Novosibirsk
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Novosibirsk
Novosibirsk

Clockwise: Alexander Nevsky Cathedral, the Circus, the Trade House, the Children's Railway, the Railway station, the Opera and Ballet Theater
Clockwise: Alexander Nevsky Cathedral, the Circus, the Trade House, the Children's Railway, the Railway station, the Opera and Ballet Theater
Anthem: none[3]
Location of Novosibirsk
Novosibirsk is located in Russia
Novosibirsk
Novosibirsk
Location of Novosibirsk
Novosibirsk is located in Novosibirsk Oblast
Novosibirsk
Novosibirsk
Novosibirsk (Novosibirsk Oblast)
Coordinates: 55°03?N 82°57?E / 55.050°N 82.950°E / 55.050; 82.950Coordinates: 55°03?N 82°57?E / 55.050°N 82.950°E / 55.050; 82.950
CountryRussia
Federal subjectNovosibirsk Oblast[2]
Founded1893[4]
City status sinceJanuary 10, 1904 [O.S. December 28, 1903][5]
Government
 o BodyCouncil of Deputies[6]
 o Head (Mayor)[6]Anatoly Lokot[7]
Area
 o Total502.7 km2 (194.1 sq mi)
Elevation
150 m (490 ft)
Population
 o Total1,473,754
 o Estimate 
(2018)[10]
1,612,833 (+9.4%)
 o Rank3rd in 2010
 o Density2,900/km2 (7,600/sq mi)
 o Capital ofNovosibirsk Oblast[2], City of Novosibirsk[11]
 o Urban okrugNovosibirsk Urban Okrug[12]
 o Capital ofCity of Novosibirsk[13], Novosibirsky Municipal District[14]
Time zoneUTC+7 (MSK+4 Edit this on Wikidata[15])
Postal code(s)[16]
List
630000, 630001, 630003-630005, 630007-630011, 630015, 630017, 630019, 630020, 630022, 630024, 630025, 630027-630030, 630032-630037, 630039-630041, 630045-630049, 630051, 630052, 630054-630061, 630063, 630064, 630066, 630068, 630071, 630073, 630075, 630077-630080, 630082-630084, 630087-630092, 630095-630100, 630102, 630105-630112, 630114, 630116, 630117, 630119-630121, 630123, 630124, 630126, 630128, 630129, 630132, 630133, 630136, 630200, 630201, 630700, 630880, 630885, 630890, 630899-630901, 630910, 630920-630926, 630970-630978, 630980-630983, 630985, 630988, 630989, 630991-630993, 901026, 901036, 901073, 901076, 901078, 901095, 901243, 901245, 901246, 991214
Dialing code(s)+7 383[17]
OKTMO ID50701000001
City DayLast Sunday of June[18]
Websitewww.novo-sibirsk.ru

Novosibirsk (, also ;[19][20]Russian: , IPA: [n?v?s'b?irsk] , li.: "New Siberia") is the administrative centre of Novosibirsk Oblast in Russia. Located in the southwestern part of Siberia on the banks of the Ob River,[21] it is the third-most populous city in Russia (after Moscow and St. Petersburg) as well as the most populous city in Asian Russia, with a population of 1,612,833 as of the 2018 census.[22]

Novosibirsk was founded in 1893 on the Ob River crossing point of the future Trans-Siberian Railway. Originally named Novonikolayevsk, it grew rapidly into a major transport, commercial, and industrial hub. The city was ravaged by the Russian Civil War but recovered during the early Soviet period, and gained its present name in 1926. Under Stalin, Novosibirsk became one of the largest industrial centers of Siberia. Following the outbreak of World War II the city hosted many factories relocated from European Russia.

