Niigata (city)
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Niigata City
Niigata

Niigata City
From top left: NEXT21, Bandai Bridge, Toki Messe, Niigata Stadium, Central Niigata and Shinano River in the night, Rainbow Tower
From top left: NEXT21, Bandai Bridge, Toki Messe, Niigata Stadium, Central Niigata and Shinano River in the night, Rainbow Tower
Flag of Niigata
Flag
Official seal of Niigata
Seal
Location of Niigata in Niigata Prefecture
Location of Niigata in Niigata Prefecture
Niigata is located in Japan
Niigata
Niigata
 
Coordinates: 37°54?58?N 139°2?11?E / 37.91611°N 139.03639°E / 37.91611; 139.03639Coordinates: 37°54?58?N 139°2?11?E / 37.91611°N 139.03639°E / 37.91611; 139.03639
CountryJapan
RegionCh?bu (K?shin'etsu) (Hokuriku)
PrefectureNiigata
Government
 o - MayorYaichi Nakahara (from November, 2018)
Area
 o Designated city726.45 km2 (280.48 sq mi)
Population
(October 1, 2018)
 o Designated city800,582
 o Density1,100/km2 (2,900/sq mi)
 o Metro
[1] (2015)
1,060,013 (17th)
Time zoneUTC+9 (Japan Standard Time)
Symbols 
o TreeWillow
o FlowerTulip
o BirdSwan
Phone number025-243-4894
Address1-602-1 Gakk?ch?-d?ri, Ch-ku, Niigata-shi, Niigata-ken 951-8550
Websitehttp://www.city.niigata.lg.jp/
Niigata
Niigata (Chinese characters).svg
"Niigata" in kanji
Japanese name
Kanji
Downtown of Niigata City

Niigata (, Niigata-shi, Japanese: [ni:?ata]) is the capital and the most populous city of Niigata Prefecture located in the Ch?bu region of Japan. It faces the Sea of Japan and Sado Island.

As of 1 July 2019, the city had an estimated population of 797,591, and a population density of 1,098 persons per km². The total area is 726.45 square kilometres (280.48 sq mi). Greater Niigata, Niigata Metropolitan Employment Area, has a GDP of US$43.3 billion as of 2010.[2][3]

With a long history as a port town, Niigata became a free port following the Meiji Restoration. Niigata's city government was established in 1889. Mergers with nearby municipalities in 2005 allowed the city's population to jump to 810,000. The annexation of the surrounding area has also given the city the greatest rice paddy field acreage in Japan. On April 1, 2007, it became the first government-designated city on the Japan Sea coast of Honshu.

Toponymy

The place name "Niigata" was first recorded in 1520 (Eisho 17).[4] Its name in kanji can be translated as ? "new", ? "lagoon", ? "city".

However, as there is no record about the origin of the name, this had led to several theories. First "Niigata" was a large lagoon at the mouth of the Shinano river. Second it was an inland bay at the river's entrance. Third it was the name of a village that stood on an island within the estuary. Fourth it referred to another island settlement that relocated to the Furumachi district and that in turn gave its name to a nearby lagoon.[5]

Geography

A map showing Niigata Metropolitan Employment Area.

Niigata is situated on a fertile coastal plain on the Sea of Japan coast, facing Sado Island. The Shinano River and Agano River flow through the city.

Numerous wetlands, such as the Fukushimagata wetlands, can be found within the city limits. The Sakata lagoon is registered as a wetland of international importance under the Ramsar Convention.

Niigata City's low elevation and abundant water have made flood control and land reclamation important issues for the area throughout its history.

The city is sometimes called the "City of Water" (, Mizu-no-miyako) because of the two rivers that flow through it, its position next to the Japan Sea, its many wetlands, and the canals that used to run through the city. It is also sometimes referred to as the "City of Willows" (, Yanagi-no-miyako) or Ryuto () because of the willow trees that lined the old canals. In recent years, the city has been promoting itself as a "Designated City of Food and Flowers" (?, Shoku to hana no seireishi), highlighting its agricultural areas outside of the city center.

