Nikolayevsk-on-Amur
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Nikolayevsk-on-Amur
Nikolayevsk-on-Amur

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Flag of Nikolayevsk-on-Amur
Flag
Coat of arms of Nikolayevsk-on-Amur
Coat of arms
Location of Nikolayevsk-on-Amur
Nikolayevsk-on-Amur is located in Russia
Nikolayevsk-on-Amur
Nikolayevsk-on-Amur
Location of Nikolayevsk-on-Amur
Nikolayevsk-on-Amur is located in Khabarovsk Krai
Nikolayevsk-on-Amur
Nikolayevsk-on-Amur
Nikolayevsk-on-Amur (Khabarovsk Krai)
Coordinates: 53°08?N 140°44?E / 53.133°N 140.733°E / 53.133; 140.733Coordinates: 53°08?N 140°44?E / 53.133°N 140.733°E / 53.133; 140.733
CountryRussia
Federal subjectKhabarovsk Krai[1]
Founded13 August 1850
Town status since1856
Government
 o HeadPyotr Volynsky
Area
 o Total17 km2 (7 sq mi)
Elevation
30 m (100 ft)
Population
 o Total22,752
 o Density1,300/km2 (3,500/sq mi)
 o Subordinated totown of krai significance of Nikolayevsk-on-Amur[1]
 o Capital oftown of krai significance of Nikolayevsk-on-Amur[3], Nikolayevsky District[4]
 o Municipal districtNikolayevsky Municipal District[5]
 o Urban settlementNikolayevsk-na-Amure Urban Settlement[5]
 o Capital ofNikolayevsky Municipal District[6], Nikolayevsk-na-Amure Urban Settlement
Time zoneUTC+10 (MSK+7 Edit this on Wikidata[7])
Postal code(s)[8]
682460
Dialing code(s)+7 42135
OKTMO ID08631101001

Nikolayevsk-on-Amur (Russian: --, Nikolayevsk-na-Amure) is a town in Khabarovsk Krai, Russia located on the Amur River close to its liman in the Pacific Ocean. Population: ;[2];[9].[10]

Geography

The town is situated on the left bank of the Amur River, 80 kilometers (50 mi) from where it flows into the Amur estuary, 977 kilometers (607 mi) north of Khabarovsk and 582 kilometers (362 mi) from the Komsomolsk-on-Amur railway station. It is the closest significant settlement to the Strait of Tartary separating the mainland from Sakhalin.

History

Medieval and early-modern history

In the late Middle Ages, the people living along the lower course of the Amur (Nivkh, Oroch, Evenki) were collectively known in China as the "wild Jurchen". The Yuan Dynasty Mongols sent expeditions to this area with an eye toward using the region as a base for attack on Japan, or for defending against the Sakhalin Ainus. According to the History of Yuan, in 1264 the Nivkhs recognized the Mongol sovereignty. In 1263, the Mongols set up the "Command Post of the Marshal of the Eastern Campaign" near the modern settlement of Tyr, some 100 kilometers (62 mi) upstream from today's Nikolayevsk-on-Amur. At roughly the same time, a shrine was built on the Tyr Rock.[11][12]

From 1411 to 1433, the Ming eunuch Yishiha, a man of Haixi Jurchen origin, led four large missions to win over the allegiance of the "Jurchen" tribes along the Sunggari and Amur Rivers. During this time, the Yongning Temple was constructed at Tyr, and stelae with inscriptions erected.[11]

Russian period

View of Nikolayevsk, ca. 1900

The Russian settlement, likely preceded by the Manchu village of Fuyori,[13] was founded as Nikolayevsky Post by Gennady Nevelskoy on 13 August 1850[] and named for Tsar Nicholas I.[14]

The settlement quickly became one of the main economic centres on the Pacific coast of the Russian Empire. It became Russia's main Pacific harbour (replacing Petropavlovsk) in 1855 after the Siege of Petropavlovsk of 1854. It was granted town status and renamed Nikolayevsk-on-Amur in 1856, when Primorskaya Oblast was established.[] Admiral Vasily Zavoyko supervised the construction of a naval base in Nikolayevsk-on-Amur.

The town emerged as an important commercial harbour; however, due to navigational difficulties caused by the sandbanks in the Amur estuary and because sea ice made the harbour unusable for five months each year, the main Russian shipping activities in the Pacific transferred to the better situated Vladivostok in the early 1870s. The town remained the administrative centre of this region until 1880, when the governor relocated to Khabarovsk. Anton Chekhov, visiting the town on his journey to Sakhalin in 1890, noted its rapid depopulation, although this trend slowed somewhat in the late 1890s with the discovery of gold and the establishment of salmon fisheries.

During the Russian Civil War of 1917-1922 the town's population plummeted from 15,000 to 2,000, as a local partisan leader, later executed by the same Bolsheviks he was supposed to be aligned with, razed the entire town to the ground and massacred the minority Japanese population along with most of the Russian population.

