Orion (Constellation Program)
Get Orion Constellation Program essential facts below. View Videos or join the Orion Constellation Program discussion. Add Orion Constellation Program to your PopFlock.com topic list for future reference or share this resource on social media.
Orion Constellation Program

Orion
NASA's Orion spacecraft undergoing final tests
The Orion spacecraft for Artemis 1, February 2020
Manufacturer
OperatorNASA[1]
ApplicationsCrewed exploration beyond LEO[2]
Specifications
Spacecraft typeCrewed
Design life21.1 days[3]
Launch mass
  • Crew module: 22,900 lb (10,400 kg)
  • Service module: 34,085 lb (15,461 kg)
  • Total (with launch abort system): 73,735 lb (33,446 kg)
  • Injected lunar mass: 58,467 lb (26,520 kg)
Dry mass
  • Crew module: 20,500 lb (9,300 kg) landing weight
  • Service module: 13,635 lb (6,185 kg)
Payload capacity220 lb (100 kg) return payload
Crew capacity2-6[4]
Volume
  • Pressurized: 690.6 cu ft (20 m3)[5]
  • Habitable: 316 cu ft (9 m3)
PowerSolar
RegimeLunar Transfer Orbit, lunar orbit
Dimensions
Length10 feet 10 inches (3.30 m)
Diameter16 feet 6 inches (5.03 m)
Production
StatusIn production
Built4
On order6-12 (+3 ordered before 2019) [6]
Launched1
Maiden launchDecember 5, 2014
Related spacecraft
Derived from
Orion Triangle Patch.svg

The Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (Orion MPCV) is a class of partially reusable space capsule planned to be used after 2021 in NASA's human spaceflight programs. The spacecraft consists of a Crew Module (CM) manufactured by Lockheed Martin and the European Service Module (ESM) manufactured by Airbus Defence and Space. Capable of supporting a crew of six beyond low Earth orbit, Orion can last 21 days undocked and up to six months docked. It is equipped with solar power, an automated docking system, and glass cockpit interfaces modeled after those used in the Boeing 787 Dreamliner. A single AJ10 engine provides the spacecraft's primary propulsion, while eight R-4D-11 engines, and six pods of custom reaction control system engines developed by Airbus, provide the spacecraft's secondary propulsion. Although compatible with other launch vehicles, Orion is primarily designed to launch atop a Space Launch System (SLS) rocket, with a tower launch escape system.

Orion was originally conceived by Lockheed Martin as a proposal for the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) to be used in NASA's Constellation program. Lockheed Martin's proposal defeated a competing proposal by Northrop Grumman, and was selected by NASA in 2006 to be the CEV. Originally designed with a service module featuring a new "Orion Main Engine" and a pair of circular solar panels, the spacecraft was to be launched atop the Ares I rocket with either a traditional launch escape system or the experimental Max Launch Abort System equipped.[] Following the cancellation of the Constellation program in 2010, Orion was heavily redesigned for use in NASA's Journey to Mars initiative; later named Moon to Mars. The SLS replaced the Ares I as Orion's primary launch vehicle, and the service module was replaced with a design based on the European Space Agency's Automated Transfer Vehicle. A development version of Orion's CM was launched in 2014 during Exploration Flight Test-1, while at least four test articles have been produced. As of 2020, three flight-worthy Orion spacecraft are under construction, with an additional one ordered,[a] for use in NASA's Artemis program; the first of these is due to be launched in 2021 during Artemis 1.

Spacecraft description

Interactive 3D models of the spacecraft, with the spacecraft on the right in exploded view.
Interactive 3D models of Orion, with the spacecraft fully integrated on the left and in exploded view on the right.

Orion uses the same basic configuration as the Apollo command and service module (CSM) that first took astronauts to the Moon, but with an increased diameter, updated thermal protection system, and a host of other modern technologies. It will be capable of supporting long-duration deep space missions with up to 21 days of active crew time plus 6 months quiescent spacecraft life.[9] During the quiescent period crew life support would be provided by another module, such as the proposed Deep Space Habitat. The spacecraft's life support, propulsion, thermal protection, and avionics systems can be upgraded as new technologies become available.[10]

The Orion spacecraft includes both crew and service modules,a spacecraft adapter and an emergency launch abort system. The Orion crew module is larger than Apollo's and can support more crew members for short or long-duration missions. The European service module propels and powers the spacecraft as well as storing oxygen and water for astronauts, Orion relies on solar energy rather than fuel cells which allow for longer missions.

Crew module (CM)

Interior of the Orion mock-up in October 2014.
Testing of Orion's parachute system.

The Orion crew module (CM) is a reusable transportation capsule that provides a habitat for the crew, provides storage for consumables and research instruments, and contains the docking port for crew transfers.[10][11][12] The crew module is the only part of the spacecraft that returns to Earth after each mission and is a 57.5° truncated cone shape with a blunt spherical aft end, 5.02 meters (16 ft 6 in) in diameter and 3.3 meters (10 ft 10 in) in length,[13] with a mass of about 8.5 metric tons (19,000 lb). It was manufactured by the Lockheed Martin Corporation at Michoud Assembly Facility in New Orleans.[14] It will have 50% more volume than the Apollo capsule and will carry four to six astronauts.[15] After extensive study, NASA has selected the Avcoat ablator system for the Orion crew module. Avcoat, which is composed of silica fibers with a resin in a honeycomb made of fiberglass and phenolic resin, was formerly used on the Apollo missions and on the Space Shuttle orbiter for early flights.[16]

Orion's CM will use advanced technologies, including:

  • Glass cockpit digital control systems derived from those of the Boeing 787.[17]
  • An "autodock" feature, like those of Progress, the Automated Transfer Vehicle, and Dragon 2, with provision for the flight crew to take over in an emergency. Prior US spacecraft have all been docked by the crew.
  • Improved waste-management facilities, with a miniature camping-style toilet and the unisex "relief tube" used on the Space Shuttle.
  • A nitrogen/oxygen (/) mixed atmosphere at either sea level (101.3 kPa or 14.69 psi) or reduced (55.2 to 70.3 kPa or 8.01 to 10.20 psi) pressure.
  • Far more advanced computers than on prior crew vehicles.

