PCC Streetcar
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PCC Streetcar
PCC streetcar
San Francisco F line streetcars at Jones.jpg
Three PCCs on the San Francisco Municipal Railway's F-line. Pictured are an example of one double-ended streetcar and two single-ended cars.
SEPTA Streetcar Interior.jpg
Interior of a PCC car
In service1936-present
ManufacturerSt. Louis Car Company
Pullman-Standard
Constructed1936-1952
Number built5,000+
Capacity52-61 Seats
Specifications
Car length46-50.5 ft (14.02-15.39 m)
Width100-108 in (2.54-2.74 m)
Maximum speed50 mph (80 km/h)[]
Weight35,000-42,000 lb (15,900-19,100 kg)
Traction motors4 x 55 hp (41 kW) motors, 43:6 (~7.17) gear ratio
AccelerationVariable, Automatic 1.5-4.75 mph/s (2.41-7.64 km/(h?s))
DecelerationService: Variable to 4.75 mph/s (7.64 km/(h?s)),
Emergency: 9.0 mph/s (14.5 km/(h?s)) maximum
Electric system(s)600 V or 750 V DC Overhead lines
Current collection methodPantograph or Trolley pole
Braking system(s)Dynamic Service Braking; Friction; for Final Stop, Park; Magnetic
Track gauge and other wide gauges

and other narrow gauges

The PCC (Presidents' Conference Committee) is a streetcar (tram) design that was first built in the United States in the 1930s. The design proved successful in its native country, and after World War II it was licensed for use elsewhere in the world where PCC based cars were made. The PCC car has proved to be a long-lasting icon of streetcar design, and many are still in service around the world.

Origins

The "PCC" acronym originated from the design committee formed in 1929 as the "Presidents' Conference Committee", renamed the "Electric Railway Presidents' Conference Committee" (ERPCC) in 1931. The group's membership consisted primarily of representatives of several larger operators of U.S. urban electric street railways plus potential manufacturers. Three interurban lines and at least one "heavy rail", or rapid transit, operator--Chicago Rapid Transit Company--were represented as well. Also included on the membership roll were manufacturers of surface cars (streetcars) and interested component suppliers.

ERPCC's goal was to design a streamlined, comfortable, quiet, and fast accelerating and braking streetcar that would be operated by a seated operator using floor mounted pedal controls to better meet the needs of the street railways and to better appeal to riders. ERPCC prepared a detailed research plan, conducted extensive research on streetcar design, built and tested components, made necessary modifications and revisions based upon the findings, and ultimately produced a set of specifications for a standardized and fixed design (albeit one with a modest list of available options with ample room for customer customization) to be built with standard parts as opposed to a custom designed carbody with any variety of different parts added depending on the whims and requirements of the individual customer. An excellent product emerged, the PCC car, as was proved in later years by numerous national and international users.

Many design patents resulted from the work of ERPCC. These were transferred to a new business entity called the Transit Research Corporation (TRC) when ERPCC expired in 1936. Although this company continued the work of research on improvements to the basic design of the car and would issue sets of specifications three times in the ensuing years, because TRC defined a PCC car as any vehicle which used patents on which it collected royalties, it was formed for the primary purpose of controlling those patents and promoting the standardization envisioned by the ERPCC. The company was funded by its collection of patent royalties from the railways which bought PCC cars. The company was controlled by a voting trust representing the properties which had invested in the work of ERPCC. One participant in Committee meetings, Philadelphia trolley manufacturer J. G. Brill and Company brought a competitive design--the Brilliner--to market in 1938. Because Raymond Loewy designed elements that were very similar to the PCC look, the Brilliner attracted no large orders, being built only for Atlantic City Transit and the Red Arrow Lines in suburban Philadelphia. Fewer than 50 were sold.[1]

A significant contribution to the PCC design was noise reduction with extensive use of rubber in springs and other components to prevent rattle, vibration, and thus noise and to provide a level of comfort not known before.[] Wheel tires were mounted between rubber sandwiches and were thus electrically isolated so that shunts were used to complete ground. Resilient wheels were used on most PCC cars with later heftier cousins known as "Super-Resilient".

Gears were another source of considerable noise, solved by employing hypoid gears which are mounted at a right angle to the axle, where three of the six teeth constantly engaged the main gear, reducing play and noise. All movable truck parts employed rubber for noise reduction as well.[2] "Satisfactory Cushion Wheel of Vital Importance; Develop New Truck Design; Generous Use of Rubber" are headings within a paper that Chief Engineer Clarence F. Hirshfeld both presented and published.[3]

After a specification document suitable for purchasing cars was generated by TRC, orders were placed by eight companies in 1935 and 1936. First was Brooklyn & Queens Transit Corporation (B&QT) for 100 cars, then Baltimore Transit Co. (BTCo) for 27 cars, Chicago Surface Lines (CSL) for 83 cars, Pittsburgh Railways Co. (PRCO) for 101 cars, San Diego Electric Railway (SDERy) for 25 cars, Los Angeles Railway (LARy) for 60 cars, and then Boston Elevated Railway (BERy) for 1 car. In late 1935 or early in 1936 Westinghouse Electric Corporation pressed for one car to be equipped with their electrical equipment for testing in Pittsburgh, since the Brooklyn order would have all cars equipped by General Electric, and Clark Equipment Company pressed for one car to be made by them of aluminum for delivery to B&QT. Agreements among the parties were reached whereby St. Louis Car Company would build 101 essentially identical cars and Clark would build one of its own body design.

