Old Azeri Language
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Old Azeri Language

Old Azeri (Persian: ‎), also referred to as Azeri or Azari (Persian: ?ar? [?:zæri]), is the extinct Iranian language that was once spoken in Azerbaijan (historic Azerbaijan, also known as Iranian Azerbaijan) before the Turkification of the Azeris. Some linguists believe the southern Tati varieties of Iranian Azerbaijan around Takestan such as the Harzandi and Karingani dialects to be remnants of Azeri.[2][3][4] In addition, Old Azeri is known to have strong affinities with Talysh.[5]

Azeri was the dominant language in Azerbaijan before it was replaced by Azerbaijani, which is a Turkic language.[4]

Initial study

The first scholar who discovered Azeri language is Ahmad Kasravi, who was an predominant Iranian Azeri scholar and linguist. He conducted a comprehensive research using Arabic, Persian, and Greek historical sources to prove that people of Azerbaijan used to speak a language of Iranian family called Azeri before adapting the Turkic language of the same name. This discovery lead him to conclude that the people of Azarbaijan were an Iranic group who were assimilated and eventually Turkified by invading Seljuq Turks.[6]

Linguistic affiliation

Old Azeri was spoken in most of Azerbaijan at least up to the 17th century, with the number of speakers decreasing since the 11th century due to the Turkification of the area. According to some accounts, it may have survived for several centuries after that up to the 16th or 17th century. Today, Iranian dialects are still spoken in several linguistic enclaves within Azarbaijan. While some scholars believe that these dialects form a direct continuation of the ancient Azeri languages,[4] others have argued that they are likely to be a later import through migration from other parts of Iran, and that the original Azeri dialects became extinct.[7]

According to Vladimir Minorsky, around the 9th or 10th century:

The original sedentary population of Azarbayjan consisted of a mass of peasants and at the time of the Arab conquest was compromised under the semi-contemptuous term of Uluj ("non-Arab")-somewhat similar to the raya(*ri'aya) of the Ottoman empire. The only arms of this peaceful rustic population were slings, see Tabari, II, 1379-89. They spoke a number of dialects (Adhari, Talishi) of which even now there remains some islets surviving amidst the Turkish speaking population. It was this basic population on which Babak leaned in his revolt against the caliphate.[8]

Clifford Edmund Bosworth says:

We need not take seriously Moqaddas?'s assertion that Azerbaijan had seventy languages, a state of affairs more correctly applicable to the Caucasus region to the north; but the basically Iranian population spoke an aberrant, dialectical form of Persian (called by Masd? al-ar?ya) as well as standard Persian, and the geographers state that the former was difficult to understand.[9]

Igrar Aliyev states that:[10]

1. In the writing of medieval Arab historians (Ibn Hawqal, Muqqaddesi..), the people of Azarbaijan spoke Azari.

2. This Azari was without doubt an Iranian language because it is also contrasted with Dari but it is also mentioned as Persian. It was not the same as the languages of the Caucasus mentioned by Arab historians. 3. Azari is not exactly Dari (name used for the Khorasanian Persian which is the Modern Persian language). From the research conducted by researchers upon this language, it appears that this language is part of the NW Iranian languages and was close to Talyshi language. Talyshi language has kept some of the characteristics of the Median language.

Aliyev states that medieval Muslim historians like al-Baladhuri, al-Masudi, ibn Hawqal and Yaqut al-Hamawi mentioned this language by name.[10] Other such writers are Estakhri, Ibn al-Nadim, Hamza Isfahani, al-Muqaddasi, Ya'qubi, Hamdallah Mustawfi and Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi.[4]

According to Gilbert Lazard, "Azarbaijan was the domain of Adhari, an important Iranian dialect which Masudi mentions together with Dari and Pahlavi."[11]

According to Richard N. Frye, Azeri was a major Iranian language and the original language of Iranian Azerbaijan. It gradually lost its status as the majority language by the end of the 14th century.[12]

Historical attestations

Ebn al-Moqaffa' (died 142/759) is quoted by ibn Al-Nadim in his famous Al-Fihrist as stating that Azerbaijan, Nahavand, Rayy, Hamadan and Esfahan speak Fahlavi (Pahlavi) and collectively constitute the region of Fahlah.[13]