Around 1940 a prison camp of the gulag system was located in the town.[15]

Like many other places in the Russian Far East, the town has seen a drop in population since the dissolution of the Soviet Union, dropping from 36,296 inhabitants recorded in the (1989 Census),[10] to only 22,772 in 2010.[2]

Administrative and municipal status

Within the framework of administrative divisions, Nikolayevsk-on-Amur serves as the administrative center of Nikolayevsky District,[3] even though it is not a part of it.[1] As an administrative division, it is incorporated separately as the town of krai significance of Nikolayevsk-na-Amure--an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[1] As a municipal division, the town of krai significance of Nikolayevsk-na-Amure is incorporated within Nikolayevsky Municipal District as Nikolayevsk-na-Amure Urban Settlement.[5]

Economy

Fishing and fish processing are the main industries of the town, along with ship maintenance and some agricultural production in the surrounding area.

Transportation

Nikolayevsk-on-Amur has no land transport connections. Traffic to and from the town enters via the port on the Amur, or the small airport, namely Nikolayevsk-on-Amur Airport (IATA: NLI), which is home to Nikolaevsk-Na-Amure Air Enterprise.

Climate

Nikolayevsk-on-Amur has a borderline humid continental climate (Köppen Dfb), almost cold enough to be a subarctic climate (Dfc). Precipitation is not as low in the winter as over most of Siberia since the coast in on the fringe of influence from the Aleutian Low. The near-maritime location only marginally--by 5 °C (9.0 °F)--moderates the winters compared to interior Siberia, but makes the summers noticeably cool (especially in May and June) though the Oyashio fogs are less prevalent than on Sakhalin itself and sunshine hours therefore rather longer.

Climate data for Nikolayevsk-on-Amur (1981-2010, extremes 1881-present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 0.3
(32.5)
5.7
(42.3)
11.9
(53.4)
19.6
(67.3)
31.7
(89.1)
34.3
(93.7)
34.1
(93.4)
35.3
(95.5)
28.9
(84.0)
22.5
(72.5)
11.4
(52.5)
2.8
(37.0)
35.3
(95.5)
Average high °C (°F) -17.5
(0.5)
-13.7
(7.3)
-5.6
(21.9)
2.9
(37.2)
10.5
(50.9)
19.0
(66.2)
21.7
(71.1)
21.5
(70.7)
16.2
(61.2)
6.6
(43.9)
-6.1
(21.0)
-15.5
(4.1)
3.3
(37.9)
Daily mean °C (°F) -21.8
(-7.2)
-19.0
(-2.2)
-11.6
(11.1)
-2.1
(28.2)
5.0
(41.0)
13.1
(55.6)
16.5
(61.7)
16.1
(61.0)
10.6
(51.1)
2.0
(35.6)
-10.3
(13.5)
-19.4
(-2.9)
-1.7
(28.9)
Average low °C (°F) -25.6
(-14.1)
-23.4
(-10.1)
-16.9
(1.6)
-6.4
(20.5)
0.9
(33.6)
8.0
(46.4)
12.2
(54.0)
11.8
(53.2)
6.3
(43.3)
-1.6
(29.1)
-14.0
(6.8)
-22.9
(-9.2)
-6.0
(21.2)
Record low °C (°F) -47.2
(-53.0)
-45.9
(-50.6)
-37.6
(-35.7)
-28.8
(-19.8)
-11.9
(10.6)
-3.8
(25.2)
1.3
(34.3)
0.6
(33.1)
-6.0
(21.2)
-25.1
(-13.2)
-34.0
(-29.2)
-44.2
(-47.6)
-47.2
(-53.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 42
(1.7)
29
(1.1)
33
(1.3)
32
(1.3)
53
(2.1)
50
(2.0)
60
(2.4)
83
(3.3)
82
(3.2)
89
(3.5)
60
(2.4)
48
(1.9)
660
(26.0)
Average rainy days 0 0 0.5 5 15 14 15 18 19 15 2 0 104
Average snowy days 17 17 18 16 9 0.1 0 0 0 12 21 19 129
Average relative humidity (%) 76 76 74 76 77 77 81 83 82 79 79 79 79
Mean monthly sunshine hours 129 160 232 209 233 234 238 204 184 143 132 94 2,192
Source #1: pogoda.ru.net[16]
Source #2: NOAA (sun 1961-1990)[17]