Brooklyn received its first car number 1001 on May 28, 1936, PRCo took delivery of car number 100 on July 26, 1936, and Baltimore received its first car on September 2, 1936. In the late 1936 discussions of operating experience it was noted that the Brooklyn car had run 3,000 miles by the time the Pittsburgh car had run 1,000 miles. One of the key patents was filed by Dan H. Bell on January 8, 1937 and granted on July 5, 1938 and entitled, "Rail Car or Similar Article," Patent No. 110,384. [4] The first car to be placed in a scheduled public service was PRCo 100 in August and B&QT launched its first scheduled service with a group of cars on October 1, 1936, followed by CSL on November 13, 1936. Production continued in North America by St. Louis Car Co. and Pullman-Standard until 1952, with 4,978 units being built. Under license to use the designs patented by TRC, thousands more PCC and partially PCC type cars were produced in Europe through the last half of the 20th century. The cars were well-built and many hundreds are still in operation. The majority of large North American streetcar systems surviving after 1935 purchased PCC streetcars; those systems which eventually terminated streetcar operations often sold their cars to surviving operators.

Melbourne, Australia was keen to build two new tram routes after the Second World War and these routes would be served by PCC Streetcars. The MMTB decided instead that it was too expensive and Melbourne only ever had two PCC streetcars, of which one was a prototype for a completely different class.

Several dozen remain in public transit service, such as the in Boston, and in Philadelphia, Kenosha, San Diego and San Francisco following extensive overhauling. All other surviving and functional North American PCC cars are operated by museums and heritage railways.[5] Several retired PCCs from Boston, Cleveland, and Philadelphia were purchased as scrap and have been privately stored just outside Windber, Pennsylvania since 1992.[6]

Washington, DC, PCCs were unique[7] because of conduit plows which collected current from a slot between the rails into which the plow dipped, contacting positive and negative rails under the street on either side. At the city limits were "plow pits", where the plow was dropped and removed, the trolley pole raised, and the car then continued on its way, using overhead wire; the process was reversed in the opposite direction into Washington.

"The PCC car was not just another modular vehicle but the result of the only systems engineering approach to mass producing a rail car."[8] Research into passenger comfort resulting from vibrations, acceleration, lighting, heating and cooling, seat spacing, cushion height, space for arms, legs, standing passengers, economies of weight affecting maintenance, cost of power, reduced wear of components and track. Dimensions were established to fit the majority but could easily be changed for special situations. Windows were spaced to match seating.

While some of the components in the PCC car had been used before--resilient wheels, magnetic braking, sealed gears, and modular design to name a few--the ERPCC redesigned, refined, and perfected many of these while developing new acceleration and braking controls and put them all in one package. The PCC is far more than a good design, it is an excellent design with modern transit rail vehicles essentially upgrading the design with the most recent technology.[]

Manufacturing

A PCC streetcar at Boston's Riverside station in the early 1960s

PCC cars were initially built in the United States by the St. Louis Car Company (SLCCo) and Pullman Standard. Clark Equipment built the only aluminum-body PCC[9] as well as all narrow gauge B1 trucks for Los Angeles, all the standard and broad gauge B2 trucks both air- and all-electric, and the B2B trucks used under PRCo 1725-1799 and Toronto 4500-4549.[10][] SLCCo built all B3 trucks, both standard and broad gauge.[11][] PCC cars for Canadian cities were assembled in Montreal, Quebec by Canadian Car and Foundry from bodies and trucks supplied by St. Louis Car.[12]

Westinghouse (Westinghouse Electric, Westinghouse Air Brake Company, Canadian Westinghouse Co.) and General Electric both supplied electrical packages and brake components which were designed and built in cooperation with the ERPCC.[13] The customer specified the equipment which was to be installed, performance was similar and most cities ordered from both suppliers.[14] Since Westinghouse was home based near Pittsburgh, PRCo ordered 75% of its PCC fleet with Westinghouse equipment, the balance with GE.[] Indeed, PCCs are often identified as either Westinghouse or GE.[clarification needed]

The last PCC streetcars built for any North American system were a batch of 25 for the San Francisco Municipal Railway, manufactured by the St. Louis Car Company and delivered in 1951-2.[15]

Approximately 4,586 PCC cars were purchased by United States transit companies - 1052 Pullman Standards and 3534 by St. Louis. Most transit companies purchased one type, but Chicago, Baltimore, Cleveland, and Shaker Heights operated both examples. The Baltimore Transit Co. (BTC) considered the Pullman cars of superior construction. The St. Louis cars had a more aesthetically pleasing design with a more rounded front and rear plus other fancy frills. The BTC found the Pullman cars easier to work on. St. Louis cars had compound curved wheel wells.