A very similar statement is given by the medieval historian Hamzeh Isfahani when talking about Sassanid Iran. Hamzeh Isfahani writes in the book Al-Tanbih 'ala Hoduth alTashif that five "tongues" or dialects, were common in Sassanian Iran: Fahlavi, Dari, Persian, Khuzi and Soryani. Hamzeh (893-961 CE) explains these dialects in the following way:[14]

Fahlavi was a dialect which kings spoke in their assemblies and it is related to Fahleh. This name is used to designate five cities of Iran, Esfahan, Rey, Hamadan, Man Nahavand, and Azerbaijan. Persian is a dialect which was spoken by the clergy (Zoroastrian) and those who associated with them and is the language of the cities of Fars. Dari is the dialect of the cities of Ctesiphon and was spoken in the kings' /dabariyan/ 'courts'. The root of its name is related to its use; /darbar/ 'court* is implied in /dar/. The vocabulary of the natives of Balkh was dominant in this language, which includes the dialects of the eastern peoples. Khuzi is associated with the cities of Khuzistan where kings and dignitaries used it in private conversation and during leisure time, in the bath houses for instance.

Ibn Hawqal states:[4]

the language of the people of Azerbaijan and most of the people of Armenia (sic; he probably means the Iranian Armenia) is Iranian (al-farssya), which binds them together, while Arabic is also used among them; among those who speak al-faressya (here he seemingly means Persian, spoken by the elite of the urban population), there are few who do not understand Arabic; and some merchants and landowners are even adept in it".

Ibn Hawqal mentions that some areas of Armenia are controlled by Muslims and others by Christians.[15]

Abu al-Hasan Ali ibn al-Husayn Al-Masudi (896-956), the Arab historian states:

The Persians are a people whose borders are the Mahat Mountains and Azarbaijan up to Armenia and Aran, and Bayleqan and Darband, and Ray and Tabaristan and Masqat and Shabaran and Jorjan and Abarshahr, and that is Nishabur, and Herat and Marv and other places in land of Khorasan, and Sejistan and Kerman and Fars and Ahvaz...All these lands were once one kingdom with one sovereign and one language...although the language differed slightly. The language, however, is one, in that its letters are written the same way and used the same way in composition. There are, then, different languages such as Pahlavi, Dari, Azari, as well as other Persian languages.[16]

Al-Moqaddasi (died late 10th century) considers Azerbaijan as part of the 8th division of lands. He states:"The languages of the 8th division is Iranian (al-'ajamyya). It is partly Dari and partly convoluted (monqaleq) and all of them are named Persian".[17]

Al-Moqaddasi also writes on the general region of Armenia, Arran and Azerbaijan and states:[18]

They have big beards, their speech is not attractive. In Arminya they speak Armenian, in al-Ran, Ranian (the Caucasian Albanian language). Their Persian is understandable, and is close to Khurasanian (Dari Persian) in sound

Ahmad ibn Yaqubi mentions that the People of Azerbaijan are a mixture of Azari 'Ajams ('Ajam is a term that developed to mean Iranian) and old Javedanis (followers of Javidan the son of Shahrak who was the leader of Khurramites and succeeded by Babak Khorramdin).[19]

Zakarrya b. Mohammad Qazvini's report in Athar al-Bilad, composed in 1275, that "no town has escaped being taken over by the Turks except Tabriz" (Beirut ed., 1960, p. 339) one may infer that at least Tabriz had remained aloof from the influence of Turkish until the time.[4]

From the time of the Mongol invasion, most of whose armies were composed of Turkic tribes, the influence of Turkish increased in the region. On the other hand, the old Iranian dialects remained prevalent in major cities. Hamdallah Mostawafi writing in the 1340s calls the language of Maraqa as "modified Pahlavi"(Pahlavi-ye Mughayyar). Mostowafi calls the language of Zanjan (Pahlavi-ye Raast). The language of Gushtaspi covering the Caspian border region between Gilan to Shirvan is called a Pahlavi language close to the language of Gilan.[20]