Novosibirsk is home to the headquarters of numerous Russian corporations, as well as the world-renowned Novosibirsk Zoo. It is served by Tolmachevo Airport, the busiest airport in Siberia.[23]

History

Novonikolayevsk in 1895

Novosibirsk, founded in 1893[4] at the future site of a Trans-Siberian Railway bridge crossing the great Siberian river of Ob, was at first named Novonikolayevsk (),[5] in honor both of Saint Nicholas and of the reigning Tsar Nicholas II. It superseded nearby Krivoshchekovskaya village, which was founded in 1696. The bridge was completed in the spring of 1897, making the new settlement the regional transport hub. The importance of the city further increased with the completion of the Turkestan-Siberia Railway in the early 20th century. The new railway connected Novonikolayevsk to Central Asia and the Caspian Sea.[24]

At the time of the bridge's opening, Novonikolayevsk had a population of 7,800 people. The frontier settlement developed rapidly. Its first bank opened in 1906, and a total of five banks were operating by 1915. In 1907, Novonikolayevsk, now with a population exceeding 47,000, was granted town status with full rights for self-government. During the pre-revolutionary period, the population of Novonikolayevsk reached 80,000. The city had steady and rapid economic growth, becoming one of the largest commercial and industrial centers of Siberia. It developed a significant agricultural processing industry,[25] as well as a power station, iron foundry, commodity market, several banks, and commercial and shipping companies. By 1917, seven Orthodox churches and one Roman Catholic Church had been built there, along with several cinemas, forty primary schools, a high school, a teaching seminary, and the Romanov House non-classical secondary school. In 1913, Novonikolayevsk became one of the first places in Russia to institute compulsory primary education.[24]

The Russian Civil War took a toll on the city. Wartime epidemics, especially that of typhus and cholera, claimed thousands of lives. In the course of the war, the Ob River Bridge was destroyed. For the first time in the city's history, the population of Novonikolayevsk began to decline. The Soviet Workers' and Soldiers' Deputies of Novonikolayevsk took control of the city in December 1917. In May 1918, the Czechoslovak Legion rose in opposition to the revolutionary government and, together with the White Guards, captured Novonikolayevsk. The Red Army took the city in 1919, retaining it throughout the rest of the Civil War.[24]

Novonikolayevsk began reconstruction in 1921 at the start of Lenin's New Economic Policy period. It was a part of Tomsk Governorate and served as its administrative center from December 23, 1919 to March 14, 1920.[] Between June 13, 1921 and May 25, 1925, it served as the administrative center of Novonikolayevsk Governorate, which was separated from Tomsk Governorate.[] The city was given its present name on September 12, 1926.[5]

When governorates were abolished, the city served as the administrative center of Siberian Krai until July 23, 1930, and of West Siberian Krai until September 28, 1937, when that krai was split into Novosibirsk Oblast and Altai Krai.[26] Since then, it has served as the administrative center of Novosibirsk Oblast.[26]

The Monument to the Heroes of the Revolution was erected in the center of the city and has been one of the chief historic sites (essentially every child had to visit the monument on school field trips during the Soviet years). Neglect in the 1990s while other areas were redeveloped helped preserve it in the post-Soviet era.[]

During Joseph Stalin's industrialization effort, Novosibirsk secured its place as one of the largest industrial centers of Siberia. Several massive industrial facilities were created, including the 'Sibkombain' plant, specializing in the production of heavy mining equipment. Additionally a metal processing plant, a food processing plant, and other industrial enterprises and factories were built, as well as a new power station. The great Soviet famine of 1932-33 resulted in more than 170,000 rural refugees seeking food and safety in Novosibirsk. They were settled in barracks at the outskirts of the city, giving rise to slums.[24]

Its rapid growth and industrialization led to Novosibirsk being nicknamed the "Chicago of Siberia".[27]

Tram rails were laid down in 1934, by which time the population had reached 287,000, making Novosibirsk the largest city in Siberia. The following year the original bridge over the Ob River was replaced by the new Kommunalny bridge.[24]

Between 1941 and 1942 more than 50 substantial factories were crated up and relocated from western Russia to Novosibirsk in order to reduce the risk of their destruction through war, and at this time the city became a major supply base for the Red Army. During this period the city also received more than 140,000 refugees.