Performance

Westinghouse developed the XD-323 rotary accelerator for motor control with 99 points; it was installed in the first PRCo car, number 100, and minor modifications allowed use in the last PCCs produced in North America for San Francisco in 1952. Prior streetcar control, existing from the 1890s, required a standing operator at a three foot high vertical "switch stand" to rotate a handle to one of six brass points mounted within the stand to provide traction motor control and acceleration. The PCC had its accelerator under the floor where the pedal activated linkage to resistance ribbons were mounted to each PCC point around the outside edge of the accelerator. An arm rotating in the center had rollers on either end which cut out resistance alternately as it rotated approximately 180 degrees. This same accelerator was also used for dynamic braking; when the power pedal was released the accelerator sought optimum braking for the speed, which prevented a lag when the brake pedal was depressed. General Electric developed a control system for PCC cars that mirrored the Westinghouse scheme in function, although not in simplicity or maintainability.[16] With the GE commutator motor controller operating by air pressure, it had to be redesigned with the advent of the All-Electric PCC. Acceleration was variable between 1.5- and 4.75-mph per second depending upon the depression of the power pedal with the accelerator advanced automatically by a low-voltage pilot motor. Service braking was also variable and the maximum dynamic application decreased speed by 4.75-mph/s; pressing the brake pedal into emergency also brought the friction and magnetic brakes into play providing a maximum deceleration of 9.0-mph/s. Compared to a maximum of 14 points on old time equipment, the PCC was considerably smoother.

Most PCCs employed three pedals with a dead man's switch to the left, brake in center, and power pedal on the right. Depressing the brake about half way and then releasing the deadman pedal put the PCC in "park". Lifting the deadman alone would apply all brakes, drop sand, and balance the doors so they could be pushed open easily. Chicago used "bicycle-type levers" for power and brake but converted some cars to two pedals. St. Louis Public Service Co. (SLPS) used two pedals, both with heel interlocks. The right pedal is the brake; depressing this pedal about half way while lifting away from the heel applied "park". Once the brake is released the heel need not be engaged with the interlock (although a professional driver is to cover the brake at all times.) The left pedal applied the power and the heel interlock had to be engaged at all times since it was the deadman; only when the brake was in "park" could the deadman be disengaged.

SLPS is unique in that all 300 of their PCCs are All-Electric with the 1500s ordered in late 1939, the 1600s ordered late 1940s and the 1700s in January 1945. SLPS was the rolling laboratory for All-Electrics and what was learned here was applied to the post-WW2 All-Electric Demonstrator in the Fall of 1945.

From 1936 to 1945, PCC cars were "Air-Electrics" with friction brakes, doors, and windshield wipers operated by air pressure. PRCo PCC 1600 of 1945 was the post WW2 All-Electric Demonstrator[17] which eliminated the air compressor and associated piping while incorporating such features as standee windows, a sloped windshield to eliminate night time glare, redesigned back end, forced-air ventilation, and other features. Dynamic brakes were the service brake on all PCCs; when almost stopped, friction brakes completed the stop and held the car in "park". Dynamic brakes slowed the "Air" cars to 3.0-mph at which point a lock-out relay allowed automatic application of air-applied friction brakes against each of the eight wheels. On All-Electric cars the dynamics were effective to 0.75-mph where the lockout relay then allowed a spring applied friction brake to engage a drum on each of the four motor drive shafts; this completed the stop and held the car in park. Drum brakes were released by an electric solenoid operating from low-voltage battery power; a power failure would prevent the drums from releasing which would prevent power application, a fail-safe feature. Drum brakes were quite popular and greatly reduced maintenance thus some "Air" cars were retrofitted with drums. Four magnetic brakes, one between the wheels on each side of each truck, applied additional braking for emergency stopping where all brakes were generally employed.

"These performances [acceleration and braking] enable the P.C.C. car to out-pace the average automobile which, in America, is of substantially higher performance than the typical British vehicle."[18] This, of course, is only true when comparing to the automobiles of that period.

Body variations

Two main body standards were made, 1936 and 1945, sometimes called pre-war and post-war, the most prominent difference being the windows.

The pre-war cars usually had a right side arrangement of front door, five windows, center door, five windows, and one large rear quarter window. These cars were 46 ft (14.0 m) long and 8 ft 4 in (254 cm) wide. There were variations, Washington, D.C. ordered shorter cars, at 44 ft (13.4 m), with one less window, while Chicago ordered longer and wider cars, at 50 ft 5 in (15.4 m) by 8 ft 9 in (267 cm), with a three-door arrangement[19][20][21]

Post war cars had a rationalized window arrangement. The windows and pillars were narrower, and there were small "standee" windows above each window. Right side arrangement usually was front door, 7 windows, side door, four windows, and two rear quarter windows. Most post-war cars had a length of 46 ft 5 in (14.1 m). Other body differences were a recessed windshield and wider doors. There were far fewer variations of this style, width being the most common.[21][22]

Most double ended cars, at 50 ft 5 in (15.4 m) long by 9 ft (270 cm) wide, were larger than standard, with different door arrangements. Only Dallas ordered standard size double ended cars. All double ended cars retained the pre-war style body until the end of production.[21][23]

Rapid transit cars

There were four rapid transit companies on the committee, but the primary focus was streetcars, rapid transit development was slower. The difference in operations between the systems also made standardization difficult.