Following the Islamic Conquest of Iran, Middle Persian, also known as Pahlavi, continued to be used until the 10th century when it was gradually replaced by a new breed of Persian language, most notably Dari. The Saffarid dynasty in particular was the first in a line of many dynasties to officially adopt the new language in 875 CE. Thus Dari, which contains many loanwords from its predecessors, is considered the continuation of Middle Persian which was prevalent in the early Islamic era of western Iran. The name Dari comes from the word () which refers to the royal court, where many of the poets, protagonists, and patrons of the literature flourished. (See Persian literature)

The Iranian dialect of Tabriz

According to Jean During, the inhabitants of Tabriz did not speak Turkish in the 15th century.[21]

The language of Tabriz, being an Iranian language, was not the standard Khurasani Dari. Qatran Tabrizi (11th century) has an interesting couplet mentioning this fact:[22]

? ? ? ?


The nightingale is on top of the flower like a minstrel who has lost her/his heart
It bemoans sometimes in Parsi (Persian) and sometimes in Dari (Khurasani Persian)

There are extant words, phrases, sentences and poems attested in the old Iranian dialect of Tabriz in a variety of books and manuscripts.[23]

Hamdullah Mustuwafi (14th century) mentions a sentence in the language of Tabriz:[24]

? ? " "? ? ( )

"The Tabrizians have a phrase when they see a fortunate and wealthy man in a uncouth clothes:" He is like fresh grapes in a ripped fruit basket. "

A Macaronic (mula'ma which is popular in Persian poetry where some verses are in one language and another in another language) poem from Homam Tabrizi, where some verses are in Khorasani (Dari) Persian and others are in the dialect of Tabriz.[25]

? ? // ? ? ? // ? ? ? // ? // // ? ? ? // ? // ? ? // ? // ? ? // ? ? // ?

Another Ghazal from Homam Tabrizi where all the couplets except the last couplet is in Persian. The last couplet reads:[26]

«? ? ? // »

Transliteration: Wahar o wol o Dim yaar khwash Bi Awi Yaaraan, mah wul Bi, Mah Wahaaraan

Translation: The Spring and Flowers and the face of the friend are all pleasant But without the friend, there are no flowers or a spring.

Another recent discovery by the name of Safina-yi Tabriz has given sentences from native of Tabriz in their peculiar Iranian dialect. The work was compiled during the Ilkhanid era. A sample expression of from the mystic Baba Faraj Tabrizi in the Safina:[27]


Standard Persian (translated by the author of Safina himself):

? ?

Modern English:

They brought Faraj in this world in such a way that his eye is neither towards pre-eternity nor upon createdness.

The Safina (written in the Ilkhanid era) contains many poems and sentences from the old regional dialect of Azerbaijan. Another portion of the Safina contains a direct sentence in what the author has called as "Zaban-i-Tabriz"(dialect/language of Tabriz)[28]

? ?

? ?
? ?

? ? ?
? ? ?
? ? ?

A sentence in the dialect of Tabriz (the author calls Zaban-i-Tabriz (dialect/language of Tabriz) recorded and also translated by Ibn Bazzaz Ardabili in the Safvat al-Safa:[29]

« ? ? ? ? ? ? ? . ? ? »

The sentence: "Gu Harif(a/e)r Zhaatah" is mentioned in Tabrizi Dialect.

A sentence in the dialect of Tabriz by Pir Zehtab Tabrizi addressing the Qara-qoyunlu ruler Eskandar:[22]

, ? ?, ? ?

"Eskandar, Roodam Koshti, Roodat Koshaad!" (Eskandar, you killed my son, may your son perish!")

The word Rood for son is still used in some Iranian dialects, specially the Larestani dialect and other dialects around Fars.

Four quatrains titled fahlavvviyat from Khwaja Muhammad Kojjani (died 677/1278-79); born in Kojjan or Korjan, a village near Tabriz, recorded by Abd-al-Qader Maraghi.[23][30] A sample of one of the four quatrains from Khwaja Muhammad Kojjani

? ?

? ? ?


Two qet'as (poems) quoted by Abd-al-Qader Maraghi in the dialect of Tabrz (died 838/1434-35; II, p. 142).[23][30] A sample of one these poems


? ?

