Novae was initially one of the few great Roman legionary fortresses along the empire's border, forming part of the defences (limes Moesiae) along the Danube in northern Bulgaria. The settlement later expanded into a town in the Roman province of Moesia Inferior, later Moesia Secunda.
It lies about 4 km east of the modern town of Svishtov.
The fortress is one of the few along the limes to have been excavated and now open to the public.
The site of Novae is situated on the southern bank of the Danube at Pametnicite near Svishtov (a memorial site where the Russian army entered Bulgaria during the Turkish-Russian war in 1877) or St?klen (a place rich in glass - Bulg. st?klo), as many ancient glass fragments are visible on the site (the production of glass is attested in late Roman Novae). The castrum legionis covering an area of 18 hectares is situated on a slope with its lowest point at the river-bank and its highest point 30m higher in the southern part of the site. Its topography resulted in terraced levels within the defensive walls.
At present mainly the central part of the site hae been excavated and restored.
Roman military presence in the Lower Danubian region started in the middle of the 1st century AD. Around AD 45 Legio VIII Augusta, which took part in the suppression of the Thracian uprising, was placed here and founded its castrum. At the same time the province of Moesia was created. The legion with its detachments controlled the section of the Danube from the mouth of the Osum River (Asamus) up to the mouth of the Yantra River, near Iatrus.
After the death of Nero, the dislocation of many legions within the Empire resulted in replacement by emperor Vespasian in 69-70 AD of Legio VIII Augusta by Legio I Italica, which stayed in Novae at least to the 430s. In AD 86 the province was divided and Novae, together with Durostorum, became one of two legionary bases within the borders of Moesia Inferior. During the Dacian wars of Domitian (85-89) Novae did not suffer significant damage, which may indicate that the main operations took place in the western and eastern part of the province.
Novae served as a base of operations for Roman campaigns against Barbarian tribes including Trajan's Dacian Wars, and the last time during Maurice's Balkan campaigns. The legion was also responsible for bridge construction over the Danube.
Until 70 AD the fortress walls were built from earth and wood. During the campaigns of Trajan the walls were replaced by stone wall up to 3m thick with square towers. Apart from the new defensive walls, the monumental building of headquarters (principia) with the new Trajanic basilica, and the new building of a hospital (valetudinarium) were built at the place of the former Flavian baths (thermae). It is possible that during the Antonine period the legion controlled the area beyond the Yantra River. The most prosperous times for Novae, as well as for the province, were during the Severan dynasty.
In 250 Novae was attacked by the Goths of Cniva but escaped damage. In the second half of the 3rd century Novae was systematically attacked and destroyed by barbarians. The eastern line of the new defensive walls enclosed the additional area of the canabae of more than 10 hectares, protecting the civilian settlement. From the 4th century onwards when the legion was divided into detachments occupying small forts and fortlets, civil buildings constituted the main part of internal buildings of Novae and the canabae and the legionary base became one urban complex. The new streets with pavements were built from re-used stone, often bearing inscriptions. Many glass workshops were established, both in the town, as well as in its surroundings.
A splendid villa to the west of the defensive walls, within the canabae, could have been a legate's residence and was probably destroyed by the Gothic invasions in 376-378. After this time the settlement was very poor and used dried brick construction. After the Hunnic invasion in 441 Novae was abandoned by the legion but the principia was rebuilt and used as a central meeting place and forum until the end of the 6th c.
In the late 5th and 6th centuries Novae was the seat of a bishop. The cathedral and neighbouring buildings were built over the legionary barracks west of the former legionary headquarters. The last period of prosperity was during the reign of Justinian (527-565) when the defensive walls were rebuilt and reinforced, but the attacks of Slavs and Avars eventually end the existence of the ancient town. In 9th - 11th centuries the church and a cemetery existed in the western part of the town.
Water supply to the fortress, particularly the baths including the nearby nymphaeum and to the town was ensured by three known aqueducts, one of which was at least 9km long and fed the distribution tank (castellum divisorum) at the south-east corner of the fortress.
Novae is supposed to be the home of the saint named Lupus, who is venerated in Greek and Romanian traditions.
The civil canabae were situated around the legionary base - the largest west and south-west of the fortress, covering 70-80 hectares during the time of the Principate, and another to the east. During the late Roman period the town shrank and covered 18 hectares of the former legionary base, 20-30 hectares of the former canabae and probably additional 10 hectares of the eastern enclosure.
Along the roads going out of the legionary base some cemeteries were discovered (west, east and south of the site). Around 2 km south of the fortress a temple of Liber Pater has been excavated, and outside the eastern defensive walls a temple of the eastern gods.
At present we use the name of Novae (Nouae), although the toponym might have referred to the canabae (canabae legionis I Italicae Novae), when the castra itself had the name of castra legionis I Italicae. The literary sources give the name of Novae or in Accusative form Novas (Itin. Ant. 221, 4; Jord., Get., 101, Tab. Peut. VIII, 1; Not. Dign. Or. XL, 30, 31; Eugipp., 44, 4) and the Greek transcription - N? given by Procopius (De aed. IV, 11), Theophanes Confessor (Chron., p. 423, 426, 436, ed. J. Classen) and Anonymous Ravennatis (IV, 7). The Greek form N? appears rather rare (Hierocl. Synecd. 636, 6; Theoph. Sim. VII, 2.16; VIII, 4.3-4); earlier form mentioned by Ptolemy is Noo (Ptol. III, 10.10).
One hypothesis derives the name from ? Nó?s, a river mentioned by Herodotus, which is then identified with the stream (now variously known as Dermendere, Tekirdere, Golyamata Bara, or Belyanovsko Dere) at whose mouth the fortress was located.
E. GEN?EVA, P"rviât voenen lager v Novae (Dolna Miziâ), Sofia-Warszawa 2002.
L. PRESS, T. SARNOWSKI, Novae. Römisches Legionslager und frühbyzantinische Stadt an der unteren Donau, Antike Welt 21, 1990, 22.
T. SARNOWSKI, Fortress of the Legio I Italica at Novae, Akten des XI. Intern. Limeskongresses (Szekesfehervar, 30.8.-6.9.1976), 415-424.
T. SARNOWSKI, La fortresse de la legion I Italica et le limes du sud-est de la Dacie, Eos 71, 1983, p. 265-276.
T. SARNOWSKI, Novae in the Notitia Dignitatum, Archeologia (Warszawa) 57, 2007(2008).
T. SARNOWSKI, The Name of Novae in Lower Moesia, Archeologia (Warszawa) 57, 2007(2008).
IGLNov Inscriptions grecques et latines de Novae (Mésie inférieure), J. Kolendo, V. Bo?ilova [red.], Bordeaux 1997.