The rapid growth of the city prompted the construction during the 1950s of a hydroelectric power station with a capacity of 400 megawatts,[28] necessitating the creation of a giant water reservoir, now known as the Ob Sea. As a direct result of the station's construction, vast areas of fertile land were flooded as were relic pine woods in the area; additionally, the new open space created by the reservoir's surface caused average wind speeds to double, increasing the rate of soil erosion.[24]

In the 1950s, the Soviet Government directed that a center for scientific research be built in Novosibirsk, and in 1957 the multi-facility scientific research complex of Akademgorodok was constructed about 30 km (19 mi) south of the city center. The Siberian Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (formerly the Academy of Sciences of the Soviet Union) has its headquarters in Akademgorodok, and the town hosts more than 35 research institutes and universities, among them Novosibirsk State University, one of the top Russian schools in Natural Sciences and Mathematics. Although it possesses a fully autonomous infrastructure, Akademgorodok is administered by Novosibirsk.

On September 2, 1962, the population of Novosibirsk reached one million. At that time, it was the youngest city in the world with over a million people. Novosibirsk took fewer than seventy years to achieve this milestone.[29]

In 1979, work began on the Novosibirsk Metro Transit System, culminating in the opening of the first line in 1985.[24]

On August 1, 2008, Novosibirsk was in the center of the path of a solar eclipse, with a duration of 2 minutes and 20 seconds.

The city appeared in the 2019 game Metro Exodus.

Administrative and municipal status

The administrative building of Novosibirsk Oblast

Novosibirsk is the administrative center of the oblast[2] and, within the framework of administrative divisions, it also serves as the administrative center of Novosibirsky District,[1] even though it is not a part of it.[11] As an administrative division, it is incorporated separately as the City of Novosibirsk[11]--an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[] As a municipal division, the City of Novosibirsk is incorporated as Novosibirsk Urban Okrug.[12]

City districts

Demographics

Novosibirsk population
2010 Census1,473,754[9]
2002 Census1,425,508[30]
1989 Census1,436,516[31]
1979 Census1,312,480[32]

According to the Federal State Statistics Service, in January 2015 the number of residents came to 1,567,087.[33] This is an increase compared to the 2010 census, when the population of the city was 1,473,754.[9]

People from over eighty ethnicities and nationalities reside in Novosibirsk. The largest groups are Russian, Yakut, German, Ukrainian, Tatar, Jewish, and Belarusian.[34]

Ecology

Flora

The best-known trees native to Novosibirsk are birch, pine, and aspen. Some mountain ash, hawthorn, spruce, and fir are also present. European species of apple, ash, elm, linden, and oak have been successfully introduced.

Geography

Location

The city stands on the banks of the Ob River in the West Siberian Plain. To the south of the city lies the Priobskoye Plateau. The nearest major cities are Krasnoyarsk, Omsk and Nur-Sultan.

Climate

The climate in Novosibirsk is typical of Siberia, with dry winters and far-below-freezing winter temperatures. The reason for these temperatures is the absence of a nearby ocean, the Ural Mountains barring Atlantic air masses from reaching Siberia, and the lack of tall mountains at the north of Novosibirsk that could have held back freezing Arctic winds. In fact, Novosibirsk is the second-farthest substantially populated city from the ocean, the first being Ürümqi in China.

The climate is humid continental (Köppen Dfb), with warm summers and bitterly cold winters. Novosibirsk is frequently cloudy in the winter due to the collision of Atlantic and Siberian air masses. Snow is frequent, falling on almost half of all winter days, but individual snowfalls are usually light. On average temperatures range in summer from +15 °C (59 °F) to +26 °C (79 °F) and in winter from -20 °C (-4 °F) to -12 °C (10 °F). However, winter temperatures can go as low as -30 °C (-22 °F) to -35 °C (-31 °F), and summer temperatures can go as high as +30 °C (86 °F) to +35 °C (95 °F). The difference between the highest- and lowest-recorded temperatures is 82 °C (148 °F).

Travellers coming from countries with mild climates may find Novosibirsk's winter tough, but it may not be extraordinary for those from northern countries. At times, bitter cold may hold for some days, but temperatures of -40 °C (-40 °F) and lower do not occur every year.

