Occupational Hazard
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Occupational Hazard
At-risk workers without appropriate safety equipment

An occupational hazard is a hazard experienced in the workplace. Occupational hazards can encompass many types of hazards, including chemical hazards, biological hazards (biohazards), psychosocial hazards, and physical hazards. In the United States, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conduct workplace investigations and research addressing workplace health and safety hazards resulting in guidelines.[1] The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) establishes enforceable standards to prevent workplace injuries and illnesses.[2] In the EU a similar role is taken by EU-OSHA.

Occupational hazard as a term signifies both long-term and short-term risks associated with the workplace environment and is a field of study within occupational safety and health and public health[3]. Short term risks may include physical injury, while long-term risks may be increased risk of developing cancer or heart disease.

Chemical hazards

Chemical hazards are a subtype of occupational hazards that involve dangerous chemicals. Exposure to chemicals in the workplace can cause acute or long-term detrimental health effects. There are many classifications of hazardous chemicals, including neurotoxins, immune agents, dermatologic agents, carcinogens, reproductive toxins, systemic toxins, asthmagens, pneumoconiotic agents, and sensitizers.[4]

NIOSH sets recommended exposure limits (REL's) as well as recommends preventative measures on specific chemicals in order to reduce or eliminate negative health effects from exposure to those chemicals.[5] Additionally, NIOSH keeps an index of chemical hazards based on their chemical name,[6]Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number (CAS No.),[7] and RTECS Number.[8]

This is evidence that workplace exposure to hazards such as silica dust, engine exhausts or welding fumes, among others are associated with increased prevalence of heart disease.[9] Other workplace hazards have been shown to increase risk of pulmonary heart disease, stroke, and high blood pressure.[9]

Biological hazards

Biological agents, including microorganisms and toxins produced by living organisms, can cause health problems in workers. Influenza is an example of a biohazard which affects a broad population of workers.[10]

Those who work outdoors encounter numerous biological hazards, including bites and stings from insects, spiders, snakes and scorpions,[11][12][13]contact dermatitis from exposure to urushiol from poisonous Toxicodendron plants,[14]Lyme disease,[15]West Nile virus,[16] and coccidioidomycosis.[17] According to NIOSH, outdoor workers at risk for these hazards "include farmers, foresters, landscapers, groundskeepers, gardeners, painters, roofers, pavers, construction workers, laborers, mechanics, and any other workers who spend time outside."[14]

Health care professionals are at risk to exposure to blood-borne illnesses (such as HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C)[18] and particularly to emerging infectious diseases, especially when not enough resources are available to control the spread of the disease.[19]Veterinary health workers, including veterinarians, are at risk for exposure to zoonotic disease.[20] Those who do clinical work in the field or in a laboratory risk exposure to West Nile virus if performing necropsies on birds affected by the virus or are otherwise working with infected tissue.[16]

Other occupations at risk to biological hazard exposure include poultry workers, who are exposed to bacteria;[21] and tattooists and piercers, who risk exposure to blood-borne pathogens.[22]

Psychosocial hazards

Psychosocial hazards are occupational hazards that affect someone's social life or psychological health. Psychosocial hazards in the workplace include occupational burnout and occupational stress, which can lead to burnout.[23]

Physical hazards

Physical hazards are a subtype of occupational hazards that involve environmental hazards that can cause harm with or without contact. Physical hazards include ergonomic hazards, radiation, heat and cold stress, vibration hazards, and noise hazards.[24]

Noise

Each year in the US, twenty-two million workers are exposed to noise levels that could potentially harm their health.[25]Occupational hearing loss is the most common occupational illness in the manufacturing sector.[26] Workers in certain fields, such as musicians,[27]mine workers,[28] and even those involved with stock car racing,[29] are exposed to higher levels of noise and therefore are at a higher risk of developing hearing loss.

While permanent, noise-induced hearing loss is preventable.[30] As such a widespread issue, NIOSH has been committed to preventing future hearing loss for workers by establishing recommended exposure limits (RELs) of 85 dB(A) for an 8-house time-weighed average (TWA).[31] The Buy Quiet program was developed by NIOSH to encourage employers to reduce workplace noise levels by purchasing quieter models of tools and machinery.[32][33] Additionally, a partnership with the National Hearing Conservation Association (NHCA) has resulted in the creation of the Safe-in-Sound Award to recognize excellence and innovation in the field of hearing loss prevention.[34][35]