Climate

Niigata City features a humid subtropical climate, despite receiving more yearly snowfall than cities such as Moscow, Montreal or Oslo. The climate in Niigata City is characterized by its high humidity and strong winds from the Sea of Japan. While many other parts of Niigata Prefecture tend to have heavy snow, Niigata City itself usually receives less due to its low-lying elevation and the shielding effect of Sado Island.

However, Niigata City does receive much precipitation, mostly in the form of rainfall. On average, Niigata City has 269 days of precipitation each year, about 170 days of which see rain or snowfall measuring over 1 mm.[6] The rainy season in July brings large amounts of rain, while the winter months, especially November and December, also have much precipitation.[7]

In summer, the south wind makes the weather rather hot. Typhoons usually bring strong foehn winds to this area, generally causing somewhat higher temperatures than in other parts of Japan. The weather on the west coast of Honshu tends to be better during the summer months than on the Pacific coast.

Climate data for Niigata, Niigata (1981-2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 15.3
(59.5)
21.3
(70.3)
25.1
(77.2)
30.7
(87.3)
32.9
(91.2)
35.0
(95.0)
38.5
(101.3)
39.9
(103.8)
37.1
(98.8)
33.3
(91.9)
27.2
(81.0)
23.6
(74.5)
39.1
(102.4)
Average high °C (°F) 5.5
(41.9)
6.0
(42.8)
9.7
(49.5)
16.0
(60.8)
21.0
(69.8)
24.5
(76.1)
28.2
(82.8)
30.6
(87.1)
26.2
(79.2)
20.3
(68.5)
14.2
(57.6)
8.7
(47.7)
17.6
(63.7)
Daily mean °C (°F) 2.8
(37.0)
2.9
(37.2)
5.8
(42.4)
11.5
(52.7)
16.5
(61.7)
20.7
(69.3)
24.5
(76.1)
26.6
(79.9)
22.5
(72.5)
16.4
(61.5)
10.5
(50.9)
5.6
(42.1)
13.9
(57.0)
Average low °C (°F) 0.2
(32.4)
0.1
(32.2)
2.3
(36.1)
7.3
(45.1)
12.7
(54.9)
17.6
(63.7)
21.7
(71.1)
23.4
(74.1)
19.2
(66.6)
12.8
(55.0)
7.0
(44.6)
2.7
(36.9)
10.2
(50.4)
Record low °C (°F) -11.7
(10.9)
-13
(9)
-6.4
(20.5)
-2.5
(27.5)
2.0
(35.6)
6.7
(44.1)
11.4
(52.5)
14.5
(58.1)
7.9
(46.2)
3.0
(37.4)
-1.8
(28.8)
-9.5
(14.9)
-13
(9)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 186.0
(7.32)
122.4
(4.82)
112.6
(4.43)
91.7
(3.61)
104.1
(4.10)
127.9
(5.04)
192.1
(7.56)
140.6
(5.54)
155.1
(6.11)
160.3
(6.31)
210.8
(8.30)
217.4
(8.56)
1,821
(71.69)
Average snowfall cm (inches) 91
(36)
73
(29)
19
(7.5)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
2
(0.8)
30
(12)
217
(85)
Average precipitation days 23.9 19.7 17.8 12.9 11.3 11.2 13.4 9.5 13.4 15.8 19.5 24.2 192.6
Average snowy days 22.9 20.2 11.4 0.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.1 13.3 70.8
Average relative humidity (%) 72 71 67 65 69 74 77 73 73 71 71 72 71
Mean monthly sunshine hours 57.1 75.1 128.4 181.8 200.2 173.1 169.4 214.9 150.7 144.0 89.9 60.5 1,642.5
Source: [8][9]

Wards

A map of Niigata's Wards

Niigata has had system of wards (ku) since April 1, 2007:[10] Each ward has its own "image color".

