North China
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North China
North China
250px
Area
 o Total2,185,105 km2 (843,674 sq mi)
Population
 o Total164,823,136
 o Density75/km2 (200/sq mi)
Another broader definition of North China (in pink)

North China (simplified Chinese: ??; traditional Chinese: ??; pinyin: Huáb?i; literally "China's north") is a geographical region of China, lying North of the Qinling Huaihe Line.[1]

Northern and Southern regions]]

The heartland of North China is the North China Plain, or the Yellow River Plain. North China is usually restricted to the northern part of China proper (inner China and excludes Xinjiang and often Manchuria and Northeast China.

The vast region in China from the Yellow River Valley south to the Yangtze River was the centre of Chinese empires and home to Confucian civilization. Historically, the language used in this area was Ancient Chinese of the Huaxia, Old Chinese of the Shang, Zhou and Han dynasties. In prehistory and early history, the plain (Henan in particular) is considered the origin of Chinese civilization in official Chinese history.

Rice domestication originated in this area at least 9000 years ago, although later on in Chinese history, cultivation of wheat took over as the soils became leeched with the arrivals of the Mongolians and Manchurians from the North, which greatly influenced the area culturally, politically, linguistically and genetically, while earlier scions and their descendants migrated South of the Yangtze River to flee from the invasion of the barbarians. Refugees have fled the area since the collapse of the Han dynasty established by Qinshihuang, especially the Royalty. Imperialty, as well as families of soldiers which formed the Hakka migration, in order to escape persecutions from the new dynasties of the barbarians.

In modern times, the area has shifted in terms of linguistic, cultural, socio-political, economic and genetic composition. Nowadays unique, embracing a North Chinese culture, it is heavily influenced by Marxism, Communism, Leninism, Soviet systems of farming while preserving a Traditional Chinese indigenous culture. The region has been cultivating wheat, and most inhabitants here nowadays speak variants of Northern Chinese languages such as the standard (Mandarin), which includes Beijing dialect, which is largely the basis of Standard Chinese (Mandarin), the official language of the People's Republic of China (PRC), and its cousin variants. Jin Chinese and Mongolian are also widely spoken due to the political and cultural history of the area. Other than the British Colony of Hong Kong, the revival of Shanghai as financial center, the old imperial city of the Purple Forbidden Citadel of China's Last 24 Emperors known by Westerners as Peking, now modernized as Beijing City, this is the ancient and historical region which remains truly at the heart of Chinese civilisation. It remains the political, military, and cultural center of the People's Republic of China.

History

In prehistory, the region was home to the Yangshao and Longshan cultures. Peking man was found near modern-day Beijing (Peking).

Culturally Northern China also includes Shandong, northern parts of Anhui and Xuzhou.

Northern China ian susceptible to catastrophic floods, such as the Northern Chinese Famine of 1876-79 which killed about 13 million, 1938 Yellow River flood which killed up to 800,000, 1887 Yellow River flood killed 900,000, Chinese famine of 1942-43 killed 3 million and the Great Chinese Famine which killed tens of millions of Mandarin Chinese speaking peoples in Northern China and Sichuan.

Administrative divisions in the PRC

GB[2] ISO No[3] Province Chinese Name Capital Population¹ Density² Area³ Abbreviation/Symbol
BJ 11 Beijing Municipality
B?ij?ng Shì
Beijing 19,612,368 1,167.40 16,800 ?
J?ng
TJ 12 Tianjin Municipality
Ti?nj?n Shì
Tianjin 12,938,224 1,144.46 11,305 ?
J?n
HE 13 Hebei Province
Héb?i Sh?ng
Shijiazhuang 71,854,202 382.81 187,700 ?
SX 14 Shanxi Province
Sh?nx? Sh?ng
Taiyuan 35,712,111 228.48 156,300 ?
Jìn
NM 15 Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region
Nei Mongol Autonomous Region

Nèi M?ngg? Zìzhìq?
Hohhot 24,706,321 20.88 1,183,000 ?()
M?ng (Nèi M?ngg?)

Cities with urban area over one million in population

Provincial capitals in bold.
# City Urban area[4] District area[4] City proper[4] Prov. Census date
1 Beijing 16,446,857 18,827,262 19,612,368 BJ 2010-11-01
2 Tianjin 9,562,255 11,090,783 12,938,693 TJ 2010-11-01
3 Taiyuan 3,154,157 3,426,519 4,201,592 SX 2010-11-01
4 Shijiazhuang 2,770,344 2,834,942 10,163,788 HE 2010-11-01
5 Tangshan 2,128,191 3,187,171 7,577,289 HE 2010-11-01
6 Baotou 1,900,373 2,096,851 2,650,364 NM 2010-11-01
7 Hohhot 1,497,110 1,980,774 2,866,615 NM 2010-11-01
8 Datong 1,362,314 1,737,514 3,318,054 SX 2010-11-01
9 Handan 1,316,674 1,445,338 9,174,683 HE 2010-11-01
10 Baoding 1,038,195 1,138,521 11,194,382 HE 2010-11-01

See also

References

  1. ^ Li, Shuangshuang; Yang, Saini; LIU, Xianfeng (10 September 2015). "Spatiotemporal variability of extreme precipitation in north and south of the Qinling-Huaihe region and influencing factors during 1960-2013". The Chinese journal of geography. 34 (3): 354-363. Retrieved 2017.
  2. ^ GB/T 2260 codes for the provinces of China
  3. ^ ISO 3166-2:CN (ISO 3166-2 codes for the provinces of China)
  4. ^ a b c ?; , eds. (2012). 2010. Beijing: China Statistics Press. ISBN 978-7-5037-6659-6.

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