The CM will be built of aluminium-lithium alloy. The reusable recovery parachutes will be based on the parachutes used on both the Apollo spacecraft and the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Boosters, and will be constructed of Nomex cloth. Water landings will be the exclusive means of recovery for the Orion CM.[18][19]

To allow Orion to mate with other vehicles, it will be equipped with the NASA Docking System. The spacecraft will employ a Launch Escape System (LES) along with a "Boost Protective Cover" (made of fiberglass), to protect the Orion CM from aerodynamic and impact stresses during the first ​ minutes of ascent. Its designers claim that the MPCV is designed to be 10 times safer during ascent and reentry than the Space Shuttle.[20] The CM is designed to be refurbished and reused. In addition, all of Orion's component parts have been designed to be as modular as possible, so that between the craft's first test flight in 2014 and its projected Mars voyage in the 2030s, the spacecraft can be upgraded as new technologies become available.[10]

As of 2019, the Spacecraft Atmospheric Monitor is planned to be used in the Orion CM.[21]

Orion Hatch Open.jpg

European Service Module (ESM)

Artist's concept of an Orion spacecraft including the European Service Module with Interim Cryogenic Upper Stage attached at the back

In May 2011 the ESA director general announced a possible collaboration with NASA to work on a successor to the Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV).[22] On June 21, 2012, Airbus Defence and Space announced that they had been awarded two separate studies, each worth EUR6.5 million, to evaluate the possibilities of using technology and experience gained from ATV and Columbus related work for future missions. The first looked into the possible construction of a service module which would be used in tandem with the Orion CM.[23] The second examined the possible production of a versatile multi purpose orbital vehicle.[24]

On November 21, 2012, the ESA decided to develop an ATV-derived service module for Orion.[25] The service module is being manufactured by Airbus Defence and Space in Bremen, Germany.[26]NASA announced on January 16, 2013, that the ESA service module will first fly on Artemis 1, the debut launch of the Space Launch System.[27]

Testing of the European service module began in February 2016, at the Space Power Facility.[28]

On February 16, 2017, a EUR200m contract was signed between Airbus and the European Space Agency for the production of a second European service module for use on the first crewed Orion flight, Artemis 2.[29]

On 26 October 2018 the first unit for Artemis 1 was assembled in full at Airbus Defence and Space's factory in Bremen.[30]

Launch Abort System (LAS)

In the event of an emergency on the launch pad or during ascent, a Launch Abort System (LAS) will separate the crew module from the launch vehicle using three solid rocket motors: an abort motor (AM),[31] an attitude control motor (ACM), and a jettison motor (JM). The AM provides the thrust needed to accelerate the capsule, while the ACM is used to point the AM[32] and the jettison motor separates the LAS from the crew capsule.[33] On July 10, 2007, Orbital Sciences, the prime contractor for the LAS, awarded Alliant Techsystems (ATK) a $62.5 million sub-contract to "design, develop, produce, test and deliver the launch abort motor," which uses a "reverse flow" design.[34] On July 9, 2008, NASA announced that ATK had completed construction of a vertical test stand at a facility in Promontory, Utah to test launch abort motors for the Orion spacecraft.[35] Another long-time space motor contractor, Aerojet, was awarded the jettison motor design and development contract for the LAS. As of September 2008, Aerojet has, along with team members Orbital Sciences, Lockheed Martin and NASA, successfully demonstrated two full-scale test firings of the jettison motor. This motor is used on every flight, as it pulls the LAS tower away from the vehicle after both a successful launch and a launch abort.[36]

History

The Orion MPCV was announced by NASA on May 24, 2011.[37] Its design is based on the Crew Exploration Vehicle from the cancelled Constellation program,[38] which had been a 2006 NASA contract award to Lockheed Martin.[39] The command module is being built by Lockheed Martin at the Michoud Assembly Facility,[40] while the Orion service module is being built by Airbus Defence and Space with funding from the European Space Agency.[27][41]

The MPCV's first uncrewed test flight (EFT-1) was launched atop a Delta IV Heavy rocket on December 5, 2014, and lasted 4 hours and 24 minutes before landing at its target in the Pacific Ocean.[42][43][44][45]

Funding history and planning

For fiscal years 2006 through 2020, the Orion expended funding totaling $18,764 million in nominal dollars. This is equivalent to $21,477 million adjusting to 2020 dollars using the NASA New Start Inflation Indices.[46]

For fiscal year 2021, $1.401 billions[47] were requested for the Orion program.

Fiscal year Funding (nominal, in $millions) Funding (In 2020 $, in $millions)[46] Line item name
2006 839.2 1,122.5 CEV[48]
2007 714.5 920.2 CEV[49]
2008 1,174.1 1,460.1 CEV[50]
2009 1,747.9 2,133.1 CEV[50]
2010 1,640 1,974.4 CEV[50]
2011 1,196.0 1,417.4 MPCV[51]
2012 1,200 1,406.7 Orion MPCV[52]
2013 1,138 1,314.3 Orion MPCV[53]
2014 1,197 1,355.8 Orion Program[54]
2015 1,190.2 1,321.5 Orion Program[55]
2016 1,270 1,390.9 Orion Program[56]
2017 1,350.0 1,451.4 Orion[57]
2018 1,350.0 1,416.9 Orion[58]
2019 1,350.0 1,385.2 Orion[47]
2020 1,406.7 1,406.7 Orion[59]
2006-2020 Total $18,764 Total $21,477

Excluded from the prior Orion costs are:

  1. Costs "for production, operations, or sustainment of additional crew capsules, despite plans to use and possibly enhance this capsule after 2021"[60]
  2. Costs of the first service module and spare parts, which are provided by ESA[61] for the test flight of Orion in 2020 (about US$1 billion)[62]
  3. Costs to assemble, integrate, prepare and launch the Orion and its launcher (funded under the NASA Ground Operations Project,[63] currently about $400M[64] per year)
  4. Costs of the launcher, the SLS, for the Orion spacecraft

For 2019 to 2023, NASA estimated[65] yearly budgets for Orion range from $1.1 to $1.2 billion. In late 2015, the Orion program was assessed at a 70 % confidence level for its first crewed flight by 2023.[66][67][68]

There are no NASA estimates for the Orion program recurring yearly costs once operational, for a certain flight rate per year, or for the resulting average costs per flight. In 2016, the NASA manager of exploration systems development said that Orion, SLS, and supporting ground systems should cost "US$2 billion or less" annually.[69] NASA will not provide the cost per flight of Orion and SLS, with associate administrator William H. Gerstenmaier stating "costs must be derived from the data and are not directly available. This was done by design to lower NASA's expenditures" in 2017.[70]