Ward Japanese Color
Akiha Ward ?Floral green
Chuo Ward (administrative center) ?Waterfront blue
Higashi Ward ?Aqua blue
Kita Ward ?Nature green
Konan Ward ?Spring green
Minami Ward ?Breeze blue
Nishi Ward ?Sunset orange
Nishikan Ward ?Harvest yellow

Adjoining communities

From the north, following Niigata's border clockwise:

  • In addition Sado Island is connected by sea and air routes.

History

A view of Niigata City and Shinano River from observation deck of Niigata Prefecture Building

People have inhabited the Niigata area since the J?mon period, though much of the current land was still beneath the sea at the time. According to the Nihon Shoki, a fortress was built in the area in AD 647.

In the 16th century, a port called Niigata was established at the mouth of the Shinano River, while a port town with the name Nuttari developed at the mouth of the Agano River. The area prospered beneath the rule of Uesugi Kenshin during the Sengoku Period.

A system of canals was constructed on the main island of Niigata in the 17th century. During this period, the courses of the Shinano and Agano rivers gradually changed until they poured into the Sea of Japan at the same location. As a result, Niigata prospered as a port town, serving as a port of call for Japanese trade ships traversing the Sea of Japan.

The Matsugasaki Canal was constructed in 1730 to drain the Agano River area, but in 1731, flooding destroyed the canal and caused it to become the main current of the Agano River. As a result, the volume of water flowing into the port of Niigata decreased, which in turn allowed land reclamation efforts and the development of new rice fields to proceed.

In 1858, Niigata was designated as one of the five ports to be opened for international trade in the Japan-U.S. Treaty of Amity and Commerce. However, the shallow water level in the port delayed the actual opening to foreign ships until 1869. The port also served as a valuable base for fishermen who roamed as far north as the Kamchatka Peninsula to catch salmon and other fish.

In 1886, the first Bandai Bridge was built across the Shinano River to connect the settlements of Niigata on the east and Nuttari on the west. Niigata annexed Nuttari in 1914.

During World War II, Niigata's strategic location between the capital of Tokyo and the Sea of Japan made it a key point for the transfer of settlers and military personnel to the Asian continent, including Manchukuo.

In 1945, near the end of the war, Niigata was one of four cities, together with Hiroshima, Kokura, and Nagasaki, picked as targets for the atomic bomb if Japan did not surrender. The governor of Niigata Prefecture ordered the people to evacuate as rumors of an impending bombing spread, and the city was completely deserted for days. Poor weather conditions and its distance from B-29 bases in the Mariana Islands meant that it was removed from the list of targets during deliberations; Nagasaki was bombed instead.

In 1950, construction of Niigata Station was completed, extending the downtown area from Bandai Bridge. A devastating fire in 1955 destroyed much of the downtown area, but eventually the city recovered. In 1964, the old canals that flowed throughout the city were filled in to make way for more roads.

On June 16, 1964, at 13:23 Japan Standard Time an earthquake of 7.5 Richter scale struck the city, killing 29 people and causing large-scale property damage, with 1,960 totally destroyed buildings, 6,640 partially destroyed buildings, and 15,298 severely inundated by liquefaction.

In 1965, the Agano River running through Niigata was polluted with methylmercury from the chemical plant of the Showa Electrical Company. Over 690 people exhibited symptoms of Minamata disease and the outbreak became known as Niigata Minamata disease.

In 1982, Shinkansen (bullet train) service on the J?etsu Shinkansen line began between Niigata and Omiya, with service to Ueno added in 1985. The line was extended all the way to Tokyo in 1991.

Big Swan Stadium in Niigata City hosted three games during the 2002 FIFA World Cup.

The 2004 Ch?etsu earthquake did not cause any significant damage in Niigata City itself, allowing the city to work as a relief base.

