American Solutions for Winning the Future and the Center for Health Transformation. Gingrich ran for the Republican nomination for president in the 2012 presidential election, and was considered a potential frontrunner at several points in the race.[11] Despite an impressive late victory in the South Carolina primary, Gingrich was ultimately unable to win enough primaries to sustain a viable candidacy, he withdrew from the race in May 2012 and endorsed eventual nominee Mitt Romney. Gingrich later emerged as a key ally of Donald Trump, and was reportedly among the finalists on Trump's short list for running mate in the 2016 election.[12] In 2020, Gingrich supported Trump's claims of voter fraud.[13]

Early life

Gingrich as a young history professor

Gingrich was born as Newton Leroy McPherson at the Harrisburg Hospital in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, on June 17, 1943. His mother, Kathleen "Kit" (née Daugherty; 1925-2003), and biological father, Newton Searles McPherson (1923-1970),[14] married in September 1942, when she was 16 and McPherson was 19. The marriage fell apart within days.[15][16][17] He is of English, German, Scottish and Scots-Irish descent.[18][19]

In 1946, his mother married Robert Gingrich (1925-1996), who adopted him.[20] Robert Gingrich was a career Army officer who served tours in Korea and Vietnam. In 1956, the family moved to Europe, living for a period in Orléans, France and Stuttgart, Germany.[21]

Gingrich has three younger half-sisters from his mother, Candace and Susan Gingrich, and Roberta Brown.[20] Gingrich was raised in Hummelstown (near Harrisburg) and on military bases where his adoptive father was stationed. The family's religion was Lutheran.[22] He also has a half-sister and half-brother, Randy McPherson, from his biological father's side. In 1960 during his junior year in high school, the family moved to Georgia at Fort Benning.[21]

In 1961, Gingrich graduated from Baker High School in Columbus, Georgia, where he met, and later married, his math teacher. He had been interested in politics since his teen years. While living with his family in Orléans, France, he visited the site of the Battle of Verdun and learned about the sacrifices made there and the importance of political leadership.[23]

Gingrich received a Bachelor of Arts degree in history from Emory University in Atlanta in 1965. He went on to graduate study at Tulane University, earning an M.A. (1968) and a Ph.D. in European history (1971).[24] He spent six months in Brussels in 1969-70 working on his dissertation, Belgian Education Policy in the Congo 1945-1960.[25]

Gingrich received deferments from the military during the years of the Vietnam War for being a student and a father. In 1985, he stated, "Given everything I believe in, a large part of me thinks I should have gone over."[26]

In 1970, Gingrich joined the history department at West Georgia College, where he spent "little time teaching history." He coordinated a new environmental studies program and was removed from the history department "by 1976". During his time in the college, he took unpaid leave three times to run for the House of Representatives, losing twice before leaving the college. Serving professors were not allowed under the rules of the university system to run for office. He left the college in 1977 after being denied tenure.[27]

Early political career

Gingrich was the southern regional director for Nelson Rockefeller in the 1968 Republican primaries.[28]

Congressional campaigns

In 1974, Gingrich made his first bid for political office as the Republican candidate in Georgia's 6th congressional district in north-central Georgia, which includes many of the northern suburbs of Atlanta, portions of eastern Cobb County, northern Fulton County, and northern DeKalb County. He lost to 20-year incumbent Democrat Jack Flynt by 2,770 votes. Gingrich ran up huge margins in the suburban areas of the district, but was unable to overcome Flynt's lead in the more urban areas.[29] Gingrich's relative success surprised political analysts. Flynt had never faced a serious challenger; Gingrich was the second Republican to ever run against him.[30] He did well against Flynt although 1974 was a disastrous year for Republican candidates nationally due to fallout from the Watergate scandal of the Nixon administration, but also the impact of election of Georgia native Jimmy Carter.[31]

Gingrich sought a rematch against Flynt in 1976. While the Republicans did slightly better in the 1976 House elections than in 1974 nationally, the Democratic candidate in the 1976 presidential election was former Governor of Georgia Jimmy Carter. Carter won more than two-thirds of the vote in his native Georgia.[32] Gingrich lost his race by 5,100 votes.[33]

As Gingrich primed for another run in the 1978 elections, Flynt decided to retire. Gingrich defeated Democratic State Senator Virginia Shapard by 7,500 votes.[34][35] Gingrich was re-elected five times from this district.[36] He faced a close general election race once--in the House elections of 1990--when he won by 978 votes in a primary race against Republican Herman Clark and won a narrow 974 vote victory over Democrat David Worley in the general.[37] Although the district was trending Republican at the national level, conservative Democrats continued to hold most local offices, as well as most of the area's seats in the General Assembly, well into the 1980s.[38]


In 1981, Gingrich co-founded the Military Reform Caucus (MRC) and the Congressional Aviation and Space Caucus. During the 1983 congressional page sex scandal, Gingrich was among those calling for the expulsion of representatives Dan Crane and Gerry Studds.[39] Gingrich supported a proposal to ban loans from the International Monetary Fund to Communist countries and he endorsed a bill to make Martin Luther King Jr. Day a new federal holiday.[40]

Gingrich traveling with President Ronald Reagan aboard Air Force One in August 1983

In 1983, Gingrich founded the Conservative Opportunity Society (COS), a group that included young conservative House Republicans. Early COS members included Robert Smith Walker, Judd Gregg, Dan Coats and Connie Mack III. The group gradually expanded to include several dozen representatives,[41] who met each week to exchange and develop ideas.[40]

Gingrich's analysis of polls and public opinion identified the group's initial focus.[41] Ronald Reagan adopted the "opportunity society" ideas for his 1984 re-election campaign, supporting the group's conservative goals on economic growth, education, crime, and social issues. He had not emphasized these during his first term.[42] Reagan also referred to an "opportunity" society in the first State of the Union address of his second term.[41]

Gingrich meets with President Reagan in the Oval Office in May 1985

In March 1988, Gingrich voted against the Civil Rights Restoration Act of 1987 (as well as to uphold President Reagan's veto).[43][44] In May 1988, Gingrich (along with 77 other House members and Common Cause) brought ethics charges against Democratic Speaker Jim Wright, who was alleged to have used a book deal to circumvent campaign-finance laws and House ethics rules. During the investigation, it was reported that Gingrich had his own unusual book deal, for Window of Opportunity, in which publicity expenses were covered by a limited partnership. It raised $105,000 from Republican political supporters to promote sales of Gingrich's book.[45] Gingrich's success in forcing Wright's resignation contributed to his rising influence in the Republican caucus.[46]

In March 1989, Gingrich became House Minority Whip in a close election against Edward Rell Madigan.[47] This was Gingrich's first formal position of power within the Republican party.[48] He said his intention was to "build a much more aggressive, activist party".[47] Early in his role as Whip, in May 1989, Gingrich was involved in talks about the appointment of a Panamanian administrator of the Panama Canal, which was scheduled to occur in 1989 subject to U.S. government approval. Gingrich was outspoken in his opposition to giving control over the canal to an administrator appointed by the dictatorship in Panama.[49]

Gingrich and others in the House, including the newly minted Gang of Seven, railed against what they saw as ethical lapses during the nearly 40 years of Democratic control. The House banking scandal and Congressional Post Office scandal were emblems of the exposed corruption. Gingrich himself was among members of the House who had written NSF checks on the House bank. He had overdrafts on twenty-two checks, including a $9,463 check to the Internal Revenue Service in 1990.[50]

In 1990, after consulting focus groups[51] with the help of pollster Frank Luntz,[52] GOPAC distributed a memo with a cover letter signed by Gingrich titled "Language, a Key Mechanism of Control", that encouraged Republicans to "speak like Newt". It contained lists of "contrasting words"--words with negative connotations such as "radical", "sick," and "traitors"--and "optimistic positive governing words" such as "opportunity", "courage", and "principled", that Gingrich recommended for use in describing Democrats and Republicans, respectively.[51]

Gingrich sits alongside First Lady Barbara Bush in December 1989

Due to population increases recorded in the 1990 United States census, Georgia picked up an additional seat for the 1992 U.S. House elections. However, the Democratic-controlled Georgia General Assembly, under the leadership of fiercely partisan Speaker of the House Tom Murphy, specifically targeted Gingrich, eliminating the district Gingrich represented.[53] Gerrymandering split Gingrich's territory among three neighboring districts. Much of the southern portion of Gingrich's district, including his home in Carrollton, was drawn into the Columbus-based 3rd district, represented by five-term Democrat Richard Ray. Gingrich remarked that "The Speaker, by raising money and gerrymandering, has sincerely dedicated a part of his career to wiping me out."[53] Charles S. Bullock III, a political science professor at the University of Georgia, said "Speaker Murphy didn't like having a Republican represent him."[54] At the onset of the decade, Gingrich proved to be the only Republican representative of Georgia's 10 congressional districts until 1992, with the creation of Georgia's 4th congressional district and the Republican gains of Jack Kingston and Mac Collins.[55]

The Assembly created a new, heavily Republican 6th district in Fulton and Cobb counties in the wealthy northern suburbs of Atlanta--an area that Gingrich had never represented. Gingrich sold his home in Carrollton and moved to Marietta in the new district. His primary opponent, State Representative Herman Clark, who had challenged Gingrich two years earlier, made an issue out of Gingrich's 22 overdraft checks in the House banking scandal, and also criticized Gingrich for moving into the district. After a recount, Gingrich prevailed by 980 votes, with a 51 to 49 percent result.[56] His winning the primary all but assured him of election in November. He was re-elected three times from this district against nominal Democratic opposition.[54]

In the 1994 campaign season, in an effort to offer an alternative to Democratic policies and to unite distant wings of the Republican Party, Gingrich and several other Republicans came up with a Contract with America, which laid out 10 policies that Republicans promised to bring to a vote on the House floor during the first 100 days of the new Congress, if they won the election.[57] The contract was signed by Gingrich and other Republican candidates for the House of Representatives. The contract ranged from issues such as welfare reform, term limits, crime, and a balanced budget/tax limitation amendment, to more specialized legislation such as restrictions on American military participation in United Nations missions.[58]

Republican Revolution

In the November 1994 midterm elections, Republicans gained 54 seats and took control of the House for the first time since 1954. Long-time House Minority Leader Bob Michel of Illinois had not run for re-election, giving Gingrich, the highest-ranking Republican returning to Congress, the inside track at becoming Speaker. The midterm election that turned congressional power over to Republicans "changed the center of gravity" in the nation's capital.[59] Time magazine named Gingrich its 1995 "Man of the Year" for his role in the election.[3]

Speaker of the House

Official portrait of Speaker Gingrich

The House fulfilled Gingrich's promise to bring all ten of the Contract's issues to a vote within the first 100 days of the session. President Clinton called it the "Contract on America".[60]

Legislation proposed by the 104th United States Congress included term limits for Congressional Representatives, tax cuts, welfare reform, and a balanced budget amendment, as well as independent auditing of the finances of the House of Representatives and elimination of non-essential services such as the House barbershop and shoe-shine concessions. Following Gingrich's first two years as House Speaker, the Republican majority was re-elected in the 1996 election, the first time Republicans had done so in 68 years, and the first time simultaneously with a Democratic president winning re-election.[61]

As Speaker, Gingrich sought to increasingly tie Christian conservatism to the Republican Party. According to a 2018 study, Christian conservatism had become firmly ingrained in the Republican Party's policy platforms by 2000.[6] Yale University congressional scholar David Mayhew describes Gingrich as profoundly influential, saying "In Gingrich, we have as good a case as we are likely to see of a member of Congress operating in the public sphere with consequence."[62]

Role in political polarization

A number of scholars have credited Gingrich with playing a key role in undermining democratic norms in the United States, and hastening political polarization and partisan prejudice.[6][7][8][63][64][65][66][67][9][68][69][10] According to Harvard University political scientists Daniel Ziblatt and Steven Levitsky, Gingrich's speakership had a profound and lasting impact on American politics and health of American democracy. They argue that Gingrich instilled a "combative" approach in the Republican Party, where hateful language and hyper-partisanship became commonplace, and where democratic norms were abandoned. Gingrich frequently questioned the patriotism of Democrats, called them corrupt, compared them to fascists, and accused them of wanting to destroy the United States. Gingrich furthermore oversaw several major government shutdowns.[70][71][72][64]

University of Maryland political scientist Lilliana Mason identified Gingrich's instructions to Republicans to use words such as "betray, bizarre, decay, destroy, devour, greed, lie, pathetic, radical, selfish, shame, sick, steal, and traitors" about Democrats as an example of a breach in social norms and exacerbation of partisan prejudice.[6] Gingrich is a key figure in the 2017 book The Polarizers by Colgate University political scientist Sam Rosenfeld about the American political system's shift to polarization and gridlock.[7] Rosenfeld describes Gingrich as follows, "For Gingrich, responsible party principles were paramount... From the outset, he viewed the congressional minority party's role in terms akin to those found in parliamentary systems, prioritizing drawing stark programmatic contrasts over engaging the majority party as junior participants in governance."[7]

Boston College political scientist David Hopkins writes that Gingrich helped to nationalize American politics in a way where Democratic politicians on the state and local level were increasingly tied to the national Democratic party and President Clinton. Hopkins notes that Gingrich's view[69]

directly contradicted the conventional wisdom of politics... that parties in a two-party system achieve increasing electoral success as they move closer to the ideological center... Gingrich and his allies believed that an organized effort to intensify the ideological contrast between the congressional parties would allow the Republicans to make electoral inroads in the South. They worked energetically to tie individual Democratic incumbents to the party's more liberal national leadership while simultaneously raising highly charged cultural issues in Congress, such as proposed constitutional amendments to allow prayer in public schools and to ban the burning of the American flag, on which conservative positions were widely popular - especially among southern voters.