Ground Test articles, Mockups and Boilerplates

NASA and DoD personnel familiarize themselves with a Navy-built, 18,000-pound (8,200 kg) Orion mock-up in a test pool at the Naval Surface Warfare Center's Carderock Division in Potomac, Md.
The Orion Drop Test Article during a test on February 29, 2012
Test article being airlifted to the Pad Abort-1 flight test.
  • Space Vehicle Mockup Facility (SVMF) in Johnson Space Center, includes a full-scale Orion capsule mock-up for astronaut training.[71]
  • Ares-I-X The Orion Mass Simulator was used on the Ares I-X flight test.
  • Pad Abort 1 An Orion boilerplate was used for the Pad Abort 1 flight test, the LAS was fully functional, the boilerplate was recovered
  • Ascent Abort-2 An Orion boilerplate was used for the Ascent Abort 2 flight test, the LAS was fully functional, the boilerplate was discarded
  • The Boilerplate Test Article (BTA) underwent splashdown testing at the Langley Research Center. This same test article has been modified to support Orion Recovery Testing in stationary and underway recovery tests.[72] The BTA contains over 150 sensors to gather data on its test drops.[73] Testing of the 18,000-pound (8,200 kg) mockup ran from July 2011 to January 6, 2012.[74]
  • The Ground Test Article (GTA) stack, located at Lockheed Martin in Denver, is undergoing vibration testing.[75] It is made up by the Orion Ground Test Vehicle (GTV) combined with its Launch Abort System (LAS). Further testing will see the addition of service module simulator panels and Thermal Protection System (TPS) to the GTA stack.[76]
  • The Drop Test Article (DTA), also known as the Drop Test Vehicle (DTV) underwent test drops at the US Army's Yuma Proving Ground in Arizona from an altitude of 25,000 feet (7,600 m).[76] Testing began in 2007. Drogue chutes deploy around 20,000 and 15,000 feet (6,100 and 4,600 m). Testing of the staged parachutes includes the partial opening and complete failure of one of the three main parachutes. With only two chutes deployed the DTA lands at 33 feet per second (10 m/s), the maximum touchdown speed for Orion's design.[77] The drop test program has had several failures in 2007, 2008, and 2010,[78] resulting in new DTV being constructed. The landing parachute set is known as the Capsule Parachute Assembly System (CPAS).[79] With all parachutes functional, a landing speed of 17 mph (27 km/h) was achieved.[80] A third test vehicle, the PCDTV3, was successfully tested in a drop on April 17, 2012.[81]

Variants

Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV)


Orion CEV design as of 2009.

The idea for a Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) was announced on January 14, 2004, as part of the Vision for Space Exploration after the Space Shuttle Columbia accident.[82] The CEV effectively replaced the conceptual Orbital Space Plane (OSP), a proposed replacement for the Space Shuttle. A design competition was held, and the winner was the proposal from a consortium led by Lockheed Martin. It was later named "Orion" after the stellar constellation and mythical hunter of the same name,[83] and became part of the Constellation program under NASA administrator Sean O'Keefe.

Constellation proposed using the Orion CEV in both crew and cargo variants to support the International Space Station and as a crew vehicle for a return to the Moon. The crew/command module was originally intended to land on solid ground on the US west coast using airbags but later changed to ocean splashdown, while a service module was included for life support and propulsion.[18] With a diameter of 5 meters (16 ft 5 in) as opposed to 3.9 meters (12 ft 10 in), the Orion CEV would have provided 2.5 times greater volume than the Apollo CM.[84] The service module was originally planned to use liquid methane (LCH4) as its fuel, but switched to hypergolic propellants due to the infancy of oxygen/methane-powered rocket technologies and the goal of launching the Orion CEV by 2012.[85][86][87]

The Orion CEV was to be launched on the Ares I rocket to low Earth orbit, where it would rendezvous with the Altair lunar lander launched on a heavy-lift Ares V launch vehicle for lunar missions.

Environmental testing

NASA performed environmental testing of Orion from 2007 to 2011 at the Glenn Research Center Plum Brook Station in Sandusky, Ohio. The Center's Space Power Facility is the world's largest thermal vacuum chamber.[88]

Launch abort system (LAS) testing

ATK Aerospace successfully completed the first Orion Launch Abort System (LAS) test on November 20, 2008. The LAS motor could provide 500,000 lbf (2,200 kN) of thrust in case an emergency situation should arise on the launch pad or during the first 300,000 feet (91 km) of the rocket's climb to orbit.[89]

On March 2, 2009, a full size, full weight command module mockup (pathfinder) began its journey from the Langley Research Center to the White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, for at-gantry launch vehicle assembly training and for LAS testing.[90] On May 10, 2010, NASA successfully executed the LAS PAD-Abort-1 test at White Sands New Mexico, launching a boilerplate (mock-up) Orion capsule to an altitude of approximately 6,000 feet (1,800 m). The test used three solid-fuel rocket motors – a main thrust motor, an attitude control motor and the jettison motor.[91]

Splashdown recovery testing

In 2009 during the Constellation phase of the program, the Post-landing Orion Recovery Test (PORT) was designed to determine and evaluate methods of crew rescue and what kind of motions the astronaut crew could expect after landing, including conditions outside the capsule for the recovery team. The evaluation process supported NASA's design of landing recovery operations including equipment, ship and crew needs.

The PORT Test used a full-scale boilerplate (mock-up) of NASA's Orion crew module and was tested in water under simulated and real weather conditions. Tests began March 23, 2009, with a Navy-built, 18,000-pound (8,200 kg) boilerplate in a test pool. Full sea testing ran April 6-30, 2009, at various locations off the coast of NASA's Kennedy Space Center with media coverage.[92]

Cancelation of Constellation program

Artist's conception of Orion (as then-designed) in lunar orbit.

On May 7, 2009, the Obama administration enlisted the Augustine Commission to perform a full independent review of the ongoing NASA space exploration program. The commission found the then current Constellation Program to be woefully under-budgeted with significant cost overruns, behind schedule by four years or more in several essential components, and unlikely to be capable of meeting any of its scheduled goals.[93][94] As a consequence, the commission recommended a significant re-allocation of goals and resources. As one of the many outcomes based on these recommendations, on October 11, 2010, the Constellation program was canceled, ending development of the Altair, Ares I, and Ares V. The Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle survived the cancellation and was transferred to be launched on the Space Launch System.[95]

List of Constellation boilerplate flights
Launches Launch Crew Launch Vehicle Outcome Duration Description
MLAS July 8, 2009

Wallops Flight Facility

N/A MLAS Success 57 seconds Test of the Max Launch Abort System using a boilerplate Orion.[96]
Ares I-X October 28, 2009

Kennedy LC-39B

N/A Ares I-X Success ~8 minutes Ares I-X was the first-stage prototype of Ares I.

Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV)

The Orion development program was restructured from three different versions of the Orion capsule, each for a different task,[97] to the development of the MPCV as a single version capable of performing multiple tasks.[5] On December 5, 2014, a developmental Orion spacecraft was successfully launched into space and retrieved at sea after splashdown on the Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1).[98][99]

Orion splashdown recovery testing

Before EFT-1 in December 2014 several preparatory vehicle recovery tests were performed, which continued the "crawl, walk, run" approach established by PORT. The "crawl" phase was performed August 12-16, 2013, with the Stationary Recovery Test (SRT).[] The Stationary Recovery Test demonstrated the recovery hardware and techniques that were to be employed for the recovery of the Orion crew module in the protected waters of Naval Station Norfolk utilizing the LPD-17 type USS Arlington as the recovery ship.[100]

The "walk" and "run" phases were performed with the Underway Recovery Test (URT). Also utilizing a LPD 17 class ship, the URT were performed in more realistic sea conditions off the coast of California in early 2014 to prepare the US Navy / NASA team for recovering the Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1) Orion crew module. The URT tests completed the pre-launch test phase of the Orion recovery system.[]

EFT-1

Orion Lite

Orion Lite is an unofficial name used in the media for a lightweight crew capsule proposed by Bigelow Aerospace in collaboration with Lockheed Martin. It was to be based on the Orion spacecraft that Lockheed Martin was developing for NASA. It would be a lighter, less capable and cheaper version of the full Orion.

The intention of designing Orion Lite would be to provide a stripped-down version of the Orion that would be available for missions to the International Space Station earlier than the more capable Orion, which is designed for longer duration missions to the Moon and Mars.[101]

Bigelow began working with Lockheed Martin in 2004. A few years later Bigelow signed a million-dollar contract to develop "an Orion mockup, an Orion Lite."[102]

The proposed collaboration between Bigelow and Lockheed Martin on the Orion Lite spacecraft has ended.[when?][] Bigelow began work with Boeing on a similar capsule, the CST-100, which has no Orion heritage.[] The CST-100 was selected under NASA's Commercial Crew Development (CCDev) program to transport crew to the ISS.

Design

Orion Lite's primary mission would be to transport crew to the International Space Station, or to private space stations such as the planned B330 from Bigelow Aerospace. While Orion Lite would have the same exterior dimensions as the Orion, there would be no need for the deep space infrastructure present in the Orion configuration. As such, the Orion Lite would be able to support larger crews of around 7 people as the result of greater habitable interior volume and the reduced weight of equipment needed to support an exclusively low-Earth-orbit configuration.[103]

Recovery

In order to reduce the weight of Orion Lite, the more durable heat shield of the Orion would be replaced with a lighter weight heat shield designed to support the lower temperatures of Earth atmospheric re-entry from low Earth orbit. Additionally, the current proposal calls for a mid-air retrieval, wherein another aircraft captures the descending Orion Lite module. To date, such a retrieval method has not been employed for manned spacecraft, although it has been used with satellites.[104]

Flights

Pad Abort-1

Pad Abort-1 (PA-1) was a flight test of the Orion Launch Abort System (LAS).

Liftoff sequence and space entry of Orion on December 5, 2014

Exploration Flight Test 1

At 7:05 AM EST on December 5, 2014, the Orion capsule was launched atop a Delta IV Heavy rocket for its first test flight, and splashed down in the Pacific Ocean about 4.5 hours later. Although it was not crewed, the two-orbit flight was NASA's first launch of a human-rated vehicle since the retirement of the Space Shuttle fleet in 2011. Orion reached an altitude of 3,600 mi (5,800 km) and speeds of up to 20,000 mph (8,900 m/s) on a flight that tested Orion's heat shield, parachutes, jettisoning components, and on-board computers.[105] Orion was recovered by USS Anchorage and brought to San Diego, California, for its return to Kennedy Space Center in Florida.[106]

Ascent Abort-2

Ascent Abort-2 (AA-2) was a test of the Launch Abort System (LAS) of NASA's Orion spacecraft.

The test followed Orion's Pad Abort-1 test in 2010, and Exploration Flight Test-1 in 2014 in which the capsule first flew in space. It precedes an uncrewed flight of Orion around the Moon as the Artemis 1 mission, and paves the way for human use of Orion in subsequent missions of the Artemis program.

The test flight, which had been subject to several delays during Orion development, took place on July 2, 2019 at 07:00 local time (11:00 UTC). The flight was successful, and the launch abort system performed as designed.[107][108]

Orion development test flights
Mission Patch Launch Crew Launch vehicle Outcome Duration
Pad Abort-1 Orion Pad Abort 1.jpg
  • 6 May 2010
  • White Sands LC-32E
N/A Orion Launch Abort System (LAS) Success 95 seconds
Exploration Flight Test 1 Exploration Flight Test-1 insignia.jpg N/A Success 4 hours 24 minutes
Ascent Abort-2 Ascent Abort-2.png N/A Orion Abort Test Booster Success 3 minutes 13 seconds
Artist's concept of an astronaut on an EVA taking samples from a captured asteroid; Orion in the background.

Canceled Asteroid Redirect Mission

The Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM), also known as the Asteroid Retrieval and Utilization (ARU) mission and the Asteroid Initiative, was a space mission proposed by NASA in 2013. The Asteroid Retrieval Robotic Mission (ARRM) spacecraft would rendezvous with a large near-Earth asteroid and use robotic arms with anchoring grippers to retrieve a 4-meter boulder from the asteroid. A secondary objective was to develop the required technology to bring a small near-Earth asteroid into lunar orbit - "the asteroid was a bonus." There, it could be analyzed by the crew of the Orion EM-5 or EM-6 ARCM mission in 2026.[109]

Orion approcaching the Gateway during Artemis 3

Upcoming Missions

As of 2019, all Orion missions will be launched on the Space Launch System from Kennedy Space Center Launch Complex 39B. All full scale flights will be into deep space with the first uncrewed flight of Artemis 1 entering a lunar orbit and the first crewed flight Artemis 2 going on a lunar flyby. Artemis 1 is planned to launch in 2021; however, in July 2016 a Government Accountability Office report cast doubt on the planned initial launch date and suggested that an early date may be counterproductive to the program.[110]

List of Artemis program missions
Mission Patch Launch date Crew Launch vehicle Duration
Artemis 1 Exploration Mission-1 patch.png TBD[111] N/A SLS Block 1 Crew ~25d
Artemis 2 Q4 2022 TBA SLS Block 1 Crew ~10d
Artemis 3 2024 TBA SLS Block 1 Crew ~30d

Proposed

A proposal curated by William H. Gerstenmaier before his 10 July 2019 reassignment[112] suggests four launches the crewed Orion spacecraft and logistical modules aboard the SLS Block 1B to the Gateway between 2024 and 2028.[113][114] The crewed Artemis4 through7 would launch yearly between 2025 and 2028,[115] testing in situ resource utilization and nuclear power on the lunar surface with a partially reusable lander. Artemis7 would deliver in 2028 a crew of four astronauts to a surface lunar outpost known as the Lunar Surface Asset.[115] The Lunar Surface Asset would be launched by an undetermined launcher[115] and would be used for extended crewed lunar surface missions.[115][116][117] .[118][115]