By 1940, Brooklyn had five three-section articulated trainsets with PCC components, after WWII Chicago ordered four similar trainsets. Chicago ordered two from Pullman and two from St. Louis, with different equipment, so that competing manufacturers could be directly compared. Experience from the trainsets influenced the following car standards.

Cars were to be approximately 48 ft (14.6 m) long (the Chicago maximum, Boston had some 55 ft (16.8 m) long) with one cab per car arranged in "married" two car sets, a double ended single car variant was possible. Number and type of doors and windows, interior layout, and width of cars varied with each system. Boston had two sizes, the longest at 55 ft (16.8 m), and narrowest at 8 ft 4 in (254 cm), Cleveland had the widest at 10 ft 4 in (315 cm).

Trucks were a major focus, both Clark and St. Louis developed trucks with 28 in (710 mm) wheels and a 70 mph (110 km/h) maximum speed, but only Boston used them, Clark B10s on 40 cars. Chicago used streetcar type trucks, with 26 in (660 mm) wheels and a speed of 50 mph (80 km/h), adequate for their system. When Clark stopped building railroad equipment in 1952 PCC trucks were no longer available, Boston and Cleveland then used non PCC trucks with 28 in (710 mm) wheels.

Chicago ordered the first of 770 (720 + 50 double-ended) 6000 series cars in 1948 (before the standard, which they influenced), Boston (40, then later 100) in 1950, and Cleveland (70 + 18 double-ended) in 1952. Chicago's first 200 cars were entirely new, but in 1953 they started using components salvaged from new, but no longer needed, streetcars. Toronto, on the committee, did not buy any, nor did Brooklyn, who had bought the first five trainsets.

240 PCC rapid transit cars were built in four years, from 1948 to 1952, then 438 cars with non-PCC trucks until 1957, the last of Chicago's 570 cars built with salvaged components were delivered in 1958. Some Chicago cars were in regular service in 1990, car number 30 made its last revenue run in 1999.[24][25][26][27]

PCC fleets

Historical

Operator Country New Used Total Notes
Toronto Transit Commission Canada 540 225 765

Toronto's first PCC streetcar entered service on September 22, 1938. All new PCCs purchased by 1951; second-hand by 1957. The TTC now owns and operates only two PCCs for private charter: numbers 4500 and 4549.

Chicago Surface Lines United States 683 000 683 A total of 683 cars were purchased in 1948. Ten years later all but one of the prewar cars had been scrapped, and most of the postwar cars had been stripped of parts. These were reused in 570 new CTA 1-50 and 6200-series rapid transit cars.[28][29][30] Two PCC streetcars are preserved at the Illinois Railway Museum: one prewar car for display only, and one postwar car in operating condition.[31]
Pittsburgh Railways United States 666 000 666 666 in 1949; 609 in 1959 (11 lost to Homewood fire in May 1955;[32]); 595 in 1960; 457 in 1961.[28] Twelve cars fully rebuilt (and four partially) into 4000 series cars in 1981-88, all remaining cars retired by 1988. The last 4000-series cars were retired in 1999.
Philadelphia Transportation Company United States 470 090 560 All new PCCs purchased by 1947; 60 second-hand by 1955.[28][33]. 30 additional ex-Toronto/Kansas City class A-14 PCCs purchased in 1976. All cars retired by 1992, with some retained for work service or charter runs. 18 rebuilt into PCC II cars in 2003, and returned to revenue service.
Washington, D.C. United States 489 000 489 Built to a unique shorter-than-standard design. Only PCCs that used conduit current collection.[34][35]
Mexico City Mexico 001 390 391 A single PCC in 1947 from St. Louis Car Company, plus later second-hand cars: 116 in 1947-48 from the United States and tramways in Aviación and Dolores; 91 in 1954 from Minneapolis; 183 in 1955 from Detroit.[36]
Boston United States 344 000 344 The Green Line ran PCC streetcars from 1937 until their retirement in 1985. PCCs continue to operate along a section of the Red line (see section below).
St. Louis United States 300 000 300 100 purchased in 1940; 100 in 1941; 100 in 1946. System abandoned in 1966.[37][38]
Baltimore United States 275 000 275 [39][40]
Detroit United States 186 000 186 [41][42][circular reference][43]
Kansas City United States 184 000 184 Originally planned to be 371 cars.[44]
Los Angeles Railway United States 165 000 165 First cars delivered in 1937. System abandoned in 1963.[45]
Minneapolis-St. Paul United States 141 000 141 System abandoned in 1954.[46]
Cairo Egypt 000 140 140 140 cars purchased from Toronto in 1968, but 13 never entered service. Of the 127 cars in service, 85 were converted between 1972 and 1978 into two-car trains or double-ended three-car trains. The entire fleet was withdrawn by 1984 in favor of modern rolling stock.[47]
San Francisco Municipal Railway United States 040 080 120 Five double-ended non-patent cars purchased in 1939. Ten cars in 1948 and another 25 in 1952. Muni number 1040 was the last new PCC built in the U.S. Replaced by LRVs in 1980-1982.[48][49][50][51][52][53] Revived along a former segment in 1995 (see section below).
Barcelona Spain 000 101 101 Second-hand from Washington DC.[54][55]
Brooklyn United States 099 000 099 First cars delivered in 1936. The sole Clark-built PCC ran here. Withdrawal began in 1950, system abandoned in 1956.[56]
Cleveland Transit System United States 050 025 075 Second-hand cars purchased from Louisville in 1946. All cars sold to Toronto in 1952. Nine cars sent to Shaker Heights in 1978.[57][58]
Sarajevo Yugoslavia 000 071 071 50 cars in 1958, followed by an additional 21 in 1962, all from Washington, D.C
Belgrade Yugoslavia 000 070 070 Delivered from Washington between 1958 and 1961. 14 were rebuilt into two-car articulated trams in 1964.[59][60]
Shaker Heights United States 025 043 068 Original Pullman cars were extra-wide and had left-side doors. 20 cars purchased from Twin Cities Rapid Transit in 1953; 10 cars purchased from St. Louis in 1959; 2 former Illinois Terminal cars leased from museums in 1975; 2 cars purchased from NJ Transit in 1977; 9 ex-Cleveland cars purchased from Toronto in 1978. PCCs were used until 1981.
Cincinnati United States 026 025 051 [61][62]
Birmingham Railway and Electric Company United States 048 000 048 [63][64]
Tampico Mexico 000 043 043 Purchased 1971-1972 from Toronto. System abandoned on 13 December 1974.[65]
Vancouver Canada 036 000 036 System abandoned 1955.[66][67]
San Diego Electric Railway United States 028 006 034 First cars purchased in 1937. System abandoned in 1949. System reopened in 1981. Historic PCC operation resumed in 2011.[68][69]
Pacific Electric United States 030 000 030 Double-ended. Longest PCCs built.[70]
Newark United States 000 030 030 Cars were purchased from Twin City Rapid Transit in 1954. They were in operation until 2001.[71]
Dallas United States 025 000 025 Double-enders. All sold to Boston in 1958-59.[72]
Louisville Railway United States 000 025 025 [73]
El Paso United States 000 020 020 17 purchased from San Diego in 1947, plus three more in 1952. System abandoned 1974. System reopened in 2019 with six restored cars.[74]
Montreal Canada 018 000 018 Delivered in 1944. System abandoned in 1959.[75]
Johnstown Traction Company United States 017 000 017
Buffalo Metro Rail United States 000 012 012 These cars were purchased by the Niagara Frontier Transportation Authority in the 1980s, but were never used.
Illinois Terminal Railroad United States 008 000 008 [76]
Tandy Center Subway United States 000 007 007 Second-hand Washington cars rebuilt for double-ended high platform operation.