Climate data for Novosibirsk (1981-2010, extremes 1958-present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 4.1
(39.4)
5.1
(41.2)
14.4
(57.9)
30.7
(87.3)
36.1
(97.0)
36.6
(97.9)
36.4
(97.5)
35.7
(96.3)
33.2
(91.8)
23.8
(74.8)
11.7
(53.1)
4.8
(40.6)
36.6
(97.9)
Average high °C (°F) -12.1
(10.2)
-9.7
(14.5)
-1.9
(28.6)
8.1
(46.6)
18.8
(65.8)
23.4
(74.1)
25.4
(77.7)
22.9
(73.2)
16.0
(60.8)
7.7
(45.9)
-3.4
(25.9)
-10.0
(14.0)
7.1
(44.8)
Daily mean °C (°F) -16.5
(2.3)
-14.8
(5.4)
-7.6
(18.3)
2.3
(36.1)
11.8
(53.2)
17.1
(62.8)
19.4
(66.9)
16.6
(61.9)
10.2
(50.4)
3.1
(37.6)
-6.9
(19.6)
-14.0
(6.8)
1.7
(35.1)
Average low °C (°F) -20.9
(-5.6)
-19.5
(-3.1)
-12.9
(8.8)
-2.3
(27.9)
5.6
(42.1)
11.2
(52.2)
13.8
(56.8)
11.2
(52.2)
5.6
(42.1)
-0.4
(31.3)
-10.3
(13.5)
-18.4
(-1.1)
-3.1
(26.4)
Record low °C (°F) -46.2
(-51.2)
-46.3
(-51.3)
-36.4
(-33.5)
-29
(-20)
-8.6
(16.5)
-2.0
(28.4)
3.9
(39.0)
0.2
(32.4)
-6.9
(19.6)
-26.4
(-15.5)
-39.6
(-39.3)
-45.7
(-50.3)
-46.3
(-51.3)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 25
(1.0)
18
(0.7)
17
(0.7)
27
(1.1)
34
(1.3)
55
(2.2)
66
(2.6)
60
(2.4)
43
(1.7)
45
(1.8)
37
(1.5)
33
(1.3)
459
(18.1)
Average rainy days 1 1 2 8 13 14 14 14 16 12 5 1 101
Average snowy days 23 19 15 9 3 0.1 0 0 1 11 20 25 126
Average relative humidity (%) 82 81 77 65 58 66 73 75 75 78 83 83 75
Mean monthly sunshine hours 67 107 166 213 264 302 304 245 170 100 58 45 2,041
Source 1: Pogoda.ru.net[35]
Source 2: Danish Meteorological Institute (sun, 1931-1960)[36]

Broadcasting

Novosibirsk is home to Russia's most powerful shortwave relay station east of the Ural mountains.[] This relay station can reach most of South Asia, the Middle East, and China. The Magadan and Vladivostok relay stations when operated in conjunction with Novosibirsk can guarantee that the Voice of Russia or any other broadcaster renting time at Novosibirsk is heard in the intended target area.

Transportation

International and intercity transportation

Airports

The city is served by Novosibirsk Tolmachevo Airport. Tolmachevo is the hub for S7 Airlines. There is also the auxiliary Yeltsovka Airport. A smaller field for general aviation at Novosibirsk Severny Airport was closed in 2012.

The many regular flights from Tolmachevo Airport connect Novosibirsk with most Russian largest cities and most countries of Europe and Asia.

Railway stations

Trains at the Novosibirsk railway station

Novosibirsk is a major stop on the Trans-Siberian Railway and the north end of Turkestan-Siberia Railway. The main railway station of Novosibirsk is Novosibirsk-Glavny station ("Glavny" means "Main") which is located in the centre of the right bank part of the city. There are also Novosibirsk-Zapadny ("Zapadny" means "Western"), Novosibirsk-Vostochny ("Vostochny" means "Eastern"), and Novosibirsk-Yuzhny ("Yuzhny" means "Southern") railway stations in Novosibirsk. All intercity trains passing through the aforementioned stations stop at these stations. In addition, there are halts where only suburban trains stops, for example Inskaya, Seyatel, Razyezd Inya, and many others.

The many regular intercity trains connect Novosibirsk with Russian cities in Siberia, the Far East, Ural, and European Russia. International trains allow to get to China, Mongolia, Belarus, and countries in Central Asia.