Gingrich's view was however vindicated with the Republican Party's success in the 1994 U.S. midterm elections, sometimes referred to as the "Gingrich Revolution."[69] Hopkins writes, "More than any speaker before or since, Gingrich had become both the strategic architect and public face of his party."[69] One consequence of the increasing nationalization of politics was that moderate Republican incumbents in blue states were left more vulnerable to electoral defeat.[69]

According to University of Texas political scientist Sean M. Theriault, Gingrich had a profound influence on other Republican lawmakers, in particular those who served with him in the House, as they adopted his obstructionist tactics.[8] A 2011 study by Theriault and Duke University political scientist David W. Rohde in the Journal of Politics found that "almost the entire growth in Senate party polarization since the early 1970s can be accounted for by Republican senators who previously served in the House after 1978" when Gingrich was first elected to the House.[73]

Gingrich consolidated power in the Speaker's office.[68] Gingrich elevated junior and more ideologically extreme House members to powerful committees, such as the Appropriations Committee, which over time led to the obliteration of internal norms in the committees.[66][74] Term limits were also imposed on committee chairs, which prevented Republican chairs from developing a power base separate from the Republican Party.[74] As a result, the power of Gingrich was strengthened and there was an increase in conformity among Republican congresspeople.[75]


Welfare reform

A central pledge of President Bill Clinton's campaign was to reform the welfare system, adding changes such as work requirements for recipients. However, by 1994, the Clinton administration appeared to be more concerned with pursuing a universal health care program. Gingrich accused Clinton of stalling on welfare, and proclaimed that Congress could pass a welfare reform bill in as little as 90 days. He insisted that the Republican Party would continue to apply political pressure on the President to approve their welfare legislation.[76]

In 1996, after constructing two welfare reform bills that Clinton vetoed,[77] Gingrich and his supporters pushed for passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act, which was intended to reconstruct the welfare system. The act gave state governments more autonomy over welfare delivery, while also reducing the federal government's responsibilities. It instituted the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families program, which placed time limits on welfare assistance and replaced the longstanding Aid to Families with Dependent Children program. Other changes to the welfare system included stricter conditions for food stamp eligibility, reductions in immigrant welfare assistance, and work requirements for recipients.[78] The bill was signed into law by President Clinton on August 22, 1996.[79]

In his 1998 book Lessons Learned the Hard Way, Gingrich encouraged volunteerism and spiritual renewal, placing more importance on families, creating tax incentives and reducing regulations for businesses in poor neighborhoods, and increasing property ownership by low-income families. He also praised Habitat for Humanity for sparking the movement to improve people's lives by helping them build their own homes.[80]

Balancing the federal budget

Gingrich and President Bill Clinton during a congressional budget negotiation meeting in December 1995

A key aspect of the 1994 Contract with America was the promise of a balanced federal budget. After the end of the government shutdown, Gingrich and other Republican leaders acknowledged that Congress would not be able to draft a balanced budget in 1996. Instead, they opted to approve some small reductions that were already approved by the White House and to wait until the next election season.[81]

By May 1997, Republican congressional leaders reached a compromise with Democrats and President Clinton on the federal budget. The agreement called for a federal spending plan designed to reduce the federal deficit and achieve a balanced budget by 2002. The plan included a total of $152 billion in bipartisan tax cuts over five years.[82] Other major parts of the spending plan called for $115 billion to be saved through a restructuring of Medicare, $24 billion set aside to extend health insurance to children of the working poor, tax credits for college tuition, and a $2 billion welfare-to-work jobs initiative.[83][84]

President Clinton signed the budget legislation in August 1997. At the signing, Gingrich gave credit to ordinary Americans stating, "It was their political will that brought the two parties together."[82]

In early 1998, with the economy performing better than expected, increased tax revenues helped reduce the federal budget deficit to below $25 billion. Clinton submitted a balanced budget for 1999, three years ahead of schedule originally proposed, making it the first time the federal budget had been balanced since 1969.[85]

Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997

In 1997, President Clinton signed into effect the Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997, which included the largest capital gains tax cut in U.S. history. Under the act, the profits on the sale of a personal residence ($500,000 for married couples, $250,000 for singles) were exempted if lived in for at least 2 years over the last 5. (This had previously been limited to a $125,000 once-in-a-lifetime exemption for those over the age of 55.)[86] There were also reductions in a number of other taxes on investment gains.[87][88]

Additionally, the act raised the value of inherited estates and gifts that could be sheltered from taxation.[88] Gingrich has been credited with creating the agenda for the reduction in capital gains tax, especially in the "Contract with America", which set out to balance the budget and implement decreases in estate and capital gains tax. Some Republicans felt that the compromise reached with Clinton on the budget and tax act was inadequate,[89] however Gingrich has stated that the tax cuts were a significant accomplishment for the Republican Congress in the face of opposition from the Clinton administration.[90] Gingrich along with Bob Dole had earlier set-up the Kemp Commission, headed by former US Secretary of Housing and Urban Development Jack Kemp, a tax reform commission that made several recommendations including that dividends, interest, and capital gains should be untaxed.[91][92]

Other legislation

Among the first pieces of legislation passed by the new Congress under Gingrich was the Congressional Accountability Act of 1995, which subjected members of Congress to the same laws that apply to businesses and their employees, including the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. As a provision of the Contract with America, the law was symbolic of the new Republican majority's goal to remove some of the entitlements enjoyed by Congress. The bill received near universal acceptance from the House and Senate and was signed into law on January 23, 1995.[93]

Gingrich shut down the highly regarded Office of Technology Assessment, and relied instead on what the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists called "self-interested lobbyists and think tanks".[94]

Government shutdown

Senator Bob Dole, Vice President Al Gore, President Clinton and Gingrich converge for budget negotiations in December 1995

Gingrich and the incoming Republican majority's promise to slow the rate of government spending conflicted with the president's agenda for Medicare, education, the environment and public health, leading to two temporary shutdowns of the federal government totaling 28 days.[95]

Clinton said Republican amendments would strip the U.S. Treasury of its ability to dip into federal trust funds to avoid a borrowing crisis. Republican amendments would have limited appeals by death-row inmates, made it harder to issue health, safety and environmental regulations, and would have committed the president to a seven-year balanced budget. Clinton vetoed a second bill allowing the government to keep operating beyond the time when most spending authority expires.[95]

A GOP amendment opposed by Clinton would not only have increased Medicare Part B premiums, but it would also cancel a scheduled reduction. The Republicans held out for an increase in Medicare Part B premiums in January 1996 to $53.50 a month. Clinton favored the then current law, which was to let the premium that seniors pay drop to $42.50.[95]

The government closed most non-essential offices during the shutdown, which was the longest in U.S. history at the time. The shutdown ended when Clinton agreed to submit a CBO-approved balanced budget plan.[96]

During the crisis, Gingrich's public image suffered from the perception that the Republicans' hardline budget stance was owed partly to an alleged snub of Gingrich by Clinton during a flight on Air Force One to and from Yitzhak Rabin's funeral in Israel.[97] That perception developed after the trip when Gingrich, while being questioned by Lars-Erik Nelson at a Christian Science Monitor breakfast, said that he was dissatisfied that Clinton had not invited him to discuss the budget during the flight.[98] He complained that he and Dole were instructed to use the plane's rear exit to deplane, saying the snub was "part of why you ended up with us sending down a tougher continuing resolution".[99] In response to Gingrich's complaint that they were "forced to use the rear door," NBC news released their videotape footage showing both Gingrich and Dole disembarking at Tel Aviv just behind Clinton via the front stairway.[100]

Gingrich was widely lampooned for implying that the government shutdown was a result of his personal grievances, including a widely shared editorial cartoon depicting him as a baby throwing a tantrum.[101][102][103][104]


Democratic leaders, including Chuck Schumer, took the opportunity to attack Gingrich's motives for the budget standoff.[105][106] In 1998, Gingrich said that these comments were his "single most avoidable mistake" as Speaker.[107]

Discussing the impact of the government shutdown on the Republican Party, Gingrich later commented that, "Everybody in Washington thinks that was a big mistake. They're exactly wrong. There had been no reelected Republican majority since 1928. Part of the reason we got reelected ... is our base thought we were serious. And they thought we were serious because when it came to a show-down, we didn't flinch."[108] In a 2011 op-ed in The Washington Post, Gingrich said that the government shutdown led to the balanced-budget deal in 1997 and the first four consecutive balanced budgets since the 1920s, as well as the first re-election of a Republican majority since 1928.[109]

Ethics charges and reprimand

Vice President Gore, Gingrich and President Clinton at the 1997 State of the Union Address

Eighty-four ethics charges were filed by Democrats against Gingrich during his term as Speaker. All were eventually dropped except for one: claiming tax-exempt status for a college course run for political purposes.[110] On January 21, 1997, the House officially reprimanded Gingrich (in a vote of 395 in favor, 28 opposed) and "ordered [him] to reimburse the House for some of the costs of the investigation in the amount of $300,000".[111][112][113] It was the first time a Speaker was disciplined for an ethics violation.[113][114]

Additionally, the House Ethics Committee concluded that inaccurate information supplied to investigators represented "intentional or ... reckless" disregard of House rules.[115] The Ethics Committee's Special Counsel James M. Cole concluded that Gingrich had violated federal tax law and had lied to the ethics panel in an effort to force the committee to dismiss the complaint against him. The full committee panel did not agree whether tax law had been violated and left that issue up to the IRS.[115] In 1999, the IRS cleared the organizations connected with the "Renewing American Civilization" courses under investigation for possible tax violations.[116]

Regarding the situation, Gingrich said in January 1997, "I did not manage the effort intensely enough to thoroughly direct or review information being submitted to the committee on my behalf. In my name and over my signature, inaccurate, incomplete and unreliable statements were given to the committee, but I did not intend to mislead the committee ... I brought down on the people's house a controversy which could weaken the faith people have in their government."[117]

Leadership challenge

Dick Gephardt tried to replace Gingrich as Speaker of the House

In the summer of 1997, several House Republicans attempted to replace him as Speaker, claiming Gingrich's public image was a liability. The attempted "coup" began July 9 with a meeting of Republican conference chairman John Boehner of Ohio and Republican leadership chairman Bill Paxon of New York. According to their plan, House Majority Leader Dick Armey, House Majority Whip Tom DeLay, Boehner and Paxon were to present Gingrich with an ultimatum: resign, or be voted out.

However, Armey balked at the proposal to make Paxon the new Speaker, and told his chief of staff to warn Gingrich.[118] On July 11, Gingrich met with senior Republican leadership to assess the situation. He explained that under no circumstance would he step down. If he was voted out, there would be a new election for Speaker. This would allow for the possibility that Democrats, along with dissenting Republicans, would vote in Democrat Dick Gephardt as Speaker.