References

  1. ^ "About NIOSH". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved .
  2. ^ "About OSHA". United States Department of Labor. Retrieved .
  3. ^ Ramos, Athena; Carlo, Gustavo; Grant, Kathleen; Bendixsen, Casper; Fuentes, Axel; Gamboa, Rodrigo; Ramos, Athena K.; Carlo, Gustavo; Grant, Kathleen M. (2018-09-02). "A Preliminary Analysis of Immigrant Cattle Feedyard Worker Perspectives on Job-Related Safety Training". Safety. 4 (3): 37. doi:10.3390/safety4030037.
  4. ^ "CDC - Chemical Safety - NIOSH Workplace Safety and Health Topic". www.cdc.gov. Retrieved .
  5. ^ "NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards" (PDF). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. September 2007. Retrieved 2016.
  6. ^ "Index of Chemical Names, Synonyms and Trade Names". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 2016.
  7. ^ "Index of Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Numbers (CAS No.)". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 2016.
  8. ^ "Index of RTECS Numbers". Centers for Disease Control and Preveniton. Retrieved 2016.
  9. ^ a b "Occupational health and safety - chemical exposure". www.sbu.se. Swedish Agency for Health Technology Assessment and Assessment of Social Services (SBU). Retrieved .
  10. ^ "CDC - Seasonal Influenza (Flu) in the Workplace - Guidance - NIOSH Workplace Safety and Health Topic". www.cdc.gov. Retrieved .
  11. ^ "CDC - Insects and Scorpions - NIOSH Workplace Safety and Health Topic". www.cdc.gov. Retrieved .
  12. ^ "CDC - Venomous Snakes - NIOSH Workplace Safety and Health Topic". www.cdc.gov. Retrieved .
  13. ^ "CDC - Venomous Spiders - NIOSH Workplace Safety and Health Topic". www.cdc.gov. Retrieved .
  14. ^ a b "CDC - Poisonous Plants - NIOSH Workplace Safety and Health Topic". www.cdc.gov. Retrieved .
  15. ^ "CDC - Lyme Disease - NIOSH Workplace Safety and Health Topic". www.cdc.gov. Retrieved .
  16. ^ a b "CDC - West Nile Virus - NIOSH Workplace Safety and Health Topic". www.cdc.gov. Retrieved .
  17. ^ "CDC - Valley Fever (Coccidioidomycosis) - Jobs at Risk - NIOSH Workplace Safety and Health Topic". www.cdc.gov. Retrieved .
  18. ^ "CDC - Bloodborne Infectious Diseases - HIV/AIDS, Hepatitis B Virus, and Hepatitis C Virus - NIOSH Workplace Safety and Health Topic". www.cdc.gov. Retrieved .
  19. ^ "CDC - Emerging Infectious Diseases - NIOSH Workplace Safety and Health Topic". www.cdc.gov. Retrieved .
  20. ^ "CDC - Veterinary Health Care: Biological Safety - NIOSH Workplace Safety and Health Topic". www.cdc.gov. Retrieved .
  21. ^ "CDC - Poultry Industry Workers - NIOSH Workplace Safety and Health Topic". www.cdc.gov. Retrieved .
  22. ^ "CDC - Body Art - NIOSH Workplace Safety and Health Topic". www.cdc.gov. Retrieved .
  23. ^ "CDC - Stress at Work - NIOSH Workplace Safety and Health Topic". www.cdc.gov. Retrieved .
  24. ^ "Susan Harwood Grant Products By Topic". www.osha.gov. Retrieved .
  25. ^ "Noise and Hearing Loss Prevention: Facts and Statistics". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved .
  26. ^ "Occupationally-Induced Hearing Loss". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. March 2010. Retrieved .
  27. ^ Kardous, Chuck; Morata, Thais; Themann, Christa; Spears, Patricia; Afanuh, Sue (July 7, 2015). "Turn it Down: Reducing the Risk of Hearing Disorders Among Musicians". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 2016.
  28. ^ "Mining Topic: Hearing Loss Prevention Overview". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved .
  29. ^ Kardous, Chucri; Morata, Thais (August 16, 2010). "High Speeds, Higher Decibels". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 2016.
  30. ^ "They're Your Ears: Protect Them" (PDF). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. October 2007. Retrieved 2016.
  31. ^ Kardous, Chuck; Themann, Christa; Morata, Thais; Lotz, Gregory (February 8, 2016). "Understanding Noise Exposure Limits: Occupational vs. General Environmental Noise". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 2016.
  32. ^ "Buy Quiet". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved .
  33. ^ Hudson, Heidi; Hayden, Chuck (November 4, 2011). "Buy Quiet". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 2016.
  34. ^ "Safe-in-Sound: Excellence in Hearing Loss Prevention Award". Safe-in-Sound. Retrieved 2016.
  35. ^ Morata, Thais; Johnson, Ryan (January 11, 2011). "These Go to Eleven". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 2016.

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