Bus stations

The old Novosibirsk Bus Station located on Krasny Avenue in the right bank part of the city near Kommunalny Bridge was opened in 1964 and eventually closed on 6 April 2020.[37] There is a plan to build some new bus stations on the periphery of the city; the first of these new bus stations was built on Gusinobrodskoe ?haussee and was opened on 18 December 2019.[38] Until the completion of remaining new bus stations, some bus stops in the city are being used by intercity bus services.

The many regular intercity/international bus routes connect Novosibirsk with most cities of the southern part of Western Siberia and major cities of Central Asia.

River passenger terminals

The building of Novosibirsk river passenger terminal (Russian: ) on the Ob river was opened in 1974.[39] Later, the self-titled metro station was opened near the building of the terminal. On March 7, 2003, there was the strong fire in the building of the terminal.[40] The part of the building was beyond repair and was demolished.

At present day, only one regular passenger line is operational: Novosibirsk - Kudryash island - Yagodnaya - Cheremushki - Novaya Zarya - Bibikha - Sedova Zaimka. There are also cruises on the Ob river and the Novosibirsk Reservoir including to Tomsk and Barnaul.

Usually, the period of navigability is opened in late April or early May and is closed in late September or early October.

City public transportation

Metro

Marshal Pokryshkin metro station

?hronologically, Novosibirsk is the fourth city in Russia (after Moscow, Saint Petersburg, and Nizhny Novgorod) and the first city in Siberia in which a metro system was established: the Novosibirsk Metro was opened in 1985.

Tram system

The Novosibirsk tram system was launched in 1934.

Trolleybus system

Trolza-5265 low-floor trolleybus

The Novosibirsk trolleybus system was launched in 1957.

Bus system

MAZ-103 low-entry bus

The Novosibirsk bus system was launched in 1923.

Route taxi

Ford Transit marshrutka

Marshrutkas (route taxis) have operated in Novosibirsk since the 1990s.

Waterbus system

The Novosibirsk waterbus system includes 2 routes: Novosibirsk river passenger terminal - Novosibirsk Waterpark and Novosibirsk river passenger terminal - Beach "Bugrinskaya Roshcha" - Korablik island.

Usually, the period of navigability is opened in late April or early May and is closed in late September or early October.

Economy

One of the city's new high-rises, photo from 2006

Novosibirsk is a large industrial center. The industrial complex consists of 214 large and average sized industrial enterprises. These produce more than two thirds of all industrial output of the Novosibirsk region. Leading industries are aerospace (Chkalov's Novosibirsk Aircraft Plant), nuclear fuel (Novosibirsk Chemical Concentrates Plant), turbo and hydroelectric generators (NPO ELSIB), textile machinery (Textilmach), agriculture machinery (NPO "Sibselmash"), electronics components and devices production (Novosibirsk Factory and Design Bureau of Semiconductor Devices NZPP, OXID Novosibirsk Plant of Radio components), and metallurgy and metal working (Kuzmina's Novosibirsk Metallurgical Plant, Novosibirsk Tin Plant OJSC, and JSC Plant of Rare Metals).

According to the television station RBC, Novosibirsk took third place in 2008 in the list of Russian cities most attractive to businesses (in 2007 it was placed thirteenth).

Before the relocation of its headquarters to Ob, S7 Airlines had its head office in Novosibirsk.[41]

The headquarters of a number of large Russian companies are located in Novosibirsk:[42]

  • RATM Holding
  • Antonov (Aircraft company) NAPO named after Chkalov
  • Belon
  • Center of Financial Technologies
  • The Siberian coast Food Company (until 2009)
  • NETA IT Company (retail, system integrator, software sales)
  • Parallels IT Company (software for virtualization)
  • Inmarko Food Company
  • Siberian Food Corporation
  • Electro-vacuum plant (the largest glass bottle factory in the Asian part of the country)
  • NPO NIIIP-NZiK
  • 2GIS

Sports

Spartak Stadium and city surroundings

Several professional sports clubs are active in the city:

Novosibirsk is the home town of several former Olympians, including Aleksandr Karelin, a twelve-time world Greco-Roman wrestling champion who has been voted the greatest Greco-Roman wrestler of the twentieth century by FILA.