On July 16, Paxon offered to resign his post, feeling that he had not handled the situation correctly, as the only member of the leadership who had been appointed to his position – by Gingrich – instead of elected.[119] Gingrich accepted Paxon's resignation and directed Paxon to immediately vacate his leadership office space.[119][120][121]


In 1998, Gingrich's private polls had given his fellow Republicans the impression that pushing the Clinton-Lewinsky scandal would damage Clinton's popularity and result in the party winning a net total of six to thirty seats in the House of Representatives. At the same time Gingrich was having an affair with a woman 23 years his junior.[122] But instead of gaining seats, Republicans lost five, the worst midterm performance in 64 years by a party not holding the presidency.[123] Other ethics violations including an unpopular book deal, added to his unpopularity even though he himself was reelected in his own district.[124][125]

The day after the election, a Republican caucus ready to rebel against him prompted his resignation of the speakership. He also announced his intended and eventual full departure from the House a few weeks later. In January 1999 he resigned his seat.[126] When relinquishing the speakership, Gingrich referred to other Republicans when he said he was "not willing to preside over people who are cannibals".[126] Writing a retrospective on his career at that point, The New York Times in November 1998 described Gingrich as "an expert in how to seize power, but a novice in holding it" further opining that he "illustrate[d] how hard it is for a radical, polarizing figure to last in leadership".[127]

In December 1997, Gingrich flirted with a potential run for president in the 2000 election, but his party's midterm performance and his subsequent resignation led to him dropping any plans to do so.[128]


Gingrich has since remained involved in national politics and public policy debate. McKay Coppins of The Atlantic summarized time with Gingrich in 2018:

[Gingrich] is dabbling in geopolitics, dining in fine Italian restaurants. When he feels like traveling, he crisscrosses the Atlantic in business class, opining on the issues of the day from bicontinental TV studios and giving speeches for $600 a minute. There is time for reading, and writing, and midday zoo trips--and even he will admit, "It's a very fun life."[129]


Gingrich poses with soldiers while on a visit to Kuwait in February 2003

In 2003, he founded the Center for Health Transformation. Gingrich supported the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003, creating the Medicare Part D federal prescription drugs benefit program. Some conservatives have criticized him for favoring the plan, due to its cost. However, Gingrich has remained a supporter, stating in a 2011 interview that it was a necessary modernization of Medicare, which was created before pharmaceutical drugs became standard in medical care. He has said that the increase in cost from medication must be seen as preventive, leading to reduced need for medical procedures.[130] In a May 15, 2011, interview on Meet the Press, Gingrich repeated his long-held belief that "all of us have a responsibility to pay--help pay for health care", and suggested this could be implemented by either a mandate to obtain health insurance or a requirement to post a bond ensuring coverage.[131][132] In the same interview Gingrich said "I don't think right-wing social engineering is any more desirable than left-wing social engineering. I don't think imposing radical change from the right or the left is a very good way for a free society to operate." This comment caused backlash within the Republican Party.[131][132]

In 2005, with Hillary Clinton, Gingrich announced the proposed 21st Century Health Information Act, a bill which aimed to replace paperwork with confidential, electronic health information networks.[133] Gingrich also co-chaired an independent congressional study group made up of health policy experts formed in 2007 to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of action taken within the U.S. to fight Alzheimer's disease.[134]

Gingrich has served on several commissions, including the Hart-Rudman Commission, formally known as the U.S. Commission on National Security/21st century, which examined national security issues affecting the armed forces, law enforcement and intelligence agencies.[135] In 2005 he became the co-chair of a task force for UN reform, which aimed to produce a plan for the U.S. to help strengthen the UN.[136] For over two decades, Gingrich has taught at the United States Air Force's Air University, where he is the longest-serving teacher of the Joint Flag Officer Warfighting Course.[137] In addition, he is an honorary Distinguished Visiting Scholar and Professor at the National Defense University and teaches officers from all of the defense services.[138][139] Gingrich informally advised Defense secretary Donald Rumsfeld on strategic issues, on issues including the Israeli-Palestinian conflict and encouraging the Pentagon to not "yield" foreign policy influence to the State Department and National Security Council.[140] Gingrich is also a guiding coalition member of the Project on National Security Reform.[141]

Senior Advisor Valerie Jarrett, Gingrich and Al Sharpton meet with President Barack Obama in May 2009

Gingrich founded and served as the chairman of American Solutions for Winning the Future, a 527 group established by Gingrich in 2007.[142] The group was a "fundraising juggernaut" that raised $52 million from major donors, such as Sheldon Adelson and the coal company Peabody Energy.[142] The group promoted deregulation and increased offshore oil drilling and other fossil-fuel extraction and opposed the Employee Free Choice Act;[142][143] Politico reported, "The operation, which includes a pollster and fundraisers, promotes Gingrich's books, sends out direct mail, airs ads touting his causes and funds his travel across the country."[143] American Solutions closed in 2011 after he left the organization.[142]

Other organizations and companies founded or chaired by Gingrich include the creative production company Gingrich Productions,[144] and religious educational organization Renewing American Leadership.[145]

Gingrich is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations.[146]

He is a fellow at conservative think tanks the American Enterprise Institute and Hoover Institution. He sometimes serves as a commentator, guest or panel member on cable news shows, such as the Fox News Channel. He is listed as a contributor by Fox News Channel, and frequently appears as a guest on various segments; he has also hosted occasional specials for the Fox News Channel. Gingrich has signed the "Strong America Now" pledge committing to promoting Six Sigma methods to reduce government spending.[147]

Gingrich founded Advocates for Opioid Recovery together with former Rep. Patrick J. Kennedy and Van Jones, a former domestic policy adviser to President Barack Obama.[148]


After leaving Congress in 1999, Gingrich started a number of for-profit companies:[149] Between 2001 and 2010, the companies he and his wife owned in full or part had revenues of almost $100 million.[150] Currently, Gingrich serves as an advisor to the Canadian mining company Barrick Gold.[151]

According to financial disclosure forms released in July 2011, Gingrich and his wife had a net worth of at least $6.7 million in 2010, compared to a maximum net worth of $2.4 million in 2006. Most of the increase in his net worth was because of payments to him from his for-profit companies.[152]

Gingrich Group and the Center for Health Transformation

The Gingrich Group was organized in 1999 as a consulting company. Over time, its non-health clients were dropped, and it was renamed the Center for Health Transformation. The two companies had revenues of $55 million between 2001 and 2010.[153] The revenues came from more than 300 health-insurance companies and other clients, with membership costing as much as $200,000 per year in exchange for access to Gingrich and other perks.[150][154] In 2011, when Gingrich became a presidential candidate, he sold his interest in the business and said he would release the full list of his clients and the amounts he was paid, "to the extent we can".[153][155]

In April 2012, the Center for Health Transformation filed for Chapter 7 bankruptcy, planning to liquidate its assets to meet debts of $1-$10 million.[156][157]

Between 2001 and 2010, Gingrich consulted for Freddie Mac, a government-sponsored secondary home mortgage company, which was concerned about new regulations under consideration by Congress. Regarding payments of $1.6 million for the consulting,[153] Gingrich said that "Freddie Mac paid Gingrich Group, which has a number of employees and a number of offices, a consulting fee, just like you would pay any other consulting firm."[158] In January 2012, he said that he could not make public his contract with Freddie Mac, even though the company gave permission, until his business partners in the Center for Health Transformation also agreed to that.[159]

Gingrich Productions

Gingrich Productions, which is headed by Gingrich's wife Callista Gingrich, was created in 2007. According to the company's website, in May 2011, it is "a performance and production company featuring the work of Newt and Callista Gingrich. Newt and Callista host and produce historical and public policy documentaries, write books, record audio books and voiceovers, produce photographic essays, and make television and radio appearances."[155]

Between 2008 and 2011, the company produced three films on religion,[160] one on energy, one on Ronald Reagan, and one on the threat of radical Islam. All were joint projects with the conservative group Citizens United.[161] In 2011, Newt and Callista appeared in A City Upon a Hill, on the subject of American exceptionalism.[162]

As of May 2011, the company had about five employees. In 2010, it paid Gingrich more than $2.4 million.[152]

Gingrich Communications

Gingrich Communications promoted Gingrich's public appearances, including his Fox News contract and his website,[155] Gingrich received as much as $60,000 for a speech, and did as many as 80 in a year.[150] One of Gingrich's nonprofit groups, Renewing American Leadership, which was founded in March 2009,[161] paid Gingrich Communications $220,000 over two years; the charity shared the names of its donors with Gingrich, who could use them for his for-profit companies.[163] Gingrich Communications, which employed 15 people at its largest, closed in 2011 when Gingrich began his presidential campaign.[155]


  • Celebrity Leaders is a booking agency that handled Gingrich's speaking engagements, as well as those other clients such as former Republican National Committee chair Michael Steele and former Pennsylvania Senator Rick Santorum.[149] Kathy Lubbers, the President and CEO of the agency,[164] who is Gingrich's daughter, owns the agency. Gingrich has shares in the agency, and was paid more than $70,000 by it in 2010.[165]
  • FGH Publications handles the production of and royalties from fiction books co-authored by Gingrich.[155]

Political activity

Between 2005 and 2007, Gingrich expressed interest in running for the 2008 Republican presidential nomination.[166] On October 13, 2005, Gingrich suggested he was considering a run for president, saying, "There are circumstances where I will run", elaborating that those circumstances would be if no other candidate champions some of the platform ideas he advocates. On September 28, 2007, Gingrich announced that if his supporters pledged $30 million to his campaign by October 21, he would seek the nomination.[167]

However, insisting that he had "pretty strongly" considered running,[168] on September 29 spokesman Rick Tyler said that Gingrich would not seek the presidency in 2008 because he could not continue to serve as chairman of American Solutions if he did so.[169] Citing campaign finance law restrictions (the McCain-Feingold campaign law would have forced him to leave his American Solutions political organization if he declared his candidacy), Gingrich said, "I wasn't prepared to abandon American Solutions, even to explore whether a campaign was realistic."[170]

During the 2009 special election in New York's 23rd congressional district, Gingrich endorsed moderate Republican candidate Dede Scozzafava, rather than Conservative Party candidate Doug Hoffman, who had been endorsed by several nationally prominent Republicans.[171] He was heavily criticized for this endorsement, with conservatives questioning his candidacy for president in 2012[172][173] and even comparing him to Benedict Arnold.[174]

Prior to President Donald Trump leaving office in December 2020, Trump appointed Gingrich to the Defense Policy Board Advisory Committee of the Pentagon as part of a series of shakeups where prominent Trump loyalists replaced former members.[175] In February 2021, Biden-appointed Defense Secretary Lloyd Austin dismissed all appointments to the committee made by Trump, including Gingrich.[176]

2012 election

Gingrich presenting his 21st Century Contract with America in Iowa in September 2011

In late 2008, several political commentators, including Marc Ambinder in The Atlantic[177] and Robert Novak in The Washington Post,[178] identified Gingrich as a top presidential contender in the 2012 election, with Ambinder reporting that Gingrich was "already planting some seeds in Iowa, New Hampshire". A July 2010 poll conducted by Public Policy Polling indicated that Gingrich was the leading GOP contender for the Republican nomination with 23% of likely Republican voters saying they would vote for him.[179]

Describing his views as a possible candidate during an appearance on On the Record with Greta Van Susteren in March 2009, Gingrich said, "I am very sad that a number of Republicans do not understand that this country is sick of earmarks. [Americans] are sick of politicians taking care of themselves. They are sick of their money being spent in a way that is absolutely indefensible ... I think you're going to see a steady increase in the number of incumbents who have opponents because the American taxpayers are increasingly fed up."[180]

On March 3, 2011, Gingrich officially announced a website entitled "Newt Exploratory 2012" in lieu of a formal exploratory committee for exploration of a potential presidential run.[181] On May 11, 2011, Gingrich officially announced his intention to seek the GOP nomination in 2012.[182]

On June 9, 2011, a group of Gingrich's senior campaign aides left the campaign en masse, leading to doubts about the viability of his presidential run.[183] On June 21, 2011, two more senior aides left.[184][185]

In response, Gingrich stated that he had not quit the race for the Republican nomination, and pointed to his experience running for 5 years to win his seat in Congress, spending 16 years helping to build a Republican majority in the house and working for decades to build a Republican majority in Georgia.[186] Some commentators noted Gingrich's resilience throughout his career, in particular with regards to his presidential campaign.[187][188]

Gingrich speaking at CPAC in February 2012

After then-front-runner Herman Cain was damaged by allegations of past sexual harassment, Gingrich gained support, and quickly became a contender in the race, especially after Cain suspended his campaign. By December 4, 2011, Gingrich was leading in the national polls.[189] However, after an abundance of negative ads run by his opponents throughout December, Gingrich's national polling lead had fallen to a tie with Mitt Romney.[190]

On January 3, 2012, Gingrich finished in fourth place in the Iowa Republican caucuses, far behind Rick Santorum, Romney, and Ron Paul.[191] On January 10, Gingrich finished in fifth place in the New Hampshire Republican primary, far behind Romney, Santorum, Jon Huntsman, and Paul.[192][193]

After the field narrowed with the withdrawal from the race of Huntsman and Rick Perry, Gingrich won the South Carolina Republican primary on January 21, obtaining about 40% of the vote, considerably ahead of Romney, Santorum and Paul.[194] This surprise victory allowed Gingrich to reemerge as the frontrunner once again heading into Florida.[195]

On January 31, 2012, Gingrich placed second in the Republican Florida primary, losing by a fifteen percentage point margin, 47% to 32%. Some factors that contributed to this outcome include two strong debate performances by Romney (which were typically Gingrich's strong suit), the wide margin by which the Gingrich campaign was outspent in television ads,[196] and a widely criticized proposal by Gingrich to have a permanent colony on the moon by 2020 to reinvigorate the American Space Program.[197]

It was later revealed Romney had hired a debate coach to help him perform better in the Florida debates.[198][199]

Gingrich did, however, significantly outvote Santorum and Paul. On February 4, 2012, Gingrich placed a distant second in the Nevada Republican caucuses with 21%, losing to Romney who received over 50% of the total votes cast.[200]

On February 7, 2012, Gingrich came in last place in the Minnesota Republican caucuses with about 10.7% of the vote. Santorum won the caucus, followed by Paul and Romney.[201][202]