Proposed missions
Mission Launch date Crew Launch vehicle Duration
Artemis 4 2025 TBA SLS Block 1B Crew ~30d
Artemis 5 2026 TBA SLS Block 1B Crew ~30d
Artemis 6 2027 TBA SLS Block 1B Crew ~30d
Artemis 7 2028 TBA SLS Block 1B Crew ~30d
Artist rendering of the Orion CEV docked to a proposed Mars Transfer Vehicle

Potential Mars missions

The Orion capsule is designed to support future missions to send astronauts to Mars, probably to take place in the 2030s. Since the Orion capsule provides only about 2.25 m3 (79 cu ft) of living space per crew member,[119] the use of an additional Deep Space Habitat module featuring propulsion will be needed for long duration missions. The complete spacecraft stack is known as the Deep Space Transport.[120] The habitat module will provide additional space and supplies, as well as facilitate spacecraft maintenance, mission communications, exercise, training, and personal recreation.[121] Some concepts for DSH modules would provide approximately 70.0 m3 (2,472 cu ft) of living space per crew member,[121] though the DSH module is in its early conceptual stage. DSH sizes and configurations may vary slightly, depending on crew and mission needs.[122] The mission may launch in the mid-2030s or late-2030s.[123]

List of vehicles

Image Serial Status Flights Time in flight Notes Cat.
Orion Ground Test Article (GTA).jpg GTA Active 0 None Ground Test Article, used in ground tests of the Orion crew module design with mock service modules.[124][125] Commons-logo.svg
Orion Crew Module for the Orion Launch Abort System Pad Abort-1 Flight Test is Tilted on Jacks DVIDS754395.jpg Unknown Retired 1 2m, 15s Boilerplate used in Pad Abort-1; did not have a service module.[126][127] Commons-logo.svg
EFT-1 Orion recovery.5.jpg 001 Retired 1 4h, 24m, 46s Vehicle used in Exploration Flight Test-1. First Orion to fly in space; did not have a service module.[128][129] Commons-logo.svg
Orion STA 2018.jpg STA Active 0 None Structural Test Article, used in structural testing of the complete Orion spacecraft design.[] Commons-logo.svg
KSC-20181206-PH KLS01 0009 AA-2 Mock Crew Module Arrival.jpg Unknown Destroyed 1 3m, 13s Boilerplate used in Ascent Abort-2; did not have a service module. Intentionally destroyed during the flight.[130][131] Commons-logo.svg
ArtemisI Orion EMI Feb.jpg 002 Active 0 None Vehicle to be used in Artemis 1.[129][132] Commons-logo.svg
ARTEMIS II ORION.jpg 003 Under construction 0 None Vehicle to be used in Artemis 2. First Orion planned to carry crew.[132] Commons-logo.svg
A3 ESM Base.jpg 004 Under construction 0 None Vehicle to be used in Artemis 3.[132] Commons-logo.svg
  Test vehicle   Spaceflight vehicle