Current

Most PCC-based systems were dismantled in the post-war period in favor of bus-based transit networks. Of the rail transit systems that survived this period, most had replaced their PCCs with modern light rail vehicles (LRVs) by the early 1980s. Beginning in the late 1990s, several cities began to make use of historic PCCs to serve historic streetcar lines that combined aspects of tourist attractions and transit. The following is a table of places where transit agencies still employ PCCs in revenue service as opposed to a short-run or intermittent heritage railway.

Ashmont-Mattapan High Speed Line

PCC 3263 at Mattapan.jpg

Boston; started 1941; number in service: 4.
The Ashmont-Mattapan High Speed Line in Boston is a light-rail extension of the MBTA's heavy Red Line. It runs from the Ashmont terminus of the Red Line to Mattapan, and runs PCCs exclusively. The line was shut down for reconstruction from June 24, 2006 until December 22, 2007, but PCC cars have resumed operation since the line's bridges cannot support heavier light rail vehicles (LRV) operated on the MBTA's Green Line. Not considered historic equipment, the PCC cars in use on the Mattapan-Ashmont line represent the oldest cars still in revenue service, originally built between 1943 and 1946. These cars are also the only air-electric PCCs still in regular service in North America. Several retired PCCs from Boston are now at the Seashore Trolley Museum.

McKinney Avenue Transit Authority

Dallas; started 2003; number in service: 2.
The McKinney Avenue Transit Authority in Dallas, Texas, owns two PCC cars. One of the PCC cars is from the Tandy Center Subway. Prior to 1977, it was rebuilt and given a boxy, more symmetrical appearance. When the MATA bought the PCC car in February 2003, it was named "Winnie" for its resemblance to a Winnebago. In addition, MATA also owns and is in the process of restoring a double-ended PCC, which originally ran from Dallas from 1945 to 1956 and later in Boston until the 1970s. It will return to service in Dallas in early 2017.[77]

El Paso Streetcar

ElpasoCL.jpg

El Paso; started 2018; number in service: 6.
Officials in El Paso expressed their desire to preserve the history of the city by refurbishing the old PCC streetcars that once made their way through Downtown from 1949 to 1974.[78] Six cars in total have been restored, regular revenue operations began in late 2018 for the downtown loop.

Kenosha Electric Streetcar

DSC 1097 024xRP - Flickr - drewj1946.jpg

Kenosha; started 2000; number in service: 7.
The Kenosha Electric Streetcar in Kenosha, Wisconsin, has been operating six ex-Toronto Transit Commission PCCs (five since 2000 and the sixth since 2009) and one ex-SEPTA car since 2009. The Kenosha Electric is unique among modern PCC operations in that that PCCs had not run in the city before 2000—the original rail system was shut down in 1932 before any PCC cars had been built. Two of its cars are still painted in their original TTC colours, while the rest have been re-decorated in the liveries of several U.S. cities including Pittsburgh, Johnstown, Chicago and Cincinnati.