On Super Tuesday Gingrich won his home state, Georgia, which has the most delegates, in "an otherwise dismal night for him". Santorum took Tennessee and Oklahoma, where Gingrich had previously performed well in the polls, though Gingrich managed a close third behind Romney.[203]

On April 4, the Rick Santorum campaign shifted its position and urged Gingrich to drop out of the race and support Santorum.[204]

On April 10, Santorum announced the suspension of his campaign.[205] Following this announcement, The Newt 2012 campaign used a new slogan referring to Gingrich as "the last conservative standing". Despite this, on April 19, Gingrich told Republicans in New York that he would work to help Romney win the general election if Romney secured the nomination.[206]

After a disappointing second place showing in the Delaware primary on April 24, and with a campaign debt in excess of $4 million,[207] Gingrich suspended his campaign and endorsed front-runner Mitt Romney on May 2, 2012,[208] on whose behalf he subsequently campaigned (i.e. stump speeches and television appearances).[209]

Gingrich later hosted a number of policy workshops at the GOP Convention in Tampa presented by the National Republican Committee called "Newt University".[210] He and his wife Calista addressed the convention on its final day with a Ronald Reagan-themed introduction.[211][212]

Because FEC regulations prevent campaigns from ceasing operations until they settle their debts, the Newt Gingrich campaign was never formally dissolved. In 2016, the campaign filed a proposal to shut down without paying back its outstanding debt to 114 businesses and consultants; the FEC rejected this proposal. By then, the campaign still owed $4.6 million in debt, with only $17,000 being raised by the campaign committee over the previous year.[213][214][215]

2016 election

Gingrich supported Donald Trump more quickly than many other establishment Republicans.[216] After having consulted for Trump's 2016 campaign, Gingrich encouraged his fellow Republicans to unify behind Trump, who had by then become the presumptive Republican presidential nominee.[217] Gingrich reportedly figured among Trump's final three choices to be his running mate;[218][219] the position ultimately went to Governor of Indiana Mike Pence.[220]

Gingrich and his wife alongside President Donald Trump in October 2017

Following Trump's victory in the presidential election, speculation arose concerning Gingrich as a possible secretary of state, chief of staff or advisor.[221] Eventually, Gingrich announced that he would not be serving in the cabinet. He stated that he didn't have the interest in serving in any role related to the Trump administration, stressing that as a private citizen he would engage with individuals for "strategic planning" rather than job-seeking.[222]

In May 2017, he promoted a conspiracy theory that Hillary Clinton and the Democratic Party had Seth Rich, an employee for the Democratic National Committee, killed during the 2016 presidential race.[223]

Gingrich attended his wife's swearing-in as U.S. ambassador to the Holy See at the White House in October 2017.[224] According to journalist Robert Mickens, Newt Gingrich served as the de facto ambassador or the "shadow ambassador" while Callista Gingrich, as paraphrased by McKay Coppins of The Atlantic, "is generally viewed as the ceremonial face of the embassy".[225]

2020 election

While ballots were being counted during the 2020 election, Gingrich supported President Trump in his attempt to win re-election and called on him to stop the vote counts after allegations of fraud emerged.[226] After the 2020 election, Gingrich made claims of election fraud and refused to acknowledge Joe Biden's victory.[227][228] He called for the arrest of poll workers in Pennsylvania following the election.[229][230][231]

Political positions

Gingrich in 2014, addressing a group of conservatives
Gingrich and Congressmen Jay Kim and Ed Royce face North Korea from the Joint Security Area in 1997

Gingrich is most widely identified with the 1994 Contract with America.[232] He is a founder of American Solutions for Winning the Future. More recently, Gingrich has advocated replacing the Environmental Protection Agency with a proposed "Environmental Solutions Agency".[233]

He favors a strong immigration border policy and a guest worker program.[234] In terms of energy policy, he has argued in favor of flex-fuel mandates for cars sold in the U.S. and promoted the use of ethanol generally.[235]

Gingrich has taken a dim view of internationalism and the United Nations. He said in 2015, "after several years of looking at the UN, I can report to you that it is sufficiently corrupt and sufficiently inefficient. That no reasonable person would put faith in it."[236]

In 2007, Gingrich authored a book, Rediscovering God in America.

Gingrich's later books take a large-scale policy focus, including Winning the Future, and the most recent, To Save America. Gingrich has identified education as "the number one factor in our future prosperity", and has partnered with Al Sharpton and Education Secretary Arne Duncan on education issues.[237] Although he previously opposed gay marriage, in December 2012, Gingrich suggested that Republicans should reconsider their opposition to it.[238]

In 2014, Gingrich sent a letter to Dr. John Koza of National Popular Vote, Inc. endorsing the National Popular Vote Interstate Compact, under which presidents would be elected by the national popular vote of the United States and not by the Electoral College.[239]

On July 14, 2016, Gingrich stated that he believes that Americans of Muslim backgrounds who believe in Sharia law should be deported, and that visiting websites that promote the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant or Al-Qaeda should be a felony.[240] Some observers have questioned whether these views violate the free speech and free exercise of religion clauses of the First Amendment to the United States Constitution.[241][242]

On July 21, 2016, Gingrich argued that members of NATO "ought to worry" about a U.S. commitment to their defense. He expanded, saying, "They ought to worry about commitment under any circumstances. Every president has been saying that the NATO countries do not pay their fair share". He also stated that, in the context of whether the United States would provide aid to Estonia (a NATO member) in the event of a Russian invasion, he "would think about it a great deal".[243]

According to Science magazine, Gingrich changed his view on climate change "from cautious skeptic in the late 1980s to believer in the late 2000s to skeptic again during the [2016] campaign."[244]

Personal life

Marriages and children

Jacqueline May "Jackie" Battley

Gingrich has been married three times. In 1962, he wed Jacqueline May "Jackie" Battley (February 21, 1936 - August 7, 2013), his former high school geometry teacher, when he was 19 years old and she was 26.[245][246] They had two daughters: Kathy, who is president of Gingrich Communications,[247] and Jackie Sue, who is an author, conservative columnist and political commentator.[248][249]

Throughout his congressional campaign in 1974, Gingrich was having an affair with a young volunteer. An aide who worked with Gingrich throughout the 1970s stated that "it was common knowledge that Newt was involved with other women during his marriage to Jackie."[250][251] In the spring of 1980, Gingrich filed for divorce from Jackie after beginning an affair with Marianne Ginther.[252][253] Jackie later said in 1984 that the divorce was a "complete surprise" to her.[254]

In September 1980, according to friends who knew them both, Gingrich visited Jackie in the hospital the day after she had undergone surgery to treat her uterine cancer; once there, Gingrich began talking about the terms of their divorce, at which point Jackie threw him out of the room.[255][254] Gingrich disputed that account.[256] Although Gingrich's presidential campaign staff continued to insist in 2011 that Jackie had requested the divorce, court documents from Carroll County, Georgia, indicated that Jackie had in fact asked a judge to block the process, stating that although "she has adequate and ample grounds for divorce ... she does not desire one at this time [and] does not admit that this marriage is irretrievably broken."[257]

According to L. H. Carter, Gingrich's campaign treasurer, Gingrich said of Jackie: "She's not young enough or pretty enough to be the wife of the President. And besides, she has cancer."[258][259] Gingrich has denied saying it.[255] Following the divorce, Jackie had to raise money from friends in her congregation to help her and the children make ends meet; she later filed a petition in court stating that Gingrich had failed to properly provide for his family.[251] Gingrich submitted a financial statement to the judge, which showed that he had been "providing only $400 a month, plus $40 in allowances for his daughters. He claimed not to be able to afford any more. But in citing his own expenses, Gingrich listed $400 just for 'Food / dry cleaning, etc.'--for one person."[251] In 1981, a judge ordered Gingrich to provide considerably more; in 1993, Jackie stated in court that Gingrich had failed to obey the 1981 order "from the day it was issued."[258] Jackie, a deacon and volunteer in the First Baptist Church of Carrollton, Georgia, died in 2013 in Atlanta at the age of 77.[260]

Marianne Ginther

In 1981, six months after his divorce from Jackie was final, Gingrich wed Marianne Ginther.[261][262][263][264] Marianne helped control their finances to get them out of debt.[265] She did not, however, want to have the public life of a politician's wife.[250] Gingrich's daughter Kathy described the marriage as "difficult".[266]

Callista Bisek

In 1993, while still married to Marianne, Gingrich began an affair with House of Representatives staffer Callista Bisek, more than two decades his junior.[267] Gingrich was having this affair even as he led the impeachment of Bill Clinton for perjury related to Clinton's own extramarital affair.[268][124] Gingrich filed for divorce from Marianne in 1999, a few months after she had been diagnosed with multiple sclerosis.[269] The marriage produced no children. On January 19, 2012, Marianne alleged in an interview on ABC's Nightline that she had declined to accept Gingrich's suggestion of an open marriage.[270] Gingrich disputed the account.[271]

In August 2000, Gingrich married Callista Bisek four months after his divorce from Marianne was finalized.[272] He and Callista live in McLean, Virginia.[273]

In a 2011 interview with David Brody of the Christian Broadcasting Network, Gingrich addressed his past infidelities by saying, "There's no question at times in my life, partially driven by how passionately I felt about this country, that I worked too hard and things happened in my life that were not appropriate."[263][264] In December 2011, after the group Iowans for Christian Leaders in Government requested that he sign their so-called "Marriage Vow", Gingrich sent a lengthy written response. It included his pledge to "uphold personal fidelity to my spouse".[274]


Gingrich says that Pope Benedict XVI's visit to the United States influenced him to convert to Catholicism.

Raised as a Lutheran,[275] Gingrich was a Southern Baptist in graduate school. He converted to Catholicism, the faith of his third wife Callista Bisek, on March 29, 2009.[276][277] He said: "over the course of several years, I gradually became Catholic and then decided one day to accept the faith I had already come to embrace". He decided to officially become a Catholic when he saw Pope Benedict XVI, during the Pope's visit to the United States in 2008: "Catching a glimpse of Pope Benedict that day, I was struck by the happiness and peacefulness he exuded. The joyful and radiating presence of the Holy Father was a moment of confirmation about the many things I had been thinking and experiencing for several years."[278] At a 2011 appearance in Columbus, Ohio, he said, "In America, religious belief is being challenged by a cultural elite trying to create a secularized America, in which God is driven out of public life."[160]

The Catholic Church recognizes his third marriage as a valid marriage, based on an annulment granted for his second marriage and the passing of his wife from his first.[279][280][281]

Other interests

Gingrich feeds an apple to a black rhinoceros at Zoo Atlanta

Gingrich has expressed a deep interest in animals.[282][283] Gingrich's first engagement in civic affairs was speaking to the city council in his native Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, as to why the city should establish its own zoo.[284] He authored the introduction to America's Best Zoos and claims to have attended more than 100.[285]

Gingrich has shown enthusiasm towards dinosaurs. The New Yorker said of his 1995 book To Renew America: "Charmingly, he has retained his enthusiasm for the extinct giants into middle age. In addition to including breakthroughs in dinosaur research on his list of futuristic wonders, he specified 'people interested in dinosaurs' as a prime example of those who might benefit from his education proposals."[286]

Space exploration has been an additional interest of Gingrich since a fascination with the United States/Soviet Union Space Race started in his teenage years.[287] Gingrich wants the U.S. to pursue new achievements in space, including sustaining civilizations beyond Earth,[288] but advocates relying more on the private sector and less on the publicly funded NASA to drive progress.[289] Since 2010, he has served on the National Space Society Board of Governors.[290]

During the 2012 election campaign, Artinfo noted that Gingrich has expressed appreciation for the work of two American painters. He has described James H. Cromartie's painting of the U.S. Capitol as "an exceptional and truly beautiful work of art"; in Norman Rockwell's work, he saw the embodiment of an America circa 1965, at odds with the prevailing sentiment of the modern day "cultural elites".[291]

CNN announced on June 26, 2013, that Gingrich would join a new version of Crossfire re-launching in fall 2013, with panelists S. E. Cupp, Stephanie Cutter, and Van Jones.[292] Gingrich represented the right on the revamped debate program.[292] The show was cancelled the following year.[293]

Books and film



Gingrich co-wrote the following alternate history novels and series of novels with William R. Forstchen.