The city also hosts a number of National and International Ice Speedway events. Siberia Novosibirsk competed in the Russian Ice Speedway Premier League in 2012/13, and will do so again in 2013/2014.

Music

Several contemporary classical violinists, such as Vadim Repin, the late Alexander Skwortsow, Natalia Lomeiko, and Maxim Vengerov, are natives of Novosibirsk. Also born in the city were punk legend, poet and singer-songwriter Yanka Dyagileva, tragic punk rocker Dmitry Selivanov, folk/folk-rock singer Pelageya Khanova, and cellist Tatjana Vassiljeva. The career of poet and singer-songwriter Tatyana Snezhina is connected with Novosibirsk.

The city possesses the Novosibirsk State Conservatory, named in honor of the composer Mikhail Glinka; Novosibirsk State Philharmony, home to Novosibirsk Academic Symphony Orchestra, Novosibirsk Philharmonic Chamber Orchestra, Russian Academic Orchestra of Folk Instruments, and other musical groups; Novosibirsk Opera and Ballet Theater; and several notable music venues.

Education

Airphoto of Akademgorodok

Novosibirsk is home to the following institutions of higher education:

Additionally, there are more than 50 vocational schools in Novosibirsk.

Akademgorodok is a remote part of Novosibirsk dedicated to science. It houses the Siberian branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences and is the location of Novosibirsk State University and Novosibirsk Higher Military Command School. All other higher education institutions are located in the central part of the city of Novosibirsk on the both banks of Ob river.

The Quality Schools International QSI International School of Novosibirsk, previously located in Akademgorodok, opened in 2008.[43]

Culture

Libraries

There are many libraries in Novosibirsk. The most significant libraries are the following:

Theatres

Philharmonic

Novosibirsk State Philharmonic Society was founded in 1937. It holds about 60 concerts per month using the following halls:

Cinemas

16 cinemas, including Cinema Park which supports IMAX and IMAX 3D.

Museums

Planetarium

Novosibirsk Planetarium (2012)[45] was awarded in 2015 as the best social infrastructure object in Russia.[46]

Botanical Garden

Central Siberian Botanic Garden[47] is located in Akademgorodok.

Annual Festivals, Forums and Conferences

Novosibirsk Zoo

Novosibirsk Zoo in 2015

The Novosibirsk Zoo is a world-renowned scientific institution as well as a popular tourist attraction.

The zoo has over 11,000 animals from 738 species and is an active participant in thirty-two different captive breeding programmes for endangered species. Since 2016, the Center of oceanography and marine biology "Dolphinia" has been part of the zoo.[48]

On average, around 1.5 million people visit the zoo each year.[49]

Novosibirsk Children's railway

Novosibirsk Children's railway

Small West Siberian Railway is the children's railway located in Zayeltsovsky Park.

It has 5 stations: Zayeltsovskiy Park, Razyezd Lokomotiv, Sportivnaya, Razyezd Eltsovskiy, Zoopark.

The railway is operational in summer.

Twin towns - sister cities

Novosibirsk is twinned with:[50]

Notable residents

Violinist Mikhail Simonyan, playwright and prose writer Nina Mikhailovna Sadur, and three-time Olympic Greco-Roman wrestling champion Aleksandr Karelin were born and raised in Novosibirsk.