See also

References

 This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  1. ^ NASA has ordered two additional CMs from Lockheed Martin,[7] though as of the 2019 ESA Ministerial Council, only one additional ESM has been ordered by ESA from Airbus Defence and Space.[8]
  1. ^ "Preliminary Report Regarding NASA's Space Launch System and Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle" (PDF). NASA. January 2011. Retrieved 2011.
  2. ^ "NASA Authorization Act of 2010". Thomas.loc.gov. Retrieved 2010.
  3. ^ Bergin, Chris (July 10, 2012). "NASA ESD set key Orion requirement based on Lunar missions". NASASpaceFlight.com. Retrieved 2012.
  4. ^ Moskowitz, Clara (November 2014). "Deep Space or Bust". Scientific American. 311 (6): 20. Bibcode:2014SciAm.311f..20M. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1214-20.
  5. ^ a b "Orion Quick facts" (PDF). NASA. August 4, 2014. Retrieved 2015.
  6. ^ "NASA Commits to Long-term Artemis Missions with Orion Production Contract". NASA. NASA. Retrieved 2020.
  7. ^ Foust, Jeff (September 24, 2019). "NASA awards long-term Orion production contract to Lockheed Martin". SpaceNews. Retrieved 2019. The Orion Production and Operations Contract includes an initial order of three Orion spacecraft, for missions Artemis 3, 4 and 5, for $2.7 billion.
  8. ^ Clark, Stephen (November 29, 2019). "Earth observation, deep space exploration big winners in new ESA budget". Spaceflight Now. Archived from the original on December 10, 2019. Retrieved 2019. ESA member states put up money for two Orion service modules at this week's summit in Seville. The power and propulsion modules will fly with NASA's Orion spacecraft carrying astronauts to the moon on the Artemis 3 and Artemis 4 missions...
  9. ^ Peterson, L. (2009). "Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS)" (PDF). ntrs.nasa.gov. Ames Research Center: NASA. Archived from the original on April 7, 2014. Retrieved 2014.
  10. ^ a b c "NASA Goes 'Green': Next Spacecraft to be Reusable - Orion Capsule". Space.com.
  11. ^ "NASA - A 21st Century-Style Return to the Moon". nasa.gov.
  12. ^ Bergin, Chris. "EFT-1 Orion completes assembly and conducts FRR". NASASpaceflight.com. Retrieved 2014.
  13. ^ "NASA - Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle" (PDF) (Press release). NASA. February 7, 2009. Retrieved 2009.
  14. ^ "Lockheed to build Nasa 'Moonship'". BBC News. August 31, 2006. Retrieved 2007.
  15. ^ "NASA Names New Crew Exploration Vehicle Orion" (Press release). NASA. August 22, 2006. Retrieved 2007.
  16. ^ "NASA Selects Material for Orion Spacecraft Heat Shield" (Press release). NASA Ames Research Center. April 7, 2009. Retrieved 2009.
  17. ^ Coppinger, Rob (October 6, 2006). "NASA Orion crew vehicle will use voice controls in Boeing 787-style Honeywell smart cockpit". Flight International. Retrieved 2006.
  18. ^ a b "Orion landings to be splashdowns - KSC buildings to be demolished". NASA SpaceFlight.com. August 5, 2007. Retrieved 2007.
  19. ^ "NASA Denies Making Orion Water Landing Decision - and Deleting Touchdowns on Land". NASA Watch. August 6, 2007. Retrieved 2010.
  20. ^ "NASA Announces Key Decision For Next Deep Space Transportation System". NASA. May 24, 2011. Retrieved 2011.
  21. ^ Hill, Denise (July 23, 2019). "S.A.M. Goes to Work Aboard ISS". NASA. Retrieved 2019.
  22. ^ "US and Europe plan new spaceship". BBC News. May 5, 2011. Archived from the original on May 6, 2011. Retrieved 2011.
  23. ^ "ATV evolution studies look at exploration, debris removal". Spaceflight Now. June 21, 2012. Retrieved 2012.
  24. ^ "Airbus Defence and Space awarded two ATV evolution studies from ESA". Astrium. June 21, 2012. Archived from the original on April 3, 2013. Retrieved 2012.
  25. ^ Bergin, Chris (November 21, 2012). "UK steps up, as ESA commit to ATV Service Module on NASA's Orion". NASASpaceFlight.com. Retrieved 2014.
  26. ^ "Multi Purpose Crew Vehicle - European Service Module for NASA's Orion programme". Airbus Defence and Space. Retrieved 2016.
  27. ^ a b "NASA Signs Agreement for a European-Provided Orion Service Module". nasa.gov. January 16, 2013. Archived from the original on March 28, 2014. Retrieved 2014.
  28. ^ Cody Zoller (December 1, 2015). "NASA to begin testing Orion's European Service Module". NASA SpaceFlight. Retrieved 2016.
  29. ^ Airbus Defence and Space wins 200 million euros ESA contract for second service module for NASA's Orion crewed space capsule. Airbus Defense and Space press release. February 16, 2017.
  30. ^ "Call for media: The European Service module meets Orion". European Space Agency. October 26, 2018.
  31. ^ "Mission to the Moon: How We'll Go Back - and Stay This Time". popularmechanics.com. Archived from the original on February 3, 2008. Retrieved 2008.
  32. ^ Mika McKinnon (mika.mckinnon@gmail.com) (December 4, 2014). "Meet Orion, NASA's New Deep Space Explorer". Space.io9.com. Retrieved 2016.
  33. ^ "Launch Abort System Jettison Motor | Aerojet Rocketdyne". Rocket.com. Archived from the original on January 25, 2016. Retrieved 2016.
  34. ^ "ATK Awarded Contract for Orion Launch Abort Motors". PRNewswire. Archived from the original on March 1, 2012.
  35. ^ "Orion's New Launch Abort Motor Test Stand Ready for Action". NASA.
  36. ^ Rhian, Jason (July 17, 2018). "Jettison Motor Readied For Integration Into Orion's LAS". spaceflightinsider.com. Spaceflight Insider. Retrieved 2019. The jettison motor separates the LAS from the Orion capsule on its way to orbit.
  37. ^ Wall, Mike (May 24, 2011). "NASA Unveils New Spaceship for Deep Space Exploration". Space.com. Retrieved 2011.
  38. ^ Moen, Marina M. "Feasibility of Orion Crew Module Entry on Half of Available Propellant Due to Tank Isolation Fault". American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. NASA Langley Research Center. hdl:2060/20110014641.
  39. ^ "NASA Selects Lockheed Martin To Be Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle Prime Contractor" (Press release). NASA. August 31, 2006. Retrieved 2006.
  40. ^ "Michoud Assembly Facility Lockheed Martin Webpage". NASA. Retrieved 2018.
  41. ^ "ESA workhorse to power NASA's Orion spacecraft / Research / Human Spaceflight / Our Activities / ESA". Esa.int. January 16, 2013. Retrieved 2014.
  42. ^ Bergin, Chris (March 15, 2014). "EFT-1 Orion slips to December - Allows military satellite to launch first". nasaspaceflight.com. NASAspaceflight.com. Archived from the original on March 28, 2014. Retrieved 2014.
  43. ^ Clark, Stephen (March 15, 2014). "Launch schedule shakeup delays Orion to December". spaceflightnow.com. Archived from the original on March 28, 2014. Retrieved 2014.
  44. ^ "Orion Exploration Flight Test-1". aerospaceguide.net. January 11, 2014. Archived from the original on March 28, 2014. Retrieved 2014.
  45. ^ Fountain, Henry (December 5, 2014). "NASA's Orion Spacecraft Splashes Down in Pacific After Test Flight". New York Times. Retrieved 2014.
  46. ^ a b "NASA FY19 Inflation Tables - to be utilized in FY20". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. p. Inflation Table. Retrieved 2020.