  • Ronald Reagan: Rendezvous with Destiny, Gingrich Productions, 2009[294]
  • Nine Days That Changed the World, Gingrich Productions, 2010[295]

See also


  1. ^ Patrick, John J.; Pious, Richard M.; Ritchie, Donald A. (July 4, 2001). The Oxford Guide to the United States Government. Oxford University Press, USA. p. 264. ISBN 9780195142730.
  2. ^ "Biographical Directory of the United States Congress: Gingrich, Newton Leroy". Archived from the original on June 28, 2011. Retrieved 2017.
  3. ^ a b "Gingrich's Path From 'Flameout' To D.C. Entrepreneur". NPR. December 8, 2011. Archived from the original on August 17, 2016. Retrieved 2012.
  4. ^ "Gingrich calls it quits". CNN. November 6, 1998. Archived from the original on March 5, 2016.
  5. ^ "Did Gingrich leave speakership". PolitiFact. Archived from the original on August 22, 2019. Retrieved 2020.
  6. ^ a b c d Mason, Lililana (2018). Uncivil Agreement. University of Chicago Press. Archived from the original on October 18, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  7. ^ a b c d Rosenfeld, Sam (2017). The Polarizers. University of Chicago Press. Archived from the original on November 15, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  8. ^ a b c Theriault, Sean M. (May 23, 2013). The Gingrich Senators: The Roots of Partisan Warfare in Congress. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199307456. Archived from the original on November 22, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  9. ^ a b Harris, Douglas B. (2013). "Let's Play Hardball". Politics to the Extreme. Palgrave Macmillan US. pp. 93-115. doi:10.1057/9781137312761_5. ISBN 9781137361424.
  10. ^ a b Zelizer, Julian (2020). Burning Down the House: Newt Gingrich, the Fall of a Speaker, and the Rise of the New Republican Party. Penguin.
  11. ^ "Gingrich tops polls in Iowa, South Carolina, North Carolina and Colorado". December 6, 2011. Archived from the original on November 21, 2018. Retrieved 2011.
  12. ^ The Unprecedented 2016 Presidential Election | Rachel Bitecofer | Palgrave Macmillan. p. 146. Archived from the original on October 6, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  13. ^ "Exhausted hospital workers face ongoing COVID-19 hospitalizations". Retrieved 2021.
  14. ^ "Newt Gingrich Parents and Grandparents". Archived from the original on June 24, 2016. Retrieved 2012.
  15. ^ Rourke, Mary (September 25, 2003). "Kathleen Gingrich, 77; Mother of House Speaker Made News". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on March 9, 2012. Retrieved 2011.
  16. ^ "The Long March of Newt Gingrich". Frontline. PBS. January 16, 1996. Archived from the original on March 12, 2007. Retrieved 2007.
  17. ^ "Biography of Newton Gingrich". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. 2007. Archived from the original on June 28, 2011. Retrieved 2007.
  18. ^ "Immigration Divides Republican Opinion". Contra Costa Times. November 24, 1997. Archived from the original on March 14, 2012. Retrieved 2011.
  19. ^ Boeri, David (March 18, 2011). "Newt Gingrich Arrives In N.H., In Search Of Elephants". WBUR-FM. Archived from the original on June 30, 2020. Retrieved 2020.
  20. ^ a b "Robert Gingrich; Retired Army Officer, Father of House Speaker". Los Angeles Times. Associated Press. November 21, 1996. Archived from the original on March 10, 2012. Retrieved 2011.
  21. ^ a b "A Newt Chronology". Archived from the original on June 7, 2012. Retrieved 2012.
  22. ^ Zeleny, Jeff. "Newt Gingrich - Election 2012". The New York Times. Archived from the original on July 10, 2011. Retrieved 2011.
  23. ^ Gingrich, Newt; Gingrich Cushman, Jackie (May 12, 2009). 5 Principles for a Successful Life: From Our Family to Yours. Crown Publishing Group. pp. 2-3. ISBN 978-0-307-46232-9. Archived from the original on August 6, 2020. Retrieved 2011.
  24. ^ "Newt Gingrich". Archived from the original on May 10, 2011. Retrieved 2011.
  25. ^ Norman, Laurence (October 18, 2011). "Newt Gingrich's Brussels Digs". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on January 20, 2012. Retrieved 2012.
  26. ^ Boyer, Peter J. (July 1989). "Good Newt, Bad Newt". Vanity Fair. Archived from the original on September 17, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  27. ^ Williamson, Elizabeth (January 18, 2012). "Gingrich's college records show a professor hatching big plans". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on June 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  28. ^ Kilgore, Ed (March 3, 2011). "Chameleon". The New Republic. Archived from the original on March 6, 2011. Retrieved 2011.
  29. ^ "Race details for 1974 election [in 6th District]". Archived from the original on March 3, 2016.
  30. ^ "John James Flynt". OurCampaigns. bio page. Archived from the original on June 11, 2016.
  31. ^ "A Newt Chronology | The Long March Of Newt Gingrich | FRONTLINE | PBS". Retrieved 2021.
  32. ^ "1976 Presidential General Election Results - Georgia". Archived from the original on March 18, 2014. Retrieved 2013.
  33. ^ "Race details for 1976 House election". Archived from the original on January 8, 2012. Retrieved 2011.
  34. ^ "Shepard, Virginia". Our Campaigns. June 23, 2007. Archived from the original on January 21, 2012. Retrieved 2012.
  35. ^ "Shapard, Virginia". GGDP Library Special Collections. Georgia State University Library ( January 26, 1988. Archived from the original on July 1, 2010. Retrieved 2010.
  36. ^ Gingrich was also elected to 4 terms from a new 6th District (after redistricting following the 1990 census), as described in the next section.
  37. ^ MacGillis, Alec (December 14, 2011). "The Forgotten Campaign". The New Republic. Retrieved 2021.
  38. ^ Bluestein, Greg (March 2, 2021). "Georgia's center of political gravity shifting toward Atlanta". The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. Retrieved 2021.
  39. ^ Roberts, Steven V (July 19, 1983). "Congressman asks expulsion of two". The New York Times. Archived from the original on January 19, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  40. ^ a b Roberts, Steven V. (August 11, 1983). "One Conservative Faults Two Parties". The New York Times. p. 18A. Archived from the original on January 19, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  41. ^ a b c Babcock, Charles R. (December 20, 1994). "Gingrich, allies made waves and impression; conservative rebels harassed the house". The Washington Post. p. A1.
  42. ^ "Reagan expected to gloss over second-term sacrifices". The Washington Post. March 12, 1984.
  43. ^ "House Vote #506 -- To Pass S 557, Civil Rights Restoration Act, A Bill To Restore The Broad Coverage And Clarify Four Civil Rights Laws By Providing That If One Part Of An Institution Is Federally-Funded, Then The Entire Institution Must Not Discriminate". March 2, 1988. Archived from the original on June 16, 2020. Retrieved 2020.
  44. ^ "House Vote #527 -- To Pass, Over President Reagan's Veto, S 557, Civil Rights Restoration Act, A Bill To Restore The Broad Coverage And Clarify Four Civil Rights Laws By Providing That If One Part Of An Institution Is Federally-Funded, Then The Entire Institution Must Not Discriminate. Veto Overridden; Two-Thirds Of Those Present Voting in Favor". March 22, 1988. Archived from the original on June 16, 2020. Retrieved 2020.
  45. ^ Babcock, Charles R. (March 20, 1989). "Wright's key accuser has his own book deal". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on July 15, 2020. Retrieved 2020.
  46. ^ Germond, Jack W.; Witcover, Jules (March 24, 1989). "Can Gingrich unify GOP without throwing bombs?". Chicago Tribune Syndicate.
  47. ^ a b Komarow, Steven (March 22, 1989). "House Republicans Elect Gingrich to No. 2 Spot, Chart Battle with Democrats". Associated Press.
  48. ^ Drinkard, Jim (March 13, 1989). "Party Mobilizes to Fill Cheney's Post". Associated Press.
  49. ^ Hartson, Merrill (May 4, 1989). "House GOP Leader Questions Relinquishing Canal to Panama". Associated Press.
  50. ^ Clymer, Adam (August 23, 1992). "House Revolutionary". The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 22, 2011. Retrieved 2010.
  51. ^ a b Oreskes, Michael (September 9, 1990). "Political Memo: For G.O.P. arsenal, 133 words to fire". The New York Times. Archived from the original on January 29, 2012. Retrieved 2012.
  52. ^ Douglas, William (December 16, 2011). "Gingrich's old habits 'die hard'". Charlotte Observer. McClatchy. Archived from the original on July 31, 2012. Retrieved 2012.
  53. ^ a b Goodman, Brenda (December 20, 2007). "Tom B. Murphy, a Longtime Power in Georgia, Dies at 83". The New York Times. Archived from the original on December 25, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  54. ^ a b Judd, Alan (June 2, 2017). "Redistricting gives GOP key to political power in Georgia". The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. Retrieved 2021.
  55. ^ Applebome, Peter (March 18, 2015). "Red state rising: The last days of Georgia's two-party system". Atlanta. Retrieved 2021.
  56. ^ "Gingrich is declared winner after recount in a primary". The New York Times. July 29, 1992. Archived from the original on August 4, 2016.
  57. ^ Limbaugh, Rush (March 11, 2009). "An EIB History Lesson on 1994". Rush Limbaugh. Archived from the original on March 15, 2009. Retrieved 2009.
  58. ^ "Republican Contract with America". April 27, 1999. Archived from the original on April 27, 1999. Retrieved 2019.
  59. ^ "Man of the Year 1995". Time. 1995. Archived from the original on March 12, 2011. Retrieved 2011.
  60. ^ "ASNE--Luncheon address by President Bill Clinton". April 13, 2000. Archived from the original on July 25, 2011. Retrieved 2011.
  61. ^ Gingrich, Newt (February 3, 2011). "I've always supported an 'All the Above' energy policy". Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on October 17, 2015. Retrieved 2011.
  62. ^ Mayhew, David (2000). America's Congress. Yale University Press. p. ix. Archived from the original on April 1, 2019. Retrieved 2018.
  63. ^ Mann, Thomas; Ornstein, Norman (2016). It's Even Worse Than It Looks. Basic Books. Archived from the original on October 6, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  64. ^ a b Levitsky, Steven; Ziblatt, Daniel. How Democracies Die. Penguin / RandomHouse. Archived from the original on December 11, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  65. ^ Hacker, Jacob; Pierson, Paul (February 14, 2017). American Amnesia. ISBN 9781451667837. Archived from the original on November 18, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  66. ^ a b Buhl, Geoffrey W.; Frisch, Scott A.; Kelly, Sean Q. (2013). "Appropriations to the Extreme: Partisanship and the Power of the Purse". Politics to the Extreme. Palgrave Macmillan US. pp. 3-21. doi:10.1057/9781137312761_1. ISBN 9781137361424.
  67. ^ Dodd, Lawrence C.; Schraufnagel, Scot (2013). "Taking Incivility Seriously". Politics to the Extreme. Palgrave Macmillan US. pp. 71-91. doi:10.1057/9781137312761_4. ISBN 9781137361424.
  68. ^ a b "Asymmetric constitutional hardball". Columbia Law Review. Columbia Law. Archived from the original on January 19, 2019. Retrieved 2018.
  69. ^ a b c d e Hopkins, David A. (2017). Red Fighting Blue. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 156-157, 158-162. doi:10.1017/9781108123594. ISBN 9781108123594.
  70. ^ "How a Democracy Dies". The New Republic. Archived from the original on December 11, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  71. ^ "How Democracies Die authors say Trump is a symptom of 'deeper problems'". NPR. Archived from the original on December 8, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  72. ^ "The rising pressures on American democracy". Harvard Gazette. January 29, 2018. Archived from the original on November 30, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  73. ^ Theriault, Sean M.; Rohde, David W. (2011). "The Gingrich Senators and Party Polarization in the U.S. Senate". The Journal of Politics. 73 (4): 1011-1024. doi:10.1017/s0022381611000752. ISSN 0022-3816. S2CID 31052699.
  74. ^ a b Lee, Frances E. (May 11, 2015). "How Party Polarization Affects Governance". Annual Review of Political Science. 18 (1): 261-282. doi:10.1146/annurev-polisci-072012-113747. ISSN 1094-2939.
  75. ^ Aldrich, John H.; Rohde, David W. (February 2000). "The Republican Revolution and the House Appropriations Committee". The Journal of Politics. 62 (1): 1-33. doi:10.1111/0022-3816.00001. ISSN 0022-3816. S2CID 154995219.
  76. ^ DeParle, Jason (January 5, 1994). "Clinton Puzzle: How to Delay Welfare Reform Yet Seem to Pursue It". The New York Times. Archived from the original on May 15, 2013. Retrieved 2010.
  77. ^ Gillon, Steven (2008). The Pact: Bill Clinton, Newt Gingrich, and the Rivalry that Defined a Generation. Oxford University Press, United States. p. 177. ISBN 978-0-19-532278-1.
  78. ^ O'Connor, Brendan (Winter 2001). "The protagonists and ideas behind the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996: The enactment of a conservative welfare system". Social Justice.
  79. ^ Glass, Andrew. "Clinton signs 'Welfare to Work' bill, Aug. 22, 1996". Politico, LLC. Archived from the original on March 4, 2020. Retrieved 2020.
  80. ^ Gingrich, Newt (1998). Lessons Learned the Hard Way: A Personal Report. HarperCollins Publishers. pp. 74-85. ISBN 978-0-06-019106-1. Archived from the original on August 6, 2020. Retrieved 2014.
  81. ^ Connolly, Ceci (January 25, 1996). "Gingrich concedes he can't force balanced budget in 1996". St. Petersburg Times.
  82. ^ a b Mercer, Marsha (August 6, 1997). "Clinton Lauds Bipartisanship Behind Budget; He Signs Bills That Will Cut Taxes For Many". Richmond Times Dispatch. Media General News Service.
  83. ^ McGrory, Brian (May 3, 1997). "Clinton, GOP leaders craft budget package; Deal would erase shortfall by 2002, cut taxes by $ 85b". The Boston Globe.
  84. ^ Ross, Sonya (August 5, 1997). "Clinton signs balanced budget, tax break law". Chicago Sun-Times.
  85. ^ " Clinton to Propose '99 Balanced Budget". Archived from the original on September 22, 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  86. ^ "Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997". Archived from the original on July 12, 2008. Retrieved 2011.
  87. ^ Laffer, Arthur B. (February 10, 2011). "Reaganomics: What We Learned". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on August 27, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  88. ^ a b Buchanan Ingersoll & Rooney PC. "The Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997: An Overview of Selected Provisions". FindLaw. Archived from the original on April 25, 2011. Retrieved 2011.
  89. ^ Farmer, John (August 4, 1997). "Like him or not, Gingrich deserves credit for budget". The Star-Ledger. Newark, New Jersey.
  90. ^ Marelius, John (August 19, 1997). "Gingrich sees life in GOP revolution". The San Diego Union-Tribune.
  91. ^ "Kemp Commission". January 17, 1996. Archived from the original on June 18, 2012. Retrieved 2012.
  92. ^ Gale, William (February 5, 1996). "The Kemp Commission and the Future of Tax Reform" (PDF). Brookings Institution. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 3, 2007. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  93. ^ Kellman, Laurie (April 7, 1995). "'Contract' fulfilled, but job isn't finished; GOP keeps up fast pace in Congress". The Washington Times.
  94. ^ Schwellenbach, Nick (December 13, 2011). "Renowned physicists cast doubt on Gingrich's far-fetched EMP scenario". Project on Government Oversight. Archived from the original on February 26, 2016.
  95. ^ a b c Fram, Alan (November 13, 1995). "Clinton vetoes borrowing bill--government shutdown nears as rhetoric continues to roil". The Seattle Times. Associated Press. Archived from the original on May 23, 2011. Retrieved 2011.
  96. ^ "Record-breaking federal shutdown ends". CNN. January 6, 1996. Archived from the original on January 20, 2011. Retrieved 2011.
  97. ^ DeLay, Tom; Stephen Mansfield. No Retreat, No Surrender: One American's Fight. p. 112.