The size and the population of Niigata city increased over the four-year period between 2001 and 2005, due to a series of municipal mergers. On April 1, 2007, Niigata City became first city on the west coast of Honshu to become a government-designated city.

In July 2007, the Ch?etsu offshore earthquake, measuring 6.9 on Richter scale, rocked Niigata Prefecture. Though the earthquake was felt in the city, there was little damage, which allowed Niigata City to provide aid to the devastated areas.

In May 2008, the city hosted the 2008 G8 Labor Ministers Meeting.

On March 12, 2011, several hours after the massive 9.0 Tohoku earthquake struck off the east coast of Honshu, Niigata and Nagano Prefectures experienced an estimated magnitude 6.6 earthquake.

Mergers

Mergers of Niigata

List of mayor of Niigata City (1889 to present)

Sister cities

Niigata maintains sister city ties with six cities:

In addition, special exchange agreements have been set up with[]

Transportation

Willow-lined Streets of Niigata

Airport

Niigata Airport is located about 6 km north of central Niigata. It handles some international destinations as well as many domestic ones. As of October 2016, the domestic destinations available are: Osaka (10 times a day), Sapporo (5 or 6 times a day), Fukuoka (3 times a day), Okinawa (once or twice a day), Nagoya (3 times a day), Narita (once a day) and Sado Island (3 times a day).

Niigata Airport's international destinations are Harbin (twice a week), Seoul (5 times a week), Shanghai (twice a week) and Vladivostok[11]

Railway

The largest station in Niigata City is Niigata Station. It is centrally located in the Bandai area, one of the two main shopping districts in downtown Niigata. Approximately 37,000 passengers use the station daily. The J?etsu Shinkansen, which terminates at Niigata Station, provides daily service to Tokyo. The Shin'etsu Main Line, Hakushin Line, Echigo Line, Uetsu Main Line, and Ban'etsu West Line also terminate at Niigata Station. These lines serve Myoko, Itoigawa, Akita, Sakata, and Aizuwakamatsu.

Niigata Kotsu Dentetsu Line and Kambara Dentetsu trains used to run through the city until the late 1990s; however, they no longer exist.

Transit bus

BRT "Bandai-bashi Line" runs through business/shopping districts in the central Niigata (Niigata Station--Bandai Bridge--Furumachi--City hall--Hakusan Station--Aoyama).

Sea port

Niigata used to be the terminus of the Mangyongbong-92 ferry, one of the direct connections between Japan and North Korea.

Education

Colleges and universities

Sightseeing

Cultural facilities and points of interest

Culture

Niigata geishas
Aerial video of Kurosaki Festival Fireworks

Events

Sports

Notable people from Niigata

Artists and writers

Actors and voice actors

Musicians

Others

References

  1. ^ "UEA Code Tables". Center for Spatial Information Science, University of Tokyo. Retrieved 2019.
  2. ^ Yoshitsugu Kanemoto. "Metropolitan Employment Area (MEA) Data". Center for Spatial Information Science, The University of Tokyo.
  3. ^ Conversion rates - Exchange rates - OECD Data
  4. ^ (2010). ?. ?. ISBN 978-4861323720.
  5. ^ (1989). 15 . (?)?. ISBN 4-04-001150-3.
  6. ^ (?)
  7. ^ Niigata City 2007 Statistical Data, published 2007
  8. ^ / (?). Japan Meteorological Agency.
  9. ^ ?1~10( )). Japan Meteorological Agency. Retrieved .
  10. ^ Map Archived September 27, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  11. ^ Flight Schedule - NIIGATA AIRPORT
  12. ^ Nature Aquarium Gallery official website
  13. ^ "Yutakayama Rikishi Information". Sumo Reference. Retrieved 2018.
  14. ^ "North Korea abductee: Japan parents meet grand-daughter - BBC News". Bbc.co.uk. Retrieved .

External links

Wikisource-logo.svg "Niigata" . New International Encyclopedia. 1905.


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Niigata_(city)
 



 



 
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