The Illustrious Royal Order of Saint Januarius (Italian: Insigne Real Ordine di San Gennaro) is a Roman Catholic order of knighthood founded by Charles VII of Naples in 1738. It was the last great dynastic order to be constituted as a chivalric fraternity, with a limitation to Roman Catholics and a direct attachment to the dynasty rather than the state. The founder of the order, Charles VII of Naples, ruled from 1734 until 1759.
The grand magistry of the order is disputed among claimants to the headship of the formerly reigning House of Bourbon-Two Sicilies.
Structure of the order
Originally, the order had four principal officers, whose duties were to administer its affairs:
- Master of Ceremonies
A reform of August 17, 1827, limited these duties to certain ceremonial roles at the installation of knights, and no successors were appointed to the then-holders of these offices.
The order today
Decoration with collar (left) and with sash and star (right)
Diego de Madariaga, 2nd Marquess of Villa-Fuerte wearing the mantle and insignia of the order
The order continues to be awarded today by the two claimants to the headship of the royal House of Bourbon-Two Sicilies, Prince Pedro, Duke of Calabria and Prince Carlo, Duke of Castro.
Since 1960, the order has been awarded sparingly and total membership has not exceeded eighty, most of the knights being members of royal houses, senior officers of the Sacred Military Constantinian Order of Saint George, or Italian grandees.
As of 2016
, the knights appointed by Prince Pedro, Duke of Calabria, his father and grandfather, were:
- HM King Juan Carlos I of Spain, 19-2-1960.
- HM King Simeon II of the Bulgarians, 30-3-1960.
- HRH Dom Duarte Pio, Duke of Braganza, 2-10-1990.
- HRH Alexander Karageorgevich of Serbia, 8-1-1991.
- HIRH Archduke Simeon of Austria, 4-11-2002.
- Don Vincenzo-Capasso Torre, XVI Count delle Pastène and V Conte of Caprara,14-6-1960.
- Don Iñigo de Moreno e Arteaga, 1 Marquess of Laserna, 6-1-1961
- Hervé Pinoteau, Baron Pinoteau, 13-4-1963.
- Don José-Maria de Palacio y Oriol, IV Marquess of Villarreal de Alava, 19-9-1972
- Guy Stair Sainty, 19-9-1979
- HE Don Carlos Fitz-James Stuart, 19th Duke of Alba de Tormes, Berwick, Liria and Xerica, Grandee of Spain, 2-10-1990.
- Count Don Agostino Borromeo, 25-9-2002.
- Don Roberto Dentice di Accadia, Marquess of Accadia, 25-9-2002.
- Prince Don Alberto Giovanelli, 25-9-2002.
- HSH Prince and Marquess Don Maurizio Ferrante Gonzaga di Vescovato, 5-9-2002.
- Noble Don Alesandro of the Counts Mariotti Solimani, 25-9-2002.
- Nobile Don Lorenzo de' Notaristefani, 25-9-2002.
- Ambassador Don Giuseppe Bonanno, Prince of Linguaglossa, (... 2003).
- HEm Cardinal Dario Castrillón Hoyos, April 2016.
As of 2014 the knights appointed by Prince Carlo, Duke of Castro, his father and grandfather, were:
- Prince Carlo, Duke of Castro and Grand Master
- Antonio Maria of Bourbon Two Sicilies
- Francesco Maria of Bourbon Two Sicilies
- Gennaro Maria of Bourbon Two Sicilies
- Luigi Alfonso Maria of Bourbon Two Sicilies
- Alessandro Enrico Maria of Bourbon Two Sicilies
- Casimiro Maria of Bourbon Two Sicilies
- Matthew Festing, Prince and Grand Master of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta
- Duarte Pio, Duke of Braganza
- Jean, Count of Paris (19 March 2019, installed 13 May 2019)
- Renato Raffaele Cardinal Martino
- Count Andrzej Ciechanowiecki +2015
- Ambassador Count Carlo Marullo di Condojanni, Prince of Casalnuovo
- Duke and Count Don Ferdinando Gaetani dell'Aquila d'Aragona, Prince of Piedmont, Duke of Laurenzana, Count of Alife,
- Duke Francesco d'Avalos, Prince of the Holy Roman Empire, Marquess of Pescara and Vasto
- Prince Filippo Massimo, Prince of Arsoli and Duke of Anticoli Corrado
- Prince Carlo Cito Filomarino, Prince of Rocca d'Aspro, Prince of Bitetto, Marquess of Torrecuso
- Prince Gregorio Carafa Cantelmo Stuart, Prince of the Holy Roman Empire, Prince of Roccella, Duke of Bruzzano
- Don Roberto Caracciolo, Duke of San Vito
- Prince Giovanni Battista de'Medici, Prince of Ottajano, Duke of Casalnuovo