  98. ^ "Lars-Erik Nelson '64: A Subversive Among Cynics". Columbia University. Archived from the original on October 14, 2013. Retrieved 2013.
  99. ^ "White House: Gingrich comment "bizarre"". CNN. November 16, 1995. Archived from the original on April 15, 2011. Retrieved 2011.
  100. ^ "Gingrich: Snub caused impasse - treatment on Air Force One blamed". The Seattle Times. November 16, 1995. Archived from the original on November 25, 2012. Retrieved 2013.
  101. ^ "Daily News cartoon". New York Daily News. Archived from the original on September 26, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  102. ^ Dunn, Martin (January 25, 2012). "Newt 'Cry Baby' Gingrich: my part in his downfall". The Guardian. Retrieved 2021.
  103. ^ Purdum, Todd S. (December 21, 2018). "Gingrich Shut Down the Government in a Tantrum 23 Years Ago". The Atlantic. Retrieved 2021.
  104. ^ Murawinski, Ed (January 11, 2019). "I drew the 'Cry Baby' heard round the world. (No, it wasn't Trump.)". Washington Post. Retrieved 2021.
  105. ^ Hollman, Kwame (November 20, 1996). "The State of Newt". PBS. Archived from the original on March 23, 2007. Retrieved 2006.
  106. ^ Murdock, Deroy (August 28, 2000). "Newt Gingrich's Implosion". National Review. Archived from the original on June 16, 2006. Retrieved 2006.
  107. ^ Gingrich, Newt (May 1998). Lessons Learned the Hard Way. New York: HarperCollins. pp. 42-46. ISBN 978-0-06-019106-1.
  108. ^ Klein, Philip (July-August 2010). "Starving ObamaCare". The American Spectator. Archived from the original on December 31, 2010.
  109. ^ Gingrich, Newt (February 25, 2011). "If it comes to a shutdown, the GOP should stick to its principles". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on June 29, 2011. Retrieved 2011.
  110. ^ Anderson, Curt (October 11, 1998). "Ethics committee drops last of 84 charges against Gingrich". The Washington Post. Associated Press. Archived from the original on August 17, 2000.
  111. ^ "In the Matter of Representative Newt Gingrich (Report 105-1)". House Select Committee on Ethics. January 17, 1997. Archived from the original on February 8, 2012. Retrieved 2012.
  112. ^ John E. Yang & Helen Dewar (January 18, 1997). "Ethics Panel Supports Reprimand of Gingrich". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on February 9, 2012. Retrieved 2012.
  113. ^ a b Yang, John E. (January 22, 1997). "House Reprimands, Penalizes Speaker". The Washington Post. p. A1. Archived from the original on May 25, 2010. Retrieved 2017.
  114. ^ Clymer, Adam (January 22, 1997). "House, in a 395-28 vote, reprimands Gingrich". The New York Times. p. 1. Archived from the original on January 29, 2012. Retrieved 2012.
  115. ^ a b Yang, John E.; Dewar, Helen (January 18, 1997). "Ethics Panel Supports Reprimand of Gingrich". The Washington Post. p. A1. Archived from the original on August 21, 2008. Retrieved 2006.
  116. ^ Rosenbaum, David E. (February 4, 1999). "I.R.S. Clears Foundation Linked to Gingrich's Ethics Dispute". The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 22, 2020. Retrieved 2017.
  117. ^ Clymer, Adam (December 22, 1996). "Panel Concludes Gingrich Violated Rules on Ethics". The New York Times. Archived from the original on January 12, 2012. Retrieved 2012.
  118. ^ "Attempted Republican Coup: Ready, Aim, Misfire". CNN. Archived from the original on January 21, 2011. Retrieved 2010.
  119. ^ a b Gingrich, Newt (1998). Lessons Learned the Hard Way. HarperCollins Publishers. pp. 159-160. ISBN 978-0-06-019106-1. Archived from the original on August 6, 2020. Retrieved 2014.
  120. ^ Erlanger, Steven (July 21, 1997). "Paxon Says He Doesn't Want Speaker's Post Despite Revolt". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on June 10, 2020. Retrieved 2020.
  121. ^ "AllPolitics - Paxon Resigns From GOP Leadership - July 17, 1997". Archived from the original on September 7, 2020. Retrieved 2020.
  122. ^ Susan Baer (January 20, 1995). "Gingrich won't give up book deal despite furor". Archived from the original on November 22, 2020. Retrieved 2020.
  123. ^ Gibbs, Nancy; Duffy, Michael (November 16, 1998). "Fall of the House Of Newt". Time. Archived from the original on August 21, 2010. Retrieved 2012.
  124. ^ a b "Former House Speaker Newt Gingrich acknowledges having affair during Clinton impeachment". Fox News. Archived from the original on August 22, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  125. ^ Louis Jacobson and Katie Sanders (January 23, 2012). "Did Gingrich leave speakership "in disgrace"?". Archived from the original on August 5, 2020. Retrieved 2020.
  126. ^ a b "The Speaker Steps Down". The New York Times. November 8, 1998. Archived from the original on August 4, 2016.
  127. ^ "The Gingrich Coup". The New York Times. November 7, 1998. Retrieved 2021.
  128. ^ Weiner, Juli (May 9, 2011). "A Guide to Every Other Time Newt Gingrich Has Threatened to Run for President". Vanity Fair. Retrieved 2021.
  129. ^ Coppins, McKay (November 2018). "How Newt Gingrich destroyed ..." The Atlantic. Archived from the original on October 15, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  130. ^ Ballasy, Nicholas (March 18, 2011). "Gingrich Says He Doesn't Regret Supporting Medicare Drug Plan Which Is Now a $7.2 Trillion Unfunded Liability". CNS News. Archived from the original on March 21, 2011. Retrieved 2011.
  131. ^ a b Kolawole, Emi; Weiner, Rachel (May 16, 2011). "Gingrich calls Medicare voucher proposal 'right-wing social engineering'". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on January 6, 2012. Retrieved 2011.
  132. ^ a b Marr, Kendra (May 16, 2011). "Newt Gingrich's rough roll-out". Politico. Archived from the original on May 18, 2011. Retrieved 2011.
  133. ^ Stone, Andrea (May 11, 2005). "Former foes Clinton, Gingrich band up on health care plan". USA Today. Archived from the original on February 11, 2011. Retrieved 2011.
  134. ^ "Senator Collins to Announce Formation of Alzheimer's Disease Study Group" (Press release). Congressional Press Releases. July 10, 2007.
  135. ^ Martinez, Deborah (April 20, 2000). "Advisory board urges new emphasis for U.S. defenders". Corpus Christi Caller-Times. p. B1.
  136. ^ Gedda, George (February 9, 2005). "Ex-Top Lawmakers to Advise on U.N. Reform". Associated Press Online.
  137. ^ Gingrich Cushman, Jackie (May 9, 2010). "Newt Gingrich, Thought Provocateur in Chief". Human Eagle Publishing. Archived from the original on July 12, 2011. Retrieved 2011.
  138. ^ "Meet Newt". Newt 2012. Archived from the original on June 22, 2011. Retrieved 2011.
  139. ^ "2011 Speaker Bios: Newt Gingrich". Salem State University. 2011. Archived from the original on February 19, 2011. Retrieved 2011.
  140. ^ Kamen, Al (March 4, 2011). "Wordly advice to Rumsfeld, from Gingrich, Wolfowitz & Co". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on June 29, 2011. Retrieved 2011.
  141. ^ "Project on National Security Reform - Preliminary Findings". Archived from the original on February 25, 2020. Retrieved 2020.
  142. ^ a b c d Narr, Kendra (August 26, 2011). "Former Gingrich 527 closes". Politico. Archived from the original on May 3, 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  143. ^ a b McGarr, Kathryn; Vogel, Kenneth P. (July 31, 2009). "Newt's big cash haul: $8 million". Politico. Archived from the original on July 21, 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  144. ^ "About Us". Archived from the original on November 27, 2010. Retrieved 2011.
  145. ^ Gilgoff, Dan (March 20, 2009). "Exclusive Interview: Newt Gingrich Stepping Up Defense of Religion in the Public Square". US News. God and Country. Archived from the original on January 26, 2011. Retrieved 2011.
  146. ^ "Membership Roster". Council on Foreign Relations. Archived from the original on May 18, 2015. Retrieved 2012.
  147. ^ Marr, Kendra (June 8, 2011). "Newt Gingrich first Six Sigma pledge signer". Politico. Archived from the original on August 8, 2011. Retrieved 2011.
  148. ^ "As he chairs Trump's opioid commission, Christie champions his home-state drug companies". USA Today. October 19, 2017. Archived from the original on October 25, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  149. ^ a b "The house that Newt built". The Washington Post. November 26, 2011. Archived from the original on January 19, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  150. ^ a b c Karen Tumulty; Dan Eggen (November 26, 2011). "Newt Gingrich Inc.: How the GOP hopeful went from political flameout to fortune". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on January 19, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  151. ^ Younglai, Rachelle (March 27, 2015). "Barrick Gold hires John Baird, Newt Gingrich". The Globe and Mail. Archived from the original on March 28, 2015. Retrieved 2015.
  152. ^ a b Kim Geiger (July 25, 2011). "Newt Gingrich's net worth: $6.7 million". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on January 12, 2014. Retrieved 2020.
  153. ^ a b c "Gingrich Health Center and Consulting Group Paid $55 Million". Bloomberg L.P. November 22, 2011.[permanent dead link]
  154. ^ Dan Eggen (November 18, 2011). "Gingrich Think Tank Collected $37M from Health-Care Industry". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on November 25, 2011. Retrieved 2011.
  155. ^ a b c d e Robb Mandelbaum (May 28, 2011). "Newt Gingrich, Small-Business Owner". New York Times. Archived from the original on December 12, 2011. Retrieved 2011.
  156. ^ Williams, Dave (April 5, 2012). "Newt Gingrich health care think tank files bankruptcy". Atlanta Business Chronicle. Archived from the original on April 6, 2012. Retrieved 2012.
  157. ^ Mullany, Gerry; Mike McIntire (April 5, 2012). "Former Gingrich Consultancy Files for Bankruptcy". The New York Times. Archived from the original on April 8, 2012. Retrieved 2012.
  158. ^ Kent, Jo Ling (November 19, 2011). "Gingrich distances self from Freddie Mac". MSNBC. Archived from the original on November 22, 2011.
  159. ^ Benson, Clea & Woellert, Loraine (January 6, 2012). "Gingrich Leaves Freddie Contract Release to Partners". Bloomberg L.P. Archived from the original on November 15, 2016. Retrieved 2017.
  160. ^ a b Zeleny, Jeff (February 26, 2011). "On the Stump, Gingrich Puts Focus on Faith". The New York Times. Archived from the original on February 27, 2011. Retrieved 2011.
  161. ^ a b King, Neil Jr. & O'Connor, Patrick (May 9, 2011). "Gingrich's Secret Weapon: Newt Inc". Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on April 1, 2019. Retrieved 2017.
  162. ^ Lucy Madison. "Newt Gingrich to star in Citizens United movie about "American exceptionalism"". CBS News. Archived from the original on July 4, 2011. Retrieved 2011.
  163. ^ Matthew Mosk; Brian Ross & Angela M. Hill (June 14, 2011). "Newt Gingrich Charity Paid Cash To Gingrich For-Profit Business". ABC News. Archived from the original on August 5, 2020. Retrieved 2020.
  164. ^ "About Us: Kathy G. Lubbers". Archived from the original on January 14, 2012. Retrieved 2011.
  165. ^ Marr, Kendra (July 25, 2011). "Gingrich invested in renewable energy and tech". Politico. Archived from the original on January 6, 2012. Retrieved 2011.
  166. ^ Eilperin, Juliet (June 10, 2006). "Gingrich May Run in 2008 if No Frontrunner Emerges". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on September 24, 2006. Retrieved 2006.
  167. ^ Bai, Matt. "Newt. Again". The New York Times. Archived from the original on February 25, 2020. Retrieved 2020.
  168. ^ Libit, Daniel (December 21, 2008). "The rise of Newt-world". politico. Archived from the original on December 22, 2008. Retrieved 2008.
  169. ^ Shear, Michael D. (September 30, 2007). "Gingrich says he won't run for president". The Seattle Times. Archived from the original on October 4, 2009. Retrieved 2007.
  170. ^ "Gingrich rules out presidential run". Reuters. September 30, 2007. Archived from the original on November 22, 2020. Retrieved 2007.
  171. ^ "Newt Gingrich endorses Dede Scozzafava in NY-23 House race". October 16, 2009. Archived from the original on February 1, 2010. Retrieved 2010.
  172. ^ Malkin, Michelle (October 26, 2009). "Newt for 2012? No, thanks". Archived from the original on August 28, 2010. Retrieved 2010.
  173. ^ "Newt In 2012: Yeah, But Which Party, Dude?". Riehl World View. October 26, 2009. Archived from the original on April 21, 2010. Retrieved 2010.
  174. ^ "6 Weeks Notice". Archived from the original on August 11, 2010. Retrieved 2010.
  175. ^ O'Brien, Connor (December 14, 2020). "Gingrich among Trump loyalists named to Pentagon advisory board". Politico. Retrieved 2021.
  176. ^ De Luce, Dan (February 2, 2021). "Pentagon clears out advisory boards, citing concerns over last-minute Trump picks". NBC News. Retrieved 2021.
  177. ^ Ambinder, Marc (October 2, 2008). "So Why's Huck An Early '12 Frontrunner?". The Atlantic. Archived from the original on December 5, 2008. Retrieved 2008.
  178. ^ Novak, Robert. "Newt in 2012?". Washington Post. Archived from the original on September 27, 2011. Retrieved 2011.
  179. ^ "Public Policy Polling" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on May 18, 2011. Retrieved 2011.
  180. ^ Van Susteren, Greta (March 10, 2009). "Newt Gingrich for President in 2012?". Fox News. Archived from the original on March 15, 2009. Retrieved 2009.
  181. ^ King, Neil Jr. (March 3, 2011). "Gingrich Dips Toe in 2012 Waters". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on March 4, 2011. Retrieved 2011.
  182. ^ Karl, Jonathan; Simmons, Gregory. "Newt Gingrich Announces 2012 Presidential Campaign via Twitter". ABC News Internet Ventures. Archived from the original on March 5, 2020. Retrieved 2020.
  183. ^ Zeleny, Jeff; Gabriel, Trip (June 9, 2011). "Gingrich senior campaign staff resigns". The New York Times. Archived from the original on June 10, 2011. Retrieved 2011.
  184. ^ Shear, Michael D. (June 21, 2011). "Gingrich Loses Members of Finance Team". The New York Times. Archived from the original on June 22, 2011. Retrieved 2011.
  185. ^ "Newt2012 News". Archived from the original on July 3, 2011. Retrieved 2011.
  186. ^ Grove, Lloyd (July 22, 2011). "Newt's Still In". The Daily Beast. Archived from the original on August 7, 2011. Retrieved 2011.
  187. ^ Harper, Jennifer (July 5, 2011). "Inside the Beltway". The Washington Times. Archived from the original on July 31, 2011. Retrieved 2011.
  188. ^ Malloy, Meghan (July 12, 2011). "Troubles aside, Gingrich shows confidence in campaign". Iowa Independent. Archived from the original on July 20, 2011. Retrieved 2011.
  189. ^ "Gingrich takes Republican lead in presidential race". December 4, 2011. Archived from the original on January 30, 2013. Retrieved 2011.
  190. ^ Montopoli, Brian (December 19, 2011). "Poll: Newt Gingrich's lead over Romney is gone". CBS News. Archived from the original on October 21, 2013.
  191. ^ "CNN Election Center - Iowa". CNN. January 4, 2012. Archived from the original on November 26, 2013.
  192. ^ Epstein, Reid (November 2, 2011). "New Hampshire makes primary date official". Politico. Archived from the original on November 3, 2011. Retrieved 2011.
  193. ^ "Romney Wins New Hampshire Primary". Fox News. January 10, 2012. Archived from the original on January 17, 2012. Retrieved 2012.
  194. ^ Khan, Huma (January 21, 2012). "South Carolina Primary: Newt Gingrich Defeats Mitt Romney" Archived February 3, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. ABC News.
  195. ^ Jensen, Tom. "Gingrich takes the lead in Florida". Public Policy Polling. Archived from the original on February 25, 2020. Retrieved 2020.
  196. ^ Blumenthal, Paul (January 28, 2012). "How Money Helped Romney's Florida Comeback". Huffington Post. Archived from the original on January 19, 2017. Retrieved 2020.
  197. ^ Chang, Kenneth (January 27, 2012). "For a Moon Colony, Technology is the Easy Part". The New York Times. Archived from the original on February 27, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  198. ^ "Romney's New Debate Coach Worked at Liberty University". January 27, 2012. Archived from the original on May 4, 2012. Retrieved 2012.