A Ghazal and fourteen quatrains under the title of fahlaviyat by the poet Maghrebi Tabrizi (died 809/1406-7).[23][31]

A text probably by Mama Esmat Tabrizi, a mystical woman-poet of Tabriz (died 15th century), which occurs in a manuscript, preserved in Turkey, concerning the shrines of saints in Tabriz.[4][32]

A phrase "Buri Buri" which in Persian means Biya Biya or in English: Come! Come! is mentioned by Rumi from the mouth of Shams Tabrizi in this poem:

« ?

? ?
? ? ? ?
? ? ? ?»

The word Buri is mentioned by Hussain Tabrizi Karbali with regards to the Shaykh Khwajah Abdur-rahim Azh-Abaadi as to "come":.[33]

In the Harzandi dialect of Harzand in Azerbaijan as well as the Karingani dialect of Azerbaijan, both recorded in the 20th century, the two words "Biri" and "Burah" means to "come" and are of the same root[34][clarification needed]

On the language of Maragheh

Hamdollah Mostowfi of the 13th century mentions the language of Maragheh as "Pahlavi Mughayr" (modified Pahlavi):[35]

The 17th-century Ottoman Turkish traveler Evliya Chelebi who traveled to Safavid Iran also states: "The majority of the women in Maragheh converse in Pahlavi".[22]

According to the Encyclopedia of Islam:[36]"At the present day, the inhabitants speak Adhar Turkish, but in the 14th century they still spoke "arabicized Pahlawi" (Nuzhat al-Qolub: Pahlawi Mu'arrab) which means an Iranian dialect of the north western group."

Pre-Turkification Azeri

The Turkic Azerbaijani language only began replacing the Iranian Old Azeri language with the advent of rule of the Safavid dynasty, when hundreds of thousands of Qizilbash Turkic peoples from Anatolia arrived into Azerbaijan, being forced out by the Ottoman Sultan Selim I with more to follow. Earlier, many Turkic speaking nomads had chosen the green pastures of Azerbaijan, Aran and Shrivan for their settlement as early as the advent of the Seljuq dynasty. However, they only filled in the pasturelands while the farmlands, villages and the cities remained Iranian in language and culture. The linguistic conversion of Azerbaijan went hand in hand with the conversion of the Azeris to Twelver Shia Islam. By the late 1800s, the Turkification of Azerbaijan was near completion, with Iranian speakers found solely in tiny isolated recesses of the mountains or other remote areas (such as Harzand, Galin Ghuya, Shahrud villages in Khalkhal and Anarjan).

The city of Tabriz, the capital of Azerbaijan, maintained a number of distinctly Old Azeri-speaking neighborhoods well into the Qajar period of the Persian history. The poet Ruhi Onarjani composed a compendium in Old Azeri as late as the 19th century.

It seems the nail was driving into the coffin of the old language in Tabriz by the selection of that city as a second capital of Persia/Iran in the course of the 19th century where the Qajar crown prince, Mozaffar ad-Din (later Shah Qajar) resided for nearly 50 years.

Comparison of Old Azeri words with other Iranian languages

Old Azeri Zazaki Persian (Farsi/Dari) Sorani Kurdish Kurmanji Kurdish English
berz berz boland, borz+ berz bilind high
herz erz hêl hêll hil throw, allow
sor ser sal sall, sar sal year/sol
dêl zerri dêl/dil dill dil heart
hre hire three
des des dah de deh ten

+ Also borz in Modern Persian meaning tall, and height of a person; for instance, Alborz.[37]

