Oghur Languages
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Oghur Languages
Astrakhan Oblast, Chuvashia, Dagestan
Linguistic classificationTurkic
  • Oghur

The Oghuric, or Onoguric or Oguric[3] languages (also known as Bulgar, Pre-Proto-Bulgaric,[4] or Lir-Turkic and r-Turkic), are a branch of the Turkic language family. The only extant member of the group is the Chuvash language. The first to branch off from the Turkic family, the Oghur languages show significant divergence from other Turkic languages, which all share a later common ancestor. Languages from this family were spoken in some nomadic tribal confederations, such as those of the Onogurs or Ogurs, Bulgars, and Khazars.[5] Some scholars consider Hunnic a similar language[6] and refer to this extended grouping as Hunno-Proto-Bulgarian.[7]

Oghur languages by native speakers

The Turkic languages are a language family of at least 35 [8] documented languages, spoken by the Turkic peoples. The number of speakers derived from statistics or estimates (2019) and were rounded:[9][10]

Number Name Status Native Speakers Main Country
1 Chuvash language Vulnerable 1,200,000  Russia
Total Oghur languages Vulnerable 1,200,000  Russia


The Oghuric languages are a distinct group of the Turkic languages, standing in contrast to Common Turkic. Today they are represented only by Chuvash. Extinct Oghuric languages include Bulgar and Khazar.[11]

There is no consensus among linguists on the relation between Oghuric and Common Turkic, and several questions remain unsolved:[3]

  • Are they parallel branches of Proto-Turkic (3000-500 BC) and, if so, which branch is more archaic?
  • Does Oghuric represent Archaic Turkic before phonetic changes in 100-400 AD and was it a separate language?


The Oghuric languages are also known as "-r Turkic" because the final consonant in certain words is r, not z as in Common Turkic.[11]Chuvash: - Turkish: öküz - Tatar: ? - English: ox. Hence the name Oghur corresponds Oghuz in Common Turkic.[3] Other correspondences are Com. ? : Oghur l (tâ? : tâl, 'stone'); s > ?; *? > ?; k/q > ?; y > j, ?; d, ? > ? > z (10th cent.) > r (13th cent.)"; ?d > z > r (14th cent.); a > ? (after 9th cent.).[12][13]

Denis Sinor believes that the difference means that those tribes could not have come from lands like Mongolia, which uses a -z language.[14] However, there many loanwords in Mongolic from Oghuric, like Mong. ikere, Oghur. *ikir, Hung. iker, Comm. ikiz (twins).[3] It is believed that they lived in the Mongolian borderlands before the 5th century.[15]

The Oghuric tribes are often connected with the Hungarians whose ethnonym is usually derived from Onogurs (> (H)ungars).[16] The Hungarians were mixed Finno-Ugric and Turkic, with strong Oghuric-Bulgar and Khazar influences.[17][18] Hungarian has many borrowings from Turkic and Oghuric languages:[19] Hung. tenger, Oghur. *tengir, Comm. tengiz (sea),[3] Hung. gy?r?, Oghur. jürük, Comm. yüzük (ring),[20] and terms of equestrian culture (horse), nyereg (saddle), fék (bridle), ostor (whip).[21] A number of Hungarian loanwords were borrowed before the 9th century, shown by sz- (< O?. ?-) rather than Comm. gy- (< O?. ?-): example Hung. szél, Oghur. *?äl, Chuv. ?il, Comm. yel (wind), Hung. sz?cs (tailor), Hung. sz?l? (grapes).[20]

See also


  1. ^ Golden 1992, p. 110.
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Bolgar". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ a b c d e Golden 2011, p. 30.
  4. ^ Golden 2011, p. 39.
  5. ^ Golden 2011, p. 239.
  6. ^ Pritsak, Omeljan (1982). The Hunnic Language of the Attila Clan (PDF). IV. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard Ukrainian Research Institute. p. 470. ISSN 0363-5570.
  7. ^ Pritsak, Omeljan (1981). "The Proto-Bulgarian Military Inventory Inscriptions". Turkic-Bulgarian-Hungarian relations. Budapest.
  8. ^ Dybo A.V., Chronology of Türkic languages and linguistic contacts of early Türks, Moscow, 2007, p. 766, "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2005-03-11. Retrieved .CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) (In Russian)
  9. ^ https://www.ethnologue.com/
  10. ^ https://glottolog.org/
  11. ^ a b Golden 1992, p. 95-96.
  12. ^ Golden 1992, p. 20, 96.
  13. ^ Golden 2011, p. 30, 236-239.
  14. ^ Golden 2011, p. 29.
  15. ^ Golden 2011, p. 31.
  16. ^ Golden 1992, p. 102-103.
  17. ^ Golden 1992, p. 262.
  18. ^ Golden 2011, p. 333.
  19. ^ Golden 1992, p. 259-260.
  20. ^ a b Golden 2011, p. 164.
  21. ^ Golden 1992, p. 259.

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