  199. ^ "Mitt Romney splits with Brett O'Donnell". Politico. Archived from the original on November 27, 2012. Retrieved 2012.
  200. ^ "AP Results via Google". Archived from the original on February 7, 2012. Retrieved 2012.
  201. ^ Stassen-Berger, Rachel (February 8, 2012). "Santorum sweeps to victory in Minnesota, Colorado, Missouri". Star Tribune. Minneapolis. Archived from the original on February 8, 2012. Retrieved 2012.
  202. ^ Minnesota Secretary of State (February 8, 2012). "Statewide Results for Republican Party". Archived from the original on February 11, 2012. Retrieved 2012.
  203. ^ "Oklahoma Republican Primary - Election Results". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2021.
  204. ^ Amy Gardner & Karen Tumulty (July 15, 2011). "More Republicans calling for Newt Gingrich to leave GOP race". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on March 16, 2012. Retrieved 2012.
  205. ^ Kasie Hunt. "Rick Santorum Ending His Campaign, Sources Say". Associated Press. Archived from the original on May 18, 2013. Retrieved 2012.
  206. ^ "Gingrich tells NY GOP he would support Romney". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on May 8, 2012. Retrieved 2012.
  207. ^ Leibovich, Mark (April 26, 2012). "Newt Gingrich Is Quitting the Race (Just Give Him a Little Time)". New York Times. Archived from the original on April 27, 2012. Retrieved 2012.
  208. ^ Elliot, Philip (Associated Press) (May 2, 2012). "Gingrich Exits Race, Endorses Romney". Christian Science Monitor. Archived from the original on May 28, 2012. Retrieved 2012.
  209. ^ Levinthal, Dave. "Gingrich says he's endorsed Romney". POLITICO. Retrieved 2021.
  210. ^ "Newt U Details Announced". Republican National Convention 2012. August 26, 2012. Archived from the original on September 2, 2012.
  211. ^ "Newt and Callista Gingrich RNC speech". Politico, LLC. Archived from the original on February 25, 2020. Retrieved 2020.
  212. ^ Schneider, Bill. "Newt, you're no Ronald Reagan". Politico, LLC. Archived from the original on February 25, 2020. Retrieved 2020.
  213. ^ "Newt Gingrich Will Never Pay His 2012 Campaign Debt". The Huffington Post. August 5, 2016. Archived from the original on August 10, 2016. Retrieved 2016.
  214. ^ Doyle, Kenneth P. (November 20, 2019). "Unpaid Bills Keep Gingrich, Judge Jeanine From Closing Campaigns". Bloomberg Government.
  215. ^ Bluestein, Greg. "Newt Gingrich can't shake his campaign debt from 2012 presidential bid". Archived from the original on December 22, 2019.
  216. ^ The Unprecedented 2016 Presidential Election | Rachel Bitecofer | Palgrave Macmillan. p. 146. Archived from the original on October 6, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  217. ^ Mak, Tim (March 24, 2016). "Revealed: Newt Gingrich's Secret Campaign for Donald Trump". The Daily Beast. Archived from the original on November 5, 2016. Retrieved 2016.
  218. ^ O'Donnell, Kelly (July 12, 2016). "Team Trump Plans Public Event Friday With VP Pick". NBC News. Archived from the original on August 23, 2019. Retrieved 2016.
  219. ^ "Bookmakers Say These Are Trump's Top 7 V.P. Picks". Vanity Fair. Archived from the original on October 27, 2016. Retrieved 2016.
  220. ^ Phillips, Amber. "Who is Mike Pence?". Washington Post. Archived from the original on December 13, 2019. Retrieved 2016.
  221. ^ Chapman, Dan (November 9, 2016). "Newt Gingrich role in Trump cabinet?". ajc. Archived from the original on November 14, 2016. Retrieved 2016.
  222. ^ Hall (November 17, 2016). "Newt Gingrich says he will not be in Trump Cabinet". McClatchy DC. Archived from the original on November 18, 2016. Retrieved 2016.
  223. ^ "Gingrich spreads conspiracy theory about slain DNC staffer". Washington Post. Archived from the original on May 21, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  224. ^ "Callista Gingrich to be nominated as ambassador to Vatican". CNN. May 19, 2017. Archived from the original on November 7, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  225. ^ Coppins, McKay (November 2018). "The Man Who Broke Politics". The Atlantic.
  226. ^ "Newt Gringrich tells Trump to be 'presidential' and sue to stop vote counts". The Independent. November 4, 2020. Archived from the original on November 22, 2020. Retrieved 2020.
  227. ^ Baragona, Justin (December 3, 2020). "Newt Gingrich Upset at 'Totally Destructive' Pro-Trump Lawyers He Helped Embolden". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 2021.
  228. ^ Czachor, Emily (December 22, 2020). "Trump would've won election if Americans knew pandemic was "almost over": Gingrich". Newsweek. Retrieved 2021.
  229. ^ Baragona, Justin (November 6, 2020). "Newt Gingrich: Bill Barr Should Arrest Poll Workers". The Daily Beast. Archived from the original on November 9, 2020. Retrieved 2020.
  230. ^ Ankel, Sophia. "Citing zero evidence, former House Speaker Newt Gingrich calls on Attorney General Bill Barr to send federal agents to arrest election workers in Pennsylvania". Business Insider. Archived from the original on November 7, 2020. Retrieved 2020.
  231. ^ Corasaniti, Nick; Rutenberg, Jim; Gray, Kathleen (November 19, 2020). "Threats and Tensions Rise as Trump and Allies Attack Elections Process". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on November 19, 2020. Retrieved 2020.
  232. ^ Haq, Husna (May 11, 2011). "Election 101: Ten questions about Newt Gingrich as a presidential candidate (3. What does he have going for him?)". The Christian Science Monitor. Archived from the original on May 15, 2011. Retrieved 2011.
  233. ^ Glover, Mike (January 25, 2011). "Gingrich calls for replacing EPA". The Washington Post. AP Interview. Retrieved 2011.[dead link]
  234. ^ Gingrich, Newt (2006). Winning the Future. Washington DC: Regnery. ISBN 978-1-59698-007-5.
  235. ^ Adler, Jonathan (January 26, 2011) Newt Hearts Ethanol Archived June 12, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, National Review; accessed December 8, 2016.
  236. ^ "Newt Gingrich on America and the State of the World". Archived from the original on October 20, 2016. Retrieved 2016.
  237. ^ Gregory, David (November 15, 2009). "Meet the Press Transcript". Meet the Press. NBC News. Archived from the original on November 22, 2020. Retrieved 2020.
  238. ^ McCarthy, Tom (December 20, 2012). "Newt Gingrich urges Republicans to rethink opposition to gay marriage". The Guardian. Archived from the original on February 6, 2013. Retrieved 2016.
  239. ^ "Newt Gingrich Endorses National Popular Vote". National Popular Vote. February 1, 2016. Archived from the original on June 26, 2020. Retrieved 2020.
  240. ^ "Newt Gingrich Fox News Transcript". Media Matters for America. July 14, 2016. Archived from the original on July 22, 2016. Retrieved 2016.
  241. ^ Nelson, Libby (July 14, 2016). "Newt Gingrich just said the US should deport all Muslims who believe in Sharia". Vox. Archived from the original on July 16, 2016. Retrieved 2016.
  242. ^ Jaffe, Alexandra (July 14, 2016). "Gingrich also tosses out the 1st A, saying "anybody who goes on a website favoring" terrorist groups, "that should be a felony."". NBC Politics. Archived from the original on July 22, 2016. Retrieved 2016.
  243. ^ Flores, Reena (July 21, 2016). "Newt Gingrich: NATO countries "ought to worry" about U.S. commitment". CBS News. Archived from the original on July 22, 2016. Retrieved 2016.
  244. ^ MalakoffNov. 11, David; 2016; Pm, 12:15 (November 11, 2016). "Newt Gingrich, a major Trump ally, has a complicated love affair with science". Science | AAAS. Archived from the original on January 3, 2019. Retrieved 2019.CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  245. ^ Russakoff, Dale (December 18, 1994). "He Knew What He Wanted; Gingrich Turned Disparate Lessons into a Single-Minded Goal Series: Mr. Speaker: The Rise of Newt Gingrich Series Number: 1/4". The Washington Post. p. A1.
  246. ^ Cox, Major W. (January 4, 1995). "Gingrich May Be Perfect for the Task". Montgomery Advertiser. Archived from the original on October 8, 2010.
  247. ^ Yoon, Robert (March 2, 2011). "Fox-less Newt remains gainfully employed". CNN. Archived from the original on March 4, 2011. Retrieved 2011.
  248. ^ "Jackie Gingrich Cushman - Articles & Political Commentary - Jackie Gingrich Cushman". Townhall. Archived from the original on July 15, 2020. Retrieved 2020.
  249. ^ "WEDDINGS; Jackie Gingrich, J. E. Cushman Jr". The New York Times. January 25, 1998. Archived from the original on July 31, 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  250. ^ a b Sheehy, Gail (September 1995). "The Inner Quest of Newt Gingrich". Vanity Fair. Archived from the original on April 23, 2016.
  251. ^ a b c "The Swinging Days of Newt Gingrich". Mother Jones. November 1, 1984. Archived from the original on July 31, 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  252. ^ "Gingrich Admits to Affair During Clinton Impeachment". ABC News. Archived from the original on January 7, 2019. Retrieved 2018.
  253. ^ Richardson, John (August 10, 2010). "Newt Gingrich: The Indispensable Republican". Esquire. Archived from the original on January 4, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  254. ^ a b Romano, Lois (January 3, 1985). "Newt Gingrich, Maverick on the Hill". The Washington Post.
  255. ^ a b Seelye, Katharine Q. (November 24, 1994). "Gingrich's Life: The Complications and Ideals". The New York Times. Archived from the original on August 4, 2016.
  256. ^ Zeleny, Jeff (February 26, 2011). "On the Stump, Gingrich Puts Focus on Faith". The New York Times. Archived from the original on January 19, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  257. ^ Duke, Alan (December 25, 2011). "Newly recovered court files cast doubt on Gingrich version of first divorce". CNN. Archived from the original on December 26, 2011. Retrieved 2011.
  258. ^ a b Scheer, Robert (December 25, 1994). "Gingrich Puts a Price on His Family Values: He sheltered his $4-million book bonanza from his struggling, non-trophy ex-wife". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on December 28, 2011. Retrieved 2011.
  259. ^ Calmes, Jackie; Kuntz, Phil (November 9, 1994). "Newt's House: Republicans' Wins Put their Attack Tactician in a Position to Lead--Gingrich, Having Led Assault on Capital Ways, Faces Unfamiliar Role: Builder--'This Is a Brand New World". The Wall Street Journal. p. A1.
  260. ^ Jim Galloway (August 7, 2013). "Jackie Gingrich, first wife of former U.S. House speaker, dies". Archived from the original on February 23, 2014. Retrieved 2016.
  261. ^ Boyer, Peter J. (July 1989). "Good Newtgooge, Bad Newt". Vanity Fair. Archived from the original on September 17, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  262. ^ "Gingrich confession: Clearing the way for a 2008 run?". CNN. March 9, 2007. Archived from the original on March 26, 2010. Retrieved 2009.
  263. ^ a b "Newt Gingrich tells The Brody File he 'felt compelled to seek God's forgiveness'". The Brody File, Christian Broadcasting Network blog. March 8, 2011. Archived from the original on January 4, 2016.
  264. ^ a b McCaffrey, Shannon (March 9, 2011). "Newt Gingrich says his passion for his country contributed to his marital infidelity". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on April 5, 2011.
  265. ^ Fritz, Sara (April 26, 1989). "Made money from book, Gingrich says". The Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on July 2, 2013.
  266. ^ West, Paul (January 19, 2012). "Newt Gingrich's ex-wife talks end of marriage". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on January 24, 2012. Retrieved 2012.
  267. ^ "Gingrich Friend Dates Affair To '93". Chicago Tribune. November 11, 1999. Archived from the original on January 16, 2011. Retrieved 2012.
  268. ^ Tapper, Jake (March 9, 2007). "Gingrich admits to affair during Clinton impeachment". ABC News. Archived from the original on February 28, 2012. Retrieved 2018.
  269. ^ "Newt Gingrich: The 5 juiciest details from his ex-wife". August 11, 2010. Archived from the original on October 10, 2019. Retrieved 2020.
  270. ^ Gabriel, Trip (January 19, 2013). "Former Gingrich Wife Says He Asked for 'Open Marriage'". The New York Times. Archived from the original on January 19, 2012. Retrieved 2012.
  271. ^ Streitfeld, Rachel; Steinhauser, Paul (January 20, 2012). "Gingrich delivers show-stopper at beginning of South Carolina debate". CNN. Archived from the original on January 21, 2012. Retrieved 2012.
  272. ^ "Timeline-Newt Gingrich's Marriages". ABC News. January 19, 2012. Archived from the original on March 26, 2012. Retrieved 2012.
  273. ^ "Callista Gingrich". 2010. Archived from the original on January 2, 2011. Retrieved 2012.
  274. ^ "Newt Gingrich Pledges 'Personal Fidelity to My Spouse'". ABC News. December 12, 2011. Archived from the original on December 19, 2011. Retrieved 2011.
  275. ^ "Religion still affects voters' views of candidates". The Republic. December 8, 2011. Retrieved 2011.[dead link]
  276. ^ "Newt swims the Tiber". Get Religion. April 1, 2009. Archived from the original on February 28, 2012. Retrieved 2011.
  277. ^ Goodstein, Laurie (December 17, 2011). "Gingrich represents new political era for Catholics". The New York Times. Archived from the original on July 17, 2016.
  278. ^ "Newt Gingrich on why he became a Catholic". Politico. Archived from the original on February 28, 2012. Retrieved 2011.
  279. ^ "Newt Gingrich Asks for Annulment". The Associated Press. May 10, 2002. Archived from the original on June 9, 2016. Retrieved 2015.
  280. ^ Mark Oppenheimer (December 9, 2011). "Faith and Family Values at Issue for Republicans". The New York Times. Archived from the original on July 17, 2016. Retrieved 2013.
  281. ^ Longenecker, Fr. Dwight (January 14, 2012). "Newt's Three Marriages". The Anglican Patrimony. Archived from the original on September 28, 2013. Retrieved 2015.
  282. ^ Delin, Grant (October 2006). "Newt Gingrich". Discover Magazine. Discover Interview. Archived from the original on February 12, 2010. Retrieved 2010.
  283. ^ Gingrich, Newt; Jackie Gingrich Cushman (2009). 5 Principles for a Successful Life: From Our Family to Yours. Random House. ISBN 978-0-307-46232-9. Archived from the original on April 7, 2015. Retrieved 2015.
  284. ^ "Gingrich wild about zoos". Washington Post. Archived from the original on September 30, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  285. ^ "10 great places to go wild over zoo animals". USA Today. July 17, 2008. Archived from the original on December 17, 2011. Retrieved 2010.
  286. ^ {{cite magazine |url= |magazine=[[The New Yorker]{ |date=July 17, 1995 |title=Cookie Monster |first=Hendrik |last=Hertzberg |access-date=February 18, 2020 |archive-date=March 6, 2014 |archive-url= |url-status=live }}
  287. ^ Gingrich, Newt (June 30, 2008). "Space first, NASA second". Aviation Week & Space Technology.
  288. ^ "A few words with Newt Gingrich". The Space Review. May 15, 2006. Archived from the original on February 28, 2012. Retrieved 2011.
  289. ^ Gingrich, Newt; Vince Haley; Rick Tyler (2009). "15". Real Change: The Fight For America's Future. ISBN 9781596980532.
  290. ^ "Newt Gingrich profile". Archived from the original on December 12, 2011. Retrieved 2011.
  291. ^ Genocchio, Benjamin; Goldstein, Andrew M. (January 3, 2012). "Which Republican Candidate Would Make the Best Arts Nominee?". Artinfo. Retrieved 2013.
  292. ^ a b "'Crossfire' coming back to CNN". CNN. June 26, 2013. Archived from the original on June 30, 2013. Retrieved 2013.
  293. ^ Moraes, Lisa (October 15, 2014). "Crosssfire cancelled--again--as CNN pulls programs and slashes staff". Deadline. Archived from the original on May 10, 2016. Retrieved 2016.
  294. ^ "Ronald Reagan: Rendezvous With Destiny". Nine Days that Changed the World. Archived from the original on October 20, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  295. ^ "Nine Days that Changed the World". Nine Days that Changed the World. Archived from the original on December 8, 2011. Retrieved 2011.