SEPTA Route 15

Route 15 PCC.jpg

Philadelphia; started 2005; number in service: 18[79].
SEPTA restored trolley service to the Route 15 Girard Avenue line in Philadelphia in September 2005 after a 15-year "temporary" suspension of trolley service in favor of diesel buses. The line uses restored and modernized (by the Brookville Manufacturing Company) PCC cars, known as PCC-IIs, painted in their original green and cream Philadelphia Transit Company livery, rather than SEPTA's white with red and blue stripes. Modernization included all-new control systems, modern turn markers, HVAC system (which accounts for the noticeably larger roof enclosure), and ADA compliant wheelchair lifts. The line runs from Haddington to Port Richmond down the median of Girard Avenue. It crosses both the Broad Street Subway and the Market-Frankford Line, and stops at the Philadelphia Zoo, among other landmarks. SEPTA had originally planned to run modern Kawasaki trolleys along the line once service was restored, but a combination of economics and a desire to help revive the Girard Avenue corridor with a more "romantic" vehicle led to the agency restoring the old vehicles for about half the cost of new cars.[] SEPTA uses Kawasaki vehicles on the rest of its trolley lines, including the Subway-Surface Green Line linking West Philadelphia with Center City and its 69th Street Terminal with the western suburbs of Media and Sharon Hill via light rail routes 101 and 102.

Silver Line (San Diego Trolley)

Car529PCCRightSDMar2014.JPG

San Diego; started 2011; number in service: 2.
San Diego Trolley currently uses 2 PCCs and is in the process of determining viability of a third car as of 2016. They are in use on the Silver Line which opened in 2011 and runs in a clockwise loop around Downtown San Diego.

F Market & Wharves

Muni 1051 at Second Street, October 2017.jpg

San Francisco; started 1995; number in service: 24.

The F Market Line (historic streetcar service) in San Francisco, opened in 1995, runs along Market Street from The Castro to the Ferry Building, then along the Embarcadero north and west to Fisherman's Wharf. This line is run by a mixture of PCC cars built between 1946 and 1952, and earlier pre-PCC cars. Due to its success, a second heritage line was inaugurated in 2015, the E Embarcadero, which serves to facilitate a one-seat ride from the Caltrain San Francisco Station to Fisherman's Wharf. Although San Francisco had removed PCCs from revenue service when the city's light rail was transformed into the Muni Metro system in 1980, they had made occasional festival trips in the ensuing years before being returned to full-time service. Car 1074 is painted in Toronto Transit Commission livery, but was never owned by the TTC.

Toronto streetcar system

The TTC's PCC streetcar 4500 -a.jpg

Toronto; started 1938; number in service: 2.
The first PCC cars in Canada were operated by the Toronto Transit Commission (TTC) in 1938.[80] By 1954, Toronto had the largest PCC fleet in the world, including many purchased second-hand from U.S. cities that abandoned streetcar service following the Second World War.[28][81] Although it acquired new custom-designed streetcars in the late 1970s and 1980s (and which will be replaced by modern LRVs by 2019-20), the TTC continued using PCCs in regular service until the mid-1990s, and retains two (numbers 4500 and 4549) for charter purposes.

Models based on the PCC streetcar

The PCC license was used worldwide after World War II had ended which resulted in adaptations based on the American PCC design. Most of the adaptations were delivered to cities in former Eastern Bloc countries including the USSR, Czechoslovakia and East Germany where they were put in service. Trams such as the Tatra T3 and Tatra T4 are still in service today in the regions where they were first introduced. Only models with direct references to the original American PCC streetcar are included here. Later models of a particular series such as the Tatra T5 were adapted and modernized further.

Model Country Introduced Number built
7700-series/ 7900-series Belgium 1951 00,125 (both models)
A28 number 11 West Germany 1951 00,001
Konstal 13N Poland 1959 00,842
PCC 980 Australia 1949 00,001
PCC A28 Sweden 1953 00,002
Tatra T2 Czechoslovakia, Russia, Ukraine 1955 00,771
Tatra T3 Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Latvia, Russia, Romania, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Yugoslavia 1962 14,113
Tatra T4 East Germany, Estonian SSR, Latvia, Russia, Romania, Ukraine, Yugoslavia ? 02,637

Note that the country listed only covers areas where the cars were initially delivered; references for these areas can be found in the text.

7700-series/7900-series[82]

MIVB-lijn81-PCC-7087-1970s.jpg

Belgium; introduced 1951; number built: 125 (both models)[83].

A28 number 11[84]

HHA 3060 on Sporvejsmuseet.jpg

West Germany; introduced 1951; number built: 1.
The only PCC in West Germany was delivered from La Brugeoise to Hamburg in 1951. The car was sold to Brussels in 1957. Returned to Hamburg in 1995, where it was used as a historical tram in the VVM Schönberger Strand museum. In 1999, the tram was sold to the Danish tram museum of Skjoldenaesholm.[84]

Konstal 13N[85]

Warsaw tram Konstal13N at Old town.jpg

Poland; introduced 1959; number built: 842.
These trams were used in Poland from 1959 to their retirement in 2012. Several remain as maintenance cars, while others have been preserved in museums. Konstal 13Ns were not produced under a PCC licence.