See also


  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Adhari". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. ^ Paul, Ludwig (1998a). "The position of Zazaki among West Iranian languages" in Melville (1999). Charles Melville (ed.). Proceedings of the Third European Conference of Iranian Studies: Mediaeval and modern Persian studies. Reichert. ISBN 978-3-89500-104-8.
  3. ^ Dalby, Andrew (1998). Dictionary of Languages: The Definitive Reference to More Than 400 Languages. Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-11568-1., p. 496.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g "Azari, the Old Iranian Language of Azerbaijan", Encyclopædia Iranica, op. cit., Vol. III/2, 1987 by Ehsan Yarshater. External link: [1]
  5. ^ "Orientation - Talysh". Retrieved 2014.
  6. ^ Jazayery, M.A. "Kasravi, Ahmad(1890-1946)" in Singh, N. K.; Samiuddin, A (2003). Encyclopaedic Historiography of the Muslim World. Global Vision Publishing House. ISBN 978-81-87746-54-6.
  7. ^ "The Ancient Language of Azarbaijan, by B.W. Henning". Retrieved 2014.
  8. ^ V. Minorsky, Studies in Caucasian history, Cambridge University Press, 1957, pg 112
  9. ^ Bosworth, C. E,"AZERBAIJAN iv. Islamic History to 1941", Encyclopædia Iranica, Vol. III, Fasc. 2-3, pp.224-231
  10. ^ a b Professor Ighrar Aliyev. The History of Aturpatakan. Persian Translation by Dr. Shaadman Yusuf. Balkh Publishers. Tehran. 1999.
  11. ^ Lazard, Gilbert 1975, "The Rise of the New Persian Language" in Frye, R. N., The Cambridge History of Iran, Vol. 4, pp. 595-632, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp 599
  12. ^ R. N. Frye, "PEOPLES OF IRAN" in Encyclopædia Iranica. "The long and complex history of Azari (q.v.), a major Iranian language and the original language of the region, and its partial replacement with Azeri Turkish, the present-day language of Azerbaijan, is surveyed in detail and with a wealth of citations from historical sources elsewhere in the Encyclopaedia (see AZERBAIJAN vii). Although the original Azari gradually lost its stature as the prevalent language by the end of the 14th century, the fact that the region had produced some of the finest Persian writers and poets of classical Persian, including Qa?r?n of Tabriz, Nemi of Ganja, q?ni of ?irv?n, Hom?m of Tabriz (q.v.), Aw?adi of Mara, Zayn-al-bedin of ?irv?n, Ma?mud of ?abestar, ?afi-al-Din of Urmia, ?Abd-al-Q?der of Mara, etc., has induced literary historians to talk of "The School of Azerbaijan" (Rypka)." External link: [2] (accessed April 2009)
  13. ^ : Ibn Nadeem, "Fihrist", Translated by Reza Tajaddod, Ibn Sina publishers, 1967. ? ? : (= ? : ? ? ? ? . ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? . ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?. ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?. ? ? ? ). ? : «»? ? 1346 Original Arabic. Ibn Nadeem, Al-Fihrist. www.alwaraq.com accessed in September 2007. ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
  14. ^ (Mehdi Marashi, Mohammad Ali Jazayery, Persian Studies in North America: Studies in Honor of Mohammad Ali Jazayery, Ibex Publishers, Inc, 1994. pg 255)
  15. ^ Ibn Howqal, Surat al-ardh. Translation and comments by: J. Shoar, Amir Kabir Publishers, Iran. 1981. " ? ? ? . ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? . ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
  16. ^ (Al Mas'udi, Kitab al-Tanbih wa-l-Ishraf, De Goeje, M.J. (ed.), Leiden, Brill, 1894, pp. 77-8). Original Arabic from www.alwaraq.net: ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? .
  17. ^ Al-Moqaddasi, Shams ad-Din Abu Abdallah Muhammad ibn Ahmad, Ahsan al-Taqasi fi Ma'rifa al-Aqalim, Translated by Ali Naqi Vaziri, Volume one, First Edition, Mu'alifan and Mutarjiman Publishers, Iran, 1981, pg 377 ? ? ? 1? ? ? ? 1361? ? 377.