General sources

  • Brattebo, Douglas M. (2012) "You're a Mean One, Mr. Gingrich: The Inbuilt, Ruinous Incivility of Newt", American Behavioral Scientist (2012) abstract Archived July 10, 2016, at the Wayback Machine
  • Drew, Elizabeth. (1996) Showdown: The Struggle Between the Gingrich Congress and the Clinton White House (Simon and Schuster, 1996)
  • Fenno Jr., Richard F. (2000). Congress at the Grassroots: Representational Change in the South, 1970-1998. UNC Press. ISBN 978-0-8078-4855-5.
  • Gillon, Steven M. (2008) The pact: Bill Clinton, Newt Gingrich, and the rivalry that defined a generation (Oxford UP, 2008).
  • Kabaservice, Geoffrey. (2012) Rule and ruin: the downfall of moderation and the destruction of the Republican party, from Eisenhower to the tea party (Oxford University Press, 2012)
  • Little, Thomas H. (1998). "On the Coattails of a Contract: RNC Activities and Republicans Gains in the 1994 State Legislative Elections". Political Research Quarterly. 51 (1): 173-90. doi:10.1177/106591299805100108. S2CID 154142051.
  • McSweeney, Dean and John E. Owens, eds. (1998) The Republican Takeover of Congress (1998).
  • Maraniss, David, and Michael Weisskopf. (1996) Tell Newt to shut up!: prizewinning Washington Post journalists reveal how reality gagged the Gingrich revolution (Simon & Schuster, 1996)
  • Nagle, John Copeland, and William N. Eskridge. (1995) "Newt Gingrich, Dynamic Statutory Interpreter." University of Pennsylvania Law Review 143: 2209-2250 online Archived January 5, 2017, at the Wayback Machine
  • Rae, Nicol C. (1998) Conservative Reformers: The Republican Freshmen and the Lessons of the 104th Congress (M.E. Sharpe, 1998)
  • Strahan, Randall (2007). Leading Representatives: The Agency of Leaders in the Politics of the U.S. House. Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-8691-1.
  • Steely, Mel. (2000) The Gentleman from Georgia: The Biography of Newt Gingrich (Mercer University Press, 2000)

External links

U.S. House of Representatives
Preceded by Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Georgia's 6th congressional district

Succeeded by
Preceded by House Minority Whip
Succeeded by
Party political offices
Preceded by House Republican Deputy Leader
Succeeded by
Political offices
Preceded by Speaker of the United States House of Representatives
Succeeded by
Business positions
New office Chief Executive Officer of the Center for Health Transformation
Succeeded by
Non-profit organization positions
New office Chair of American Solutions for Winning the Future
Succeeded by

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.



Music Scenes