Pagoda
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Pagoda

Wood five-story pagoda of H?ry?-ji in Japan, built in the 7th century, one of the oldest wooden buildings in the world.
Giant Wild Goose Pagoda of Xi'an in China, built in the 7th century, made of brick.
Seokgatap of Bulguksa in South Korea, built in the 8th century, made of granite. In 1966, the Mugujeonggwang Great Dharani Sutra, the oldest extant woodblock print and several other treasures were found in the second story of this pagoda.

A pagoda is a tiered tower with multiple eaves, built in traditions originating as stupa in Ancient India[1][2] and further developed in East Asia with respect to those traditions, common to China, Japan, Korea, Vietnam and other parts of Asia. Some pagodas are used as Taoist houses of worship. Most pagodas were built to have a religious function, most commonly Buddhist, and were often located in or near viharas. In some countries, the term may refer to other religious structures. In Vietnam and Cambodia, due to French translation, the English term pagoda is a more generic term referring to a place of worship, although pagoda is not an accurate word to describe a Buddhist vihara. The architectural structure of the stupa has spread across Asia, taking on many diverse forms as details specific to different regions are incorporated into the overall design. Many Philippine bell towers are highly influenced by pagodas through Chinese workers hired by the Spaniards.

Etymology

One proposed etymology is from a South Chinese pronunciation of the term for an eight-cornered tower, Chinese: , and reinforced by the name of a famous pagoda encountered by many early European visitors to China, the "Pázh?u t?" (Chinese: ), standing just south of Guangzhou at Whampoa Anchorage.[3] Another proposed etymology is Persian butkada, from but, "idol" and kada, "temple, dwelling."[4]

Another etymology, found in many English language dictionaries, is modern English pagoda from Portuguese (via Dravidian), from Sanskrit bhagavati, feminine of bhagavat, "blessed", from bhag, "good fortune".

Yet another etymology of pagoda is from the Sinhala word d?gaba which is derived from Sanskrit dh?tugarbha or Pali dh?tugabbha: "relic womb/chamber" or "reliquary shrine", i.e. a stupa, by way of Portuguese.[5]

History

Kek Lok Si pagoda tiers labelled with their architectural styles

The origin of the pagoda can be traced to the stupa (3rd century BCE).[6] The stupa, a dome shaped monument, was used as a commemorative monument associated with storing sacred relics.[6] In East Asia, the architecture of Chinese towers and Chinese pavilions blended into pagoda architecture, eventually also spreading to Southeast Asia. The pagoda's original purpose was to house relics and sacred writings.[7] This purpose was popularized due to the efforts of Buddhist missionaries, pilgrims, rulers, and ordinary devotees to seek out, distribute, and extol Buddhist relics.[8]

On the other side, the stupa emerged as a distinctive style of Newa architecture of Nepal and was adopted in Southeast and East Asia. Nepali architect Araniko visited China and shared his skills to build stupa buildings in China.[9][10]

These buildings (pagoda, stupa) became prominent as Buddhist monuments used for enshrining sacred relics.[6]

Symbolism

Chinese iconography is noticeable in Chinese pagoda as well as other East Asian pagoda architectures. The image of Gautama Buddha in the abhaya mudr? is also noticeable in some Pagodas. Buddhist iconography can be observed throughout the pagoda symbolism.[11]

In an article on Buddhist elements in Han dynasty art, Wu Hung suggests that in these tombs, Buddhist symbolism was so well-incorporated into native Chinese traditions that a unique system of symbolism had been developed.[12]

Architecture

Pagodas attract lightning strikes because of their height. Many pagodas have a decorated finial at the top of the structure, and when made of metal, this finial, sometimes referred to as a "demon-arrester", can function as a lightning rod.[dubious ] Also Pagodas come in many different sizes, as some may be small and others may be large.[13]

Pagodas traditionally have an odd number of levels, a notable exception being the eighteenth century pagoda designed by Sir William Chambers at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, London.

The pagodas in Myanmar, Thailand, Laos and Cambodia are very different from Chinese and Japanese pagodas. Pagodas in those countries are derived from Dravidian architecture.[14]

Some notable pagodas

Tiered towers with multiple eaves:

Stupas called "pagodas":

Places called "pagoda" but which are not tiered structures with multiple eaves:

Structures that evoke pagoda architecture:

Structures not generally thought of as pagodas, but which have some pagoda-like characteristics:

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "The Origin of Pagodas". China.org.cn. 19 September 2002. Retrieved 2017.
  2. ^ "Pagoda". Webpages.uidaho.edu. Retrieved 2017.
  3. ^ Chinese Origin of the Term Pagoda: Liang Sicheng's Proposed Etymology Authors: David Robbins Tien, Gerald Leonard Cohen Publication: Arts, Languages and Philosophy Faculty Research & Creative Works DownloadTien, D. R., & Cohen, G. L. (2017) http://scholarsmine.mst.edu/artlan_phil_facwork. David Robbins Tien. Comments on Etymology, October 2014, Vol.44, no. 1, pp. 2-6.
  4. ^ Random House Unabridged Dictionary, Second Edition. Random House, New York, 1993.
  5. ^ Hobson-Jobson: The Anglo-Indian Dictionary by Henry Yule & Arthur Coke Burnell, first printed 1896, reprinted by Wordsworth Editions, 1996, p. 291. Online Etymology Dictionary by Douglas Harper, s.v. pagoda, at http://www.etymonline.com/ (Accessed 29 April 2016)
  6. ^ a b c Editors, The (26 January 2012). "pagoda | architecture". Britannica.com. Retrieved 2017.
  7. ^ A World History of Architecture. Michael W. Fazio, Marian Moffett, Lawrence Wodehouse. Published 2003. McGraw-Hill Professional. ISBN 0-07