PCC 980

Australia; introduced 1949; number built: 1.
One set of PCC bogies and control equipment was imported into Melbourne circa 1949 and fitted to a modified W-Class body. Additional cars were planned, but never built. The single car was numbered 980,[86] and was withdrawn from service in 1971. Z Class tram prototype car 1041 was built in 1972 using bogies salvaged from 980.[87]

PCC A28[84]

Sweden; introduced 1953; number built: 2.
Only two of the planned 300 of the PCC A28 type trams had been delivered to Stockholm by ASJ in 1953. This was probably due to the withdrawal of the Polish side of the contract in 1946, which primarily stated the delivery not only of the tram wagons, but also 8 locomotives and 44 electric passenger trains by the ASEA company. The only ones that were built, based on bogies and the electrical system delivered from the USA. They were the first PCCs in Europe equipped with multiple-unit electrical systems and were only used in pairs (no more trams of this type were constructed) on tourist line number 700. In 1962, the routes were converted to buses. One of the two cars was scrapped, the other one (number 11) is preserved in the Tramway Museum of Malmkoping.[84]

Tatra T1

Ostrava, Tatra T1 (4) cropped.jpg

Czechoslovakia, Poland, Russia; introduced 1951; number built: 287[88].

Tatra T2

Plze?, Nám?stí Republiky, Tatra T2 cropped.jpg

Czechoslovakia, Russia, Ukraine; introduced 1955; number built: 771[89].

Tatra T3[84]

Tram Tatra T3 Praha 6102.jpg

Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Latvia, Russia, Romania, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Yugoslavia; introduced 1962; number built: 14,113[90].

Tatra T4[84]

DVB Tatra T4D Altmarkt.jpg

East Germany, Estonian SSR, Latvia, Russia, Romania, Ukraine, Yugoslavia; introduced 1968; number built: 2,637[91].

In fiction

Genie, a character from Robot Trains, is based on PCC streetcar.