  47. ^ a b "FY 2021 President's Budget Request Summary" (PDF). National Aeronautics and Space Administration. p. DEXP-4. Retrieved 2020.
  48. ^ "FY 2008 Budget Estimates" (PDF). National Aeronautics and Space Administration. p. ESMD-25. Retrieved 2016.
  49. ^ "Fiscal Year 2009 Budget Estimates" (PDF). National Aeronautics and space Administration. p. iv. Retrieved 2016.
  50. ^ a b c "Fiscal Year 2010 Budget Estimates" (PDF). National Aeronautics and Space Administration. p. v. Retrieved 2016.
  51. ^ "FY 2013 President's Budget Request Summary" (PDF). National Aeronautics and Space Administration. p. BUD-4. Retrieved 2016.
  52. ^ "FY 2014 President's Budget Request Summary" (PDF). National Aeronautics and Space Administration. p. BUD-8. Retrieved 2016.
  53. ^ "FY 2015 President's Budget Request Summary" (PDF). National Aeronautics and Space Administration. p. BUD-5. Retrieved 2016.
  54. ^ "FY 2016 President's Budget Request Summary" (PDF). National Aeronautics and space Administration. p. BUD-5. Retrieved 2016.
  55. ^ "FY 2017 Budget Estimates" (PDF). nasa.gov. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. p. BUD-4. Retrieved 2019.
  56. ^ "FY 2018 Budget Estimates" (PDF). nasa.gov. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. p. BUD-3. Retrieved 2019.
  57. ^ "Public Law 115-31, 115th Congress" (PDF). congress.gov. p. 213.
  58. ^ "2018 Consolidated Appropriations Act" (PDF). congress.gov. p. 82.
  59. ^ "H.R.1158 - 116th Congress (2019-2020): Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2020". www.congress.gov. December 20, 2019. p. 250. Retrieved 2020.
  60. ^ "NASA Actions Needed to Improve Transparency and Assess Long Term Affordability of Human Exploration Programs" (PDF). General Accounting Office. May 2014. p. 2. Retrieved 2016.
  61. ^ Smith, Marcia (January 17, 2013). "NASA-ESA Agreement on Orion Service Module is For Only One Unit Plus Spares". spacepolicyonline.com. Retrieved 2016.
  62. ^ Clark, Stephen (December 3, 2014). "ESA member states commit funding for Orion service module". spaceflightnow.com. Retrieved 2016.
  63. ^ "NASA's Ground Systems Development and Operations Program Completes Preliminary Design Review". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 2016.
  64. ^ "FY 2016 President's Budget Request Summary" (PDF). National Aeronautics and Space Administration. p. BUD-5. Retrieved 2016.
  65. ^ "FY 2019 Budget Estimates" (PDF). nasa.gov. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. p. BUD-2. Retrieved 2019.
  66. ^ J. Foust (September 16, 2015). "First Crewed Orion Mission May Slip to 2023". Space News. Retrieved 2015.
  67. ^ Clark, Stephen (September 16, 2015). "Orion spacecraft may not fly with astronauts until 2023". spaceflightnow.com. Retrieved 2016.
  68. ^ Smith, Marcia (May 1, 2014). "Mikulski "Deeply Troubled" by NASA's Budget Request; SLS Won't Use 70 Percent JCL". spacepolicyonline.com. Retrieved 2016.
  69. ^ Berger, Eric (August 19, 2016). "How much will SLS and Orion cost to fly? Finally some answers". arstechnica.com. Retrieved 2019.
  70. ^ Berger, Eric (October 20, 2017). "NASA chooses not to tell Congress how much deep space missions cost". arstechnica.com. Retrieved 2019.
  71. ^ "NASA Extreme Makeover--Space Vehicle Mockup Facility". nasa.gov. Retrieved 2014.
  72. ^ "What Goes Up Must Come Down As Orion Crew Vehicle Development Continues". Space-travel.com. Retrieved 2014.
  73. ^ "Orion Continues to Make a Splash". Space-travel.com. Retrieved 2014.
  74. ^ "Orion Drop Test - Jan. 06, 2012". Space-travel.com. Retrieved 2014.
  75. ^ Bergin, Chris (November 6, 2011). "NASA managers approve EFT-1 flight as Orion pushes for orbital debut". NASASpaceFlight.com. Retrieved 2014.
  76. ^ a b Bergin, Chris (October 17, 2011). "Space-bound Orion taking shape - "Lunar Surface First" missions referenced". NASASpaceFlight.com. Retrieved 2014.
  77. ^ "NASA Conducts Orion Parachute Testing for Orbital Test Flight". Space-travel.com. Retrieved 2014.
  78. ^ Bergin, Chris (February 10, 2012). "Orion hoping for success with second generation parachute system". NASASpaceFlight.com. Retrieved 2014.
  79. ^ Bergin, Chris (February 26, 2012). "Orion PTV preparing for drop test on Wednesday - EFT-1 Orion progress". NASASpaceFlight.com. Retrieved 2014.
  80. ^ "NASA Conducts New Parachute Test for Orion". Space-travel.com. Retrieved 2014.
  81. ^ "Orion parachutes preparing for another milestone drop test on April 17 | NASASpaceFlight.com". www.nasaspaceflight.com. Retrieved 2015.
  82. ^ "President Bush Announces New Vision for Space Exploration Program" (Press release). White House Office of the Press Secretary. January 14, 2004. Retrieved 2006.
  83. ^ "Orion Spacecraft - Nasa Orion Spacecraft". aerospaceguide.net.
  84. ^ "NASA Names New Crew Exploration Vehicle Orion" (Press release). NASA. August 22, 2006. Retrieved 2010.
  85. ^ Handlin, Daniel; Bergin, Chris (October 11, 2006). "NASA sets Orion 13 for Moon Return". NASAspaceflight.com. Retrieved 2007.
  86. ^ Handlin, Daniel; Bergin, Chris (July 22, 2006). "NASA makes major design changes to CEV". NASAspaceflight.com. Retrieved 2007.
  87. ^ "NASA Names Orion Contractor". NASA. August 31, 2006. Retrieved 2006.
  88. ^ "NASA Glenn To Test Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle". SpaceDaily.
  89. ^ "NASA: Constellation Abort Test November 2008". Nasa.gov. December 11, 2008. Retrieved 2010.
  90. ^ "NASA Orion LAS Pathfinder". Nasa.gov. Retrieved 2010.
  91. ^ "NASA Completes Test of Orion Crew Capsule". foxnews.com. May 6, 2010. Retrieved 2013.
  92. ^ "NASA Orion PORT Test". Nasa.gov. March 25, 2009. Retrieved 2010.
  93. ^ Augustine Commission Final Report Published 22 Oct. 2009. Retrieved 14 Dec. 2014
  94. ^ NASA in Obama's Hands Information Addict Website, by Nathaniel Downes. Published 18 June 2012. Retrieved 14 Dec 2014
  95. ^ "Today - President Signs NASA 2010 Authorization Act". Universetoday.com. Retrieved 2010.
  96. ^ Hautaluoma, Grey; Edwards, Ashley; Henry, Keith; Powell, Rebecca (July 8, 2009). "NASA Tests Alternate Launch Abort System For Astronaut Escape". NASA. NASA Release 09-156.
  97. ^ What is NASA's Constellation Program? Sciences 360 Website, By Tenebris. Discussion of multiple version development of Orion capsule. Published Nov. 17, 2009. Retrieved Dec. 14, 2014
  98. ^ "Orion Spacecraft Complete". NASA. October 30, 2014. Retrieved 2014.
  99. ^ Fountain, Henry (December 5, 2014). "NASA's Orion Spacecraft Splashes Down in Pacific After Test Flight". The New York Times. Retrieved 2014.
  100. ^ "NASA & US Navy Test Demonstrates Water Recovery of Orion Crew Capsule". Universetoday.com. Retrieved 2014.
  101. ^ Klamper, Amy (August 14, 2009). "Company pitches 'lite' spaceship to NASA". NBC News. Retrieved 2009.
  102. ^ Bigelow still thinks big, The Space Review, 2010-11-01, accessed 2010-11-02. "[In October 2010] Bigelow revealed that he had been working with Lockheed Martin on a capsule concept in the 2004-2005 period. 'We engaged in a million-dollar contract a couple years after that with Lockheed, and they created for us an Orion mockup, an Orion Lite.'
  103. ^ Space Hotel Visionary Proposes Modified "Orion Lite" Spaceship for NASA: Bigelow Airspace's concept is for low Earth-orbit missions only, Popular Science, Jeremy Hsu, 14 August 2009
