|Open-mid front rounded vowel|
The open-mid front rounded vowel, or low-mid front rounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents the sound is ⟨oe⟩. The symbol oe is a lowercase ligature of the letters o and e. The sound ⟨?⟩, a small capital version of the ⟨OE⟩ ligature, is used for a distinct vowel sound: the open front rounded vowel.
The open-mid front compressed vowel is typically transcribed in IPA simply as ⟨oe⟩, which is the convention used in this article. There is no dedicated IPA diacritic for compression. However, the compression of the lips can be shown by the letter ⟨⟩ as ⟨?⟩ (simultaneous [?] and labial compression) or ⟨⟩ ([?] modified with labial compression). The spread-lip diacritic ⟨ ? ⟩ may also be used with a rounded vowel letter ⟨oe?⟩ as an ad hoc symbol, but 'spread' technically means unrounded.
Because front rounded vowels are assumed to have compression, and few descriptions cover the distinction, some of the following may actually have protrusion.
|Asturian||Some Western dialects||fuöra||['fwoe]||'outside'||Realization of ⟨o⟩ in the diphthong ⟨uo⟩. May also be realized as or .|
|Bavarian||Amstetten dialect||Seil||[soe:]||'rope'||Contrasts close , near-close , close-mid and open-mid [oe] front rounded vowels in addition to the open central unrounded . Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨?⟩.|
|Northern||I helfad||[i 'hoel?f?d?]||'I'd help'||Allophone of /?/ before /l/.|
|Breton||All speakers||[example needed]||Short counterpart of . May be transcribed in IPA with ⟨ø⟩.|
|Bas-Léon||[example needed]||Long; contrasts with the short open-mid /oe/ and the long close-mid . Other speakers have only one mid front rounded vowel .|
|Buwal||[k?oe?ll]||'fine'||Allophone of /a/ when adjacent to a labialized consonant.|
|Chinese||Cantonese||? / cheung4||[ts?oe:]||'long'||See Cantonese phonology|
|Danish||Standard||gøre||['koe:?]||'to do'||Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨?:⟩. See Danish phonology|
|Dutch||Standard||manoeuvre||'manoeuvre'||Occurs only in a few loanwords. See Dutch phonology|
|Some speakers||parfum||[p?r'foe?:]||'perfume'||Nasalized; occurs only in a few loanwords and it is used mainly in southern accents. Often nativized as [?m]. See Dutch phonology|
|The Hague dialect||uit||[oe:t]||'out'||Corresponds to [oey] in standard Dutch. See Dutch phonology|
|English||General New Zealand||bird||[boe:d]||'bird'||May be mid instead. In broader varieties, it is close-mid or higher. Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨?:⟩. See New Zealand English phonology|
|Scouse||Possible realization of the merged SQUARE-NURSE vowel /e:/.|
|Southern Welsh||Also described as mid  and close-mid .|
|General South African||go||[?oe:]||'go'||Some speakers. Can be a diphthong of the type [oe]~[oe] instead. Other South African varieties do not monophthongize. See South African English phonology|
|French||jeune||[?oen]||'young'||See French phonology|
|Galician||semana||[s?oe'mãn]||'week'||Labialization of pre-tonic [e], which is usually realized as [o]|
|German||Standard||Hölle||['hoel?]||'hell'||See Standard German phonology|
|Western Swiss accents||schön||[?oe:n]||'beautiful'||Close-mid in other accents. See Standard German phonology|
|Limburgish||Many dialects||mäö||[moe:]||'sleeve'||Central in Maastricht; the example word is from the Hasselt dialect.|
|Low German||söss / zös||[zoes]||'six'|
|Luxembourgish||Interieur||[':tioe:?]||'interior'||Occurs only in loanwords. See Luxembourgish phonology|
|Saterland Frisian||bölkje||['boelkj?]||'to rear'|
|West Frisian||Hindeloopers||[example needed]||See West Frisian phonology|
|Open-mid front protruded vowel|
Catford notes[full ] that most languages with rounded front and back vowels use distinct types of labialization, protruded back vowels and compressed front vowels. However, a few, such as Scandinavian languages, have protruded front vowels. One Scandinavian language, Swedish, even contrasts the two types of rounding in front vowels (see near-close front rounded vowel, with Swedish examples of both types of rounding).
As there are no diacritics in the IPA to distinguish protruded and compressed rounding, an old diacritic for labialization, ⟨ ?⟩, will be used here as an ad hoc symbol for protruded front vowels. Another possible transcription is ⟨oe?⟩ or ⟨⟩ (an open-mid front vowel modified by endolabialization), but it could be misread as a diphthong.
Acoustically, the sound is "between" the more typical compressed open-mid front vowel [oe] and the unrounded open-mid front vowel .
|Norwegian||nøtt||[noe?t:]||'nut'||The example word is from Urban East Norwegian, in which the vowel has also been described as mid central . See Norwegian phonology|
|Swedish||Central Standard||öra||'ear'||Allophone of /oe/ and most often also /ø:/ before /r/. May be more open [?, ?:] for younger speakers from Stockholm. See Swedish phonology|
|Younger Stockholm speakers||köpa||[²?oe?:pa?]||'to buy'||Higher for other speakers. See Swedish phonology|