See also

Notes

References

  1. ^ Brill, Debra (2001). History of the J. G. Brill Company. Indiana University Press. pp. 202-205. ISBN 0-253-33949-9.
  2. ^ Carlson, Stephen P.; Schneider III, Fred W. (1980). PCC-The Car that Fought Back. Interurban Press. pp. 117-119. ISBN 0-916374-41-6.
  3. ^ C.F. Hirshfeld, Ch.Engr., PCC; (October 1933) Electric Transit and Bus Journal, pp.321-325, 331.
  4. ^ https://patents.google.com/patent/USD110384S/
  5. ^ Proceedings of the American Transit Association, 1936, pp. 821, 822, 833, 834, 1126, 1127 & 1938 Proceedings, pp. 372, 374, 376, 378, 380, 382, 384, 408, 416, 417, 418, 420, 422, 380, 382, 384, & An American Original, The PCC Car, Kashin and Demoro, pp 42, 43, 46, 187.
  6. ^ Hoover, Amanda (6 September 2015). "Why are old Green Line trolleys wasting away in rural Pennsylvania?". Boston Globe. Retrieved 2017.
  7. ^ King, Leroy O., Jr., 100 Years of Capital Traction: The Story of Streetcars in the Nation's Capital. Dallas: Publisher Leroy O. King, Jr. (1972), page 153
  8. ^ Carlson & Schneider (1980), p. 59.
  9. ^ Carlson, Stephen P.; Schneider III, Fred W. (1980). PCC-The Car that Fought Back. Interurban Press. p. 87. ISBN 0-916374-41-6. LCCN 80-81312.
  10. ^ Carlson-Schneider (80), pages 123, 129, 236-237, supplement
  11. ^ Carlson-Schneider (80), pages 131,135, supplement
  12. ^ Carlson, S.P.; Schneider, F.W. (1983). PCC: From Coast to Coast. Interurban Press. p. 235. ISBN 0-916374-57-2.
  13. ^ Carlson-Schneider (80), pages 144-155
  14. ^ Carlson-Schneider (80), pages 239-241, supplement
  15. ^ Kashin, S.; Demoro, H. (1986). An American Original: The PCC Car, p. 79. Glendale (CA): Interurban Press, ISBN 0-916374-73-4.
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  17. ^ Carlson & Schneider (1980), pp. 98-100.
  18. ^ H.G. McClean, B.Sc, M.I.E.E., M.I.Loco.E.; December 14, 1945, "Passenger Transport Journal:" The American P.C.C. Car, p. 348.
  19. ^ Carlson (1980), pp. 48-49, 87-89. 91, rear foldout #1.
  20. ^ Lind, Alan R. (1979). Chicago Surface Lines, An Illustrated History (3 ed.). Transport History Press. pp. 48-49, 87-89, 399. ISBN 0-934732-00-0.
  21. ^ a b c "PCC-Not so standard". http://www.nycsubway.org. Retrieved 2014.
  22. ^ Carlson (1980), p. 74-75, 98-99, rear foldout #3.
  23. ^ Carlson (1980), pp. 94, supplement.
  24. ^ Carlson (1980), pp. 3, 136-137, 162-173, supplement.
  25. ^ Chicago's Rapid Transit v.1: Rolling Stock/1892-1947. Central Electric Railfans' Association. 1973. pp. 215-227. ISBN 0-915348-15-2.
  26. ^ Chicago's Rapid Transit v.2: Rolling Stock/1947-1976. Central Electric Railfans' Association. 1976. pp. 8-71, 186, 189-191, 195-196, 199. ISBN 0-915348-15-2.
  27. ^ Lind (1979), pp. 16, 37, 400, supplement.
  28. ^ a b c d Dr. Harold E. Cox (1963) PCC Cars of North America.
  29. ^ Chicago's Rapid Transit V II. Central Electric Railfans' Assoc. 1976. pp. 8-11. ISBN 0-915348-15-2.
  30. ^ Borzo, Greg (2007). The Chicago "L". Arcadia Publishing. p. 113. ISBN 978-0-7385-5100-5.
  31. ^ IRM Roster Page for CTA 4391
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  33. ^ Philadelphia Trolley Track
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  50. ^ https://www.streetcar.org/streetcars/1008-1008-muni-wings/
  51. ^ https://www.streetcar.org/streetcars/1010-1010-sf-muni-yellow-and-blue/
  52. ^ https://www.streetcar.org/streetcars/1011-1011-msry-zip-stripe/
  53. ^ http://www.streetcar.org
  54. ^ http://perso.wanadoo.es/assotram/bcnpcceng.html
  55. ^ http://public-transport.net/bim/Bcn/Bcn_hist.htm
  56. ^ https://www.streetcar.org/streetcars/1053-1053-brooklyn-ny/
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  63. ^ https://www.streetcar.org/streetcars/1077-1077-birmingham-al/
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  70. ^ https://www.streetcar.org/streetcars/1061-1061-pacific-electric/
  71. ^ "Farewell to Newark PCCs" (October 2001). Tramways & Urban Transit, p. 386. Ian Allan Publishing.
  72. ^ https://www.streetcar.org/streetcars/1009-1009-dallas-texas//
  73. ^ http://www.sabdigital.cz/expozicemhd/?akce=aktualita&id=6
  74. ^ https://www.streetcar.org/streetcars/1073-1073-el-paso-texas-juarez-mexico/
  75. ^ http://fr.www.popflock.com/learn?s=Tramway de Montréal
  76. ^ https://www.streetcar.org/streetcars/1015-1015-illinois-terminal-railroad/
  77. ^ "MATA 2016 April Newsletter" (PDF).
  78. ^ Flores, Aileen B. "El Paso City Council seeks to refurbish old trolleys for project". El Paso Times. Archived from the original on August 22, 2013. Retrieved 2015.
  79. ^ "Route 15 / Girard Avenue Trolley". phillytrolley.org.
  80. ^ Mike Filey (September 22, 2012). "The very first PCC streetcars went into service 74 years ago today". Toronto Sun. Retrieved 2018. It was on this day back in 1938 that Torontonians, who for decades had relied on a variety of less-than-agreeable street railway vehicles, were finally introduced to the latest model streetcar, the amazing PCC Streamliner.
  81. ^ Toronto's 'Boomer' PCCs
  82. ^ "Le respect de votre vie privée est notre priorité". http://www.rtbf.be (in French). March 17, 2015. Retrieved 2018. External link in |work= (help)
  83. ^ Tram 2000 November 2017, p. 10
  84. ^ a b c d e f "The most popular tram in the world - PCC, part 2: Europe". kmk.krakow.pl. Retrieved 2019.
  85. ^ Witold Urbanowicz (March 25, 2017). "Tramwaje Warszawskie odnawiaj? ,,parówki"". http://www.transport-publiczny.pl (in Polish). Retrieved 2019. External link in |work= (help)
  86. ^ Jones, Russell (2010). "The remarkable PCC tramcar: why Melbourne missed out". Friends of Hawthorn Tram Museum. Retrieved 2016.
  87. ^ "Melbourne & Metropolitan Tramways Board PCC No 1041". Friends of Hawthorn Tram Museum. 2008. Retrieved 2016.
  88. ^ "Tatra T1 deliveries". Strassenbahnen-Online. Retrieved .
  89. ^ "Tatra T2 deliveries". Strassenahnen-Online. Retrieved .
  90. ^ "Tatra T3 deliveries". Strassenbahnen-Online. Retrieved .
  91. ^ "Tatra T4 deliveries". Strassenbahnen-Online. Retrieved .

Further reading

  • Carlson et al. (1986), The Colorful Streetcars We Rode, Bulletin 125 of the Central Electric Railfans' Association, Chicago, Il. ISBN 0-915348-25-X
  • Kashin, S.; Demoro, H. (1986), An American Original: The PCC Car, Interurban Press, ISBN 0-916374-73-4
  • (in Spanish) López Bustos, Carlos, Tranvías de Madrid, Aldaba Ediciones, Madrid 1986, ISBN 84-86629-00-4
  • Wickson, Ted, ed. (November-December 2015). "The PCC streetcar in Canada" (PDF). Canadian Rail. No. 659. p. 255-298. Retrieved 2017.

External links


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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