The Oberdonaukreis (German: Upper Danube District) was one of the 15 administrative districts (German: Bezirke or Regierungsbezirke) of the Kingdom of Bavaria between 1806 and 1837 named after its main river Danube. It was the predecessor of the Regierungsbezirk Schwaben (Administrative District of Swabia).
In the years between 1806 and 1808 the Kingdom of Bavaria was divided into 15 districts. Their names were taken from their main rivers. The Oberdonaukreis, with Ulm as its capital, was initially composed of 12 rural divisions and, since 1809, of the independent cities of Ulm and Nördlingen. In 1810, the Oberdonaukreis was expanded but some territory was also given to the Illerkreis and to the neighbouring Kingdom of Württemberg. District headquarters were moved to Eichstätt and, in 1817, to Augsburg. In another territorial reorganization initiated by King Ludwig I on 29 November 1837, the Oberdonaukreis was renamed Swabia and Neuburg (Schwaben und Neuburg). Neuburg was soon dropped.