Gallery

References

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e Resolution #143-pr, Article 3
  2. ^ a b c Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "? 2010 ?.  1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. ? 2010 ? [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  3. ^ a b ? ? ?. ? ? , ? ? . No 019-95 1 1997 ?. « ? -? ?.  08 414», ? . No278/2015  1 2016 ?.. (State Statistics Committee of the Russian Federation. Committee of the Russian Federation on Standardization, Metrology, and Certification. #OK 019-95 January 1, 1997 Russian Classification of Objects of Administrative Division (OKATO). Code 08 414, as amended by the Amendment #278/2015 of January 1, 2016. ).
  4. ^ ? ? ?. ? ? , ? ? . No 019-95 1 1997 ?. « ? -? ?.  08 231», ? . No278/2015  1 2016 ?.. (State Statistics Committee of the Russian Federation. Committee of the Russian Federation on Standardization, Metrology, and Certification. #OK 019-95 January 1, 1997 Russian Classification of Objects of Administrative Division (OKATO). Code 08 231, as amended by the Amendment #278/2015 of January 1, 2016. ).
  5. ^ a b c Law #191
  6. ^ Law #264
  7. ^ " ? ?". - ? (in Russian). June 3, 2011. Retrieved 2019.
  8. ^ . ?- ? . (Russian Post). (Postal Objects Search) (in Russian)
  9. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). " , ? ? ? ?, ?, , ? ? - ? ? ? ? ? ? 3  ? ?" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities--Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). ? 2002 ? [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
  10. ^ a b "? 1989 ?. ? ? ? , ? ? ?, , , ?, ? -?" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. ? 1989 ? [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). ? ? : [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 – via Demoscope Weekly.
  11. ^ a b ?. ?. (V. Ts. Golovach?v), "? ? ? « » ? -? XIV-XV ." Archived February 23, 2009, at the Wayback Machine (The Tyr stelae and the Yongning Temple viewed in as an aspect of Sino-Jurchen relations), Etno-zhurnal, November 14, 2008.
  12. ^ ? ? -- . ? Archived September 3, 2009, at the Wayback Machine (Regional government site explaining the location of the Tyr (Telin) temples: just south of the Tyr village)
  13. ^ [1]
  14. ^ Mote, Victor L. (1998). Siberia: Worlds Apart. Westview series on the post-Soviet republics. 5. Westview Press. p. 46. ISBN 9780813312989. Retrieved 2015. When they unfurled a Russian flag at the mouth of the Amur and christened the site Nikolayevsk in the tsar's honor, Nevel'skoy and Murav'yev aroused a storm of protest [...]
  15. ^ Nikolayevsky-ITL on the website of Memorial (German)
  16. ^ " --". ? . Archived from the original on December 3, 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  17. ^ "Nikolaevsk-on-Amur Climate Normals 1961-1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2019.

Sources

  • ? ?. ? No143-  18 ? 2007 ?. « ? - ? ?», ? . ? No273-  28 ? 2015 ?. «? ? ? ? ? 18 ? 2007 ?. No143- " ? - ? ?"». ? ? ? 13 ? 2007 ?. : " ? ?", No7(60), 12 ? 2007 ?. (Government of Khabarovsk Krai. Resolution #143-pr of July 18, 2007 On the Adoption of the Registry of the Administrative-Territorial and Territorial Units of Khabarovsk Krai, as amended by the Resolution #273-pr of August 28, 2015 On Amending the Resolution #143-pr of the Government of Khabarovsk Krai of July 18, 2007 "On the Adoption of the Registry of the Administrative-Territorial and Territorial Units of Khabarovsk Krai". Effective as of August 13, 2007.).
  • ? ?.  No191  30 ? 2004 ?. «? ? ? ? ?, ? », ? . No172  29 ? 2012 ?. « ? , ? ? ?, ? ? ? ?». ? ? ?  ?. : " ", NoNo126-127, 15 ? 2004 ?. (Legislative Duma of Khabarovsk Krai. Law #191 of June 30, 2004 On Granting the Administrative Centers of the Districts the Status of Urban, Rural Settlements and on Establishing Their Borders, as amended by the Law #172 of February 29, 2012 On the Abolition of the Rural Locality of the Settlement of Festivalny on the Territory of Solnechny District of Khabarovsk Krai and on Amending Various Laws of Khabarovsk Krai. Effective as of the day of the official publication.).
  • ? ?.  No264  14 2005 ? « ? ? ? ? ? ?», ? . No239  28 2012 ?. «? ? ? ? , ? ?, ? ? ?  -- ? ? ? ? ?». ? ? ?  ?. : " ", No57, 1 2005 ?. (Legislative Duma of Khabarovsk Krai. Law #264 of March 14, 2005 On the Administrative Centers of the Rural Settlements and the Municipal Districts of Khabarovsk Krai, as amended by the Law #239 of November 28, 2012 On the Transformation of the Urban Locality the Work Settlement of Tyrma, Located on the Territory of Verkhnebureinsky District of Khabarovsk Krai, by Changing Its Status to That of a Rural Locality--the Settlement of Tyrma, and on Amending Various Laws of Khabarovsk Krai. Effective as of the day of the official publication.).

External links


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