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ a b ? ? ?. ? ? , ? ? . No 019-95 1 1997 ?. « ? -? ?.  50 240», ? . No278/2015  1 2016 ?.. (State Statistics Committee of the Russian Federation. Committee of the Russian Federation on Standardization, Metrology, and Certification. #OK 019-95 January 1, 1997 Russian Classification of Objects of Administrative Division (OKATO). Code 50 240, as amended by the Amendment #278/2015 of January 1, 2016. ).
  2. ^ a b c Charter of Novosibirsk Oblast, Article 5
  3. ^ Article 5 of the Charter of Novosibirsk lists a flag and a coat of arms but not an anthem among the symbols of the city.
  4. ^ a b Official website of Novosibirsk. History Archived August 19, 2009, at the Wayback Machine (in Russian)
  5. ^ a b c Charter of Novosibirsk, Article 1.1
  6. ^ a b Charter of Novosibirsk, Article 27
  7. ^ Official website of Novosibirsk. Anatoly Yevgenyevich Lokot Archived August 27, 2009, at the Wayback Machine, Mayor of Novosibirsk (in Russian)
  8. ^ Official website of Novosibirsk. General Information Archived October 22, 2015, at the Wayback Machine (in Russian)
  9. ^ a b c Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "? 2010 ?.  1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. ? 2010 ? [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  10. ^ http://www.gks.ru/free_doc/doc_2018/bul_dr/mun_obr2018.rar; archive date: 26 July 2018; retrieved: 25 July 2018; archive URL: https://web.archive.org/web/20180726010024/http://www.gks.ru/free_doc/doc_2018/bul_dr/mun_obr2018.rar.
  11. ^ a b c ? ? ?. ? ? , ? ? . No 019-95 1 1997 ?. « ? -? ?.  50 401», ? . No278/2015  1 2016 ?.. (State Statistics Committee of the Russian Federation. Committee of the Russian Federation on Standardization, Metrology, and Certification. #OK 019-95 January 1, 1997 Russian Classification of Objects of Administrative Division (OKATO). Code 50 401, as amended by the Amendment #278/2015 of January 1, 2016. ).
  12. ^ a b Law On the Status and the Borders of the Municipal Formations of Novosibirsk Oblast
  13. ^ ?. ? ? ? ?. No 033-2013 1 2014 ?. « ? ? ? .  50 701». (Federal State Statistics Service. Federal Agency on Technological Regulation and Metrology. #OK 033-2013 January 1, 2014 Russian Classification of Territories of Municipal Formations. Code 50 701. ).
  14. ^ Law On the Administrative Centers of the Municipal Districts and Rural Settlements of Novosibirsk Oblast
  15. ^ " ? ?". - ? (in Russian). June 3, 2011. Retrieved 2019.
  16. ^ . ?- ? . (Russian Post). (Postal Objects Search) (in Russian)
  17. ^ "International Dialing Codes - how to call from Hong Kong - Hong Kong to Russia - Novosibirsk - Novosibirsk".
  18. ^ Charter of Novosibirsk, Article 1
  19. ^ Wells, John C. (2008). Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (3rd ed.). Longman. ISBN 978-1-4058-8118-0.
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Sources

  • . ? No616  27 ? 2007 ?. « », ? . ? No1311  31 2015 ?. «? ? , ? 27.06.2007 No616». ? ? ?  10 ? ?, , ? ? ? ? ? ? ?. : " ? ? ", No58, . 3, 15 ? 2007 ?. (City Council of Novosibirsk. Decision #616 of June 27, 2007 Charter of the City of Novosibirsk, as amended by the Decision #1311 of March 31, 2015 On Amending the Charter of the City of Novosibirsk Adopted by the Decision #616 of the City Council of Novosibirsk of June 27, 2007. Effective as of 10 days after the official publication date, with the exception of the clauses for which different dates and procedures of taking effect are specified.).
  • ? . ? No282-  31 2005 ?. « ? ?», ? . No529-  26 ? 2015 ?. «? ? ? ?». ? ? ? 1 2005 ?. : " ", No81, 29 2005 ?. (Novosibirsk Oblast Council of Deputies. Resolution #282-OZ of March 31, 2005 Charter of Novosibirsk Oblast, as amended by the Law #529-OZ of February 26, 2015 On Amending the Charter of Novosibirsk Oblast. Effective as of May 1, 2005.).
  • ? .  No246-  17 ? 2004 ?. « ? ? ? ? ? ? ?», ? . No69-  5 ? 2006 ?. «? ? ? ? " ? ? ? ? ? ? ?"». ? ? ?  ?. : " ", No252, 29 ? 2004 ?. (Novosibirsk Oblast Council of Deputies. Law #246-OZ of December 17, 2004 On the Administrative Centers of the Municipal Districts and Rural Settlements of Novosibirsk Oblast, as amended by the Law #69-OZ of December 5, 2006 On Amending the Law of Novosibirsk Oblast "On the Administrative Centers of the Municipal Districts and Rural Settlements of Novosibirsk Oblast". Effective as of the official publication date.).

External links

Novosibirsk travel guide from Wikivoyage


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