  18. ^ Al-Muqaddasi, 'The Best Divisions for Knowledge of the Regions', a translation of his Ahsan at-taqasim fi Ma'rifat al-Aqalim by B.A. Collins, Centre for Muslim Contribution to Civilization, Garnet Publishing Limited,1994. pg 334
  19. ^ T?r?kh-i Yaq?b? / tal?f-i A?mad ibn Ab? Yaq?bi ; tarjamah-i Mu?ammad Ibrahim Ayati, Intirisharat Bungah-I Tarjamah va Nashr-I Kitab, 1969.
  20. ^ «? ?: « ? ? ? 1336 Mostawafi, Hamdallah. Nozhat al-Qolub. Edit by Muhammad Dabir Sayyaqi. Tahuri publishers, 1957.
  21. ^ Jean During, "The Spirit of Sounds: The Unique Art of Ostad Elahi", Cornwall Books, 2003. Excerpt from pg 172: "In this Maqased ol al-han (1418), Maraghi mentions the Turkish and the Shirvani tanbour, which had two strings tuned in second (which the Kurds and Lors call Farangi) and was quite popular among the inhabitants of Tabriz (a region which was not yet Turkish speaking at the time)".
  22. ^ a b c Mohammad-Amin Riahi. "Molehaazi darbaareyeh Zabaan-I Kohan Azerbaijan"(Some comments on the ancient language of Azerbaijan), 'Itilia'at Siyasi Magazine, volume 181-182. « ? »: ? - ? 182-181 Also available at: [3] or here: [4]
  23. ^ a b c d "Fahlaviyat in Encyclopedia Iranica by Ahmad Tafazoli". Retrieved 2014.
  24. ^ ? ?: "?"? ? ? ? 1336 Mostawafi, Hamdallah. Nozhat al-Qolub. Edit by Muhammad Dabir Sayyaqi. Tahuri publishers, 1957, pg 98. ? ? «?» ?  : ? ? " "? ? ( ) »
  25. ^ Gholam Reza Ensafpur, "Tarikh o Tabar Zaban-i Azarbaijan"(The history and roots of the language of Azarbaijan), Fekr-I Rooz Publishers, 1998 (1377). ? :" ? ? ? "? ? 1377
  26. ^ : «? ? ? ? »? 1333 Karang, Abdul Ali. "Tati, Harzani, two dialects from the ancient language of Azerbaijan", Tabriz, 1333. 1952.
  27. ^ Manouchehr Mortazavi. Zaban-e-Dirin Azerbaijan (On the Old language of Azerbaijan). Bonyat Moqoofaat Dr. Afshar. 2005(1384). ? ? ? ? ? 1384.
  28. ^ , ? 1379: ? ?, ? ? ... ? ? ? , ?, ? , ? Ali Asghar Sadeqi, "Some poems in the Karaji, Tabrizi and others" in Zaban-Shenasi, Year 15, No. 2 (Fall and Winder), 1379 (2001). Also here: [5]
  29. ^ Rezazadeh Malak, Rahim. "The Azari Dialect" (Guyesh-I Azari), Anjuman Farhang Iran Bastan publishers, 1352(1973).
  30. ^ a b Dr. A. A. Sadeqi, "Ash'ar-e mahalli-e Jame' al-alHaann", Majalla-ye zaban-shenasi 9, 1371./1992, pp. 54-64/ [6] or here [7]:
  31. ^ M.-A. Adib Tusi "Fahlavyat-e Magrebi Tabrizi", NDA Tabriz 8, 1335/1956 [8] or [9][dead link]
  32. ^ Adib Tusi, "Fahlawiyat-e- Mama Esmat wa Kashfi be-zaban Azari estelaah-e raayi yaa shahri", NDA, Tabriz 8/3, 1335/1957, pp 242-57. Also available at: [10] or [11][dead link].
  33. ^ ? ? ? ? « »? ? 1344-1349 1965-1970. Karbalai Tabrizi, Hussein. "Rawdat al-jinan va Jannat al-Janan", Bungah-I Tarjumah va Nashr-I Kitab, 1344-49 (1965-1970), 2 volumes. ? ? ? 115 «? ? ?... ?... ? ? ? ... ? () ? ?...? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?: ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?.»
  34. ^ : «? ? ? ? »? ?-? ? 1333 Source: Karang, Abdul Ali. "Tati wa Harzani, Do lahjeh az zabaan-i baastaan-i Azerbaijan", Shafaq publishers, 1333(1955) (pg 91 and pg 112)
  35. ^ "? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? : "? ? ? ?: "?"? ? ? ? 1336 Mostawafi, Hamdallah. Nozhat al-Qolub. Edit by Muhammad Dabir Sayyaqi. Tahuri publishers, 1957.
  36. ^ Minorsky, V. (1991a), "Maragha", in Encyclopaedia of Islam, New Ed., vol. 6:498-503."At the present day, the inhabitants speak Adhar Turkish, but in the 14th century they still spoke "arabicized Pahlawi" (Nuzhat al-Qolub: Pahlawi Mu'arrab) which means an Iranian dialect of the north western group."
  37. ^ Paul, Ludwig. (1998) "The Position of Zazaki Among West Iranian languages."

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