  104. ^ "Discoverer 14 - NSSDC ID: 1960-010A". NASA.
  105. ^ "NASA's New Orion Spacecraft Completes First Spaceflight Test". NASA.gov. Retrieved 2014.
  106. ^ "Orion Off-loaded for Trip Back to Florida". NASA.gov. Retrieved 2014.
  107. ^ Cawley, James (July 2, 2019). "Launch Abort System Demonstrates Ability to Pull Astronauts to Safety". nasa.gov. NASA. Retrieved 2019.
  108. ^ Strickland, Ashley (July 2, 2019). "NASA tests abort system for the Orion spacecraft that will carry humans to the moon in 2024". cnn.com. CNN. Retrieved 2019.
  109. ^ Jeff Foust (June 14, 2017). "NASA closing out Asteroid Redirect Mission". Space News. Retrieved 2017.
  110. ^ Berger, Eric (July 28, 2016). "A new, independent review of the Orion spacecraft is pretty damning". Ars Technica. Retrieved 2016.
  111. ^ "Sources report that the EM-1 @NASA_SLS launch is being delayed From Nov 2020 to TDB because EM-1 personnel are being shifted from EM-1 safety/software to EM-2 because EM-2 requires more people to do human rating (more complex than EM-1 which is not human-rated) #Artemis #Moon2024". January 6, 2020.
  112. ^ Davenport, Christion (July 10, 2019). "Shakeup at NASA as space agency scrambles to meet Trump moon mandate". Washington Post. Retrieved 2019.
  113. ^ Berger 2019, "Developed by the agency's senior human spaceflight manager, Bill Gerstenmaier, this plan is everything Pence asked for--an urgent human return, a Moon base, a mix of existing and new contractors."
  114. ^ Foust 2019, "After Artemis 3, NASA would launch four additional crewed missions to the lunar surface between 2025 and 2028. Meanwhile, the agency would work to expand the Gateway by launching additional components and crew vehicles and laying the foundation for an eventual moon base."
  115. ^ a b c d e "America to the Moon 2024" (PDF).
  116. ^ Berger 2019, "This decade-long plan, which entails 37 launches of private and NASA rockets, as well as a mix of robotic and human landers, culminates with a "Lunar Surface Asset Deployment" in 2028, likely the beginning of a surface outpost for long-duration crew stays."
  117. ^ Berger 2019, [Illustration] "NASA's "notional" plan for a human return to the Moon by 2024, and an outpost by 2028."
  118. ^ Independent report concludes 2033 human Mars mission is not feasible. Jeff Foust, Space News. 18 April 2019.
  119. ^ "Preliminary Report Regarding NASA's Space Launch System and Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle" (PDF). NASA. January 2011. Retrieved 2011.
  120. ^ NASA Unveils the Keys to Getting Astronauts to Mars and Beyond. Neel V. Patel, The Inverse. April 4, 2017.
  121. ^ a b Habitat for Long Duration Deep Space Missions Preliminary design proposal for DSH by Rucker & Thompson. Published 5 May 2012, retrieved 8 Dec. 2014
  122. ^ 2012 X-Hab Academic Innovation Challenge Progress Update Nasa DSH design news update. Published June 21, 2012, retrieved 8 Dec. 2014
  123. ^ [1]
  124. ^ Kremer, Ken (March 30, 2010). "3 Welds to Go for 1st Orion Pathfinder Vehicle". Universe Today. Archived from the original on March 10, 2020. Retrieved 2020. ...the very first pathfinder Orion manned capsule - the Crew Module - known as the Ground Test Article (GTA) [...] The GTA is the first full-sized, flight-like test article for Orion.
  125. ^ Bergin, Chris (November 14, 2011). "EFT-1 Orion receives hatch door - Denver Orion ready for Modal Testing". NASASpaceFlight.com. Archived from the original on March 10, 2020. Retrieved 2020. As much as the Service Module (SM) design is still undergoing evaluation - which includes discussions about utilizing hardware from the European Space Agency's ATV (Automated Transfer Vehicle) - the test vehicle includes an Orion Ground Test Article (GTA), in a Launch Abort Vehicle (LAV) configuration, with installed ogives and a mock SM.
  126. ^ Dryden Flight Research Center (May 6, 2010). "Orion Pad Abort 1 Test a Spectacular Success". National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Archived from the original on March 10, 2020. Retrieved 2020. The 500,000-lb. thrust abort motor rocketed the boilerplate crew module and its launch abort stack away from launch pad 32E at White Sands...
  127. ^ Pearlman, Robert (May 7, 2010). "NASA's Launch Abort Test Builds on 50 Years of Astronaut Escape Systems". Space.com. Archived from the original on March 10, 2020. Retrieved 2020. The Pad Abort-1 (PA1) flight test, which flew a boilerplate 16-foot (4.9-meter) wide, 18,000-pound (8,160-kg) Orion capsule under a nearly 45-foot (13.7-meter)long launch abort system (LAS) tower [...] The flight lasted about 135 seconds from launch until the module touched down...
  128. ^ Dunn, Marcia (December 6, 2014). "NASA launches new Orion spacecraft and new era (w/ video)". Tampa Bay Times. Archived from the original on March 10, 2020. Retrieved 2020. Friday's Orion -- serial number 001 -- lacked seats, cockpit displays and life-support equipment, but brought along bundles of toys and memorabilia...
  129. ^ a b Davis, Jason (December 5, 2014). "Orion Returns to Earth after Successful Test Flight". The Planetary Society. Archived from the original on March 10, 2020. Retrieved 2020. As impressive as this flight was, this was just serial number 001 of Orion," he said. "Serial number 002--that one is going to be on the Space Launch System.
  130. ^ Clark, Stephen (July 1, 2019). "Critical abort test of NASA's Orion crew capsule set for Tuesday". Spaceflight Now. Archived from the original on March 10, 2020. Retrieved 2020. "So 20 seconds after the LAS (launch abort system) jettisons from the crew module, we start ejecting, so the first pair comes out 20 seconds after the LAS is jettisoned, and then every 10 seconds until all 12 are ejected." The capsule is expected to tumble after the abort system jettisons, and it will impact the sea at 300 mph (480 kilometers per hour) around 7 miles (11 kilometers) offshore, and is designed to sink to the ocean floor, according to Reed.
  131. ^ Sloss, Philip (October 25, 2019). "NASA conducting data deep dive following July's Orion ascent abort test". NASASpaceFlight.com. Archived from the original on March 10, 2020. Retrieved 2020. The Ascent Abort-2 test used a ballistic missile to accelerate a production-design LAS with a Crew Module shaped, highly-instrumented test lab to carefully picked flight condition where a full LAS abort sequence was executed. [...] impact with the water destroyed the test article.
  132. ^ a b c Vuong, Zen (December 3, 2014). "JPL joins NASA's first agency-wide social media event to highlight Thursday's Orion flight test". Pasadena Star-News. Archived from the original on March 10, 2020. Retrieved 2020. Orion 002, 003 and 004 will become lessons that will further humanity in its quest to inhabit Mars and become Earth-independent. [...] "Orion tail number 003 has a special place in my heart," he said. "Four of my astronauts are going to climb into it and have an adventure of a lifetime...

External links


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

Orion_(Constellation_program)
 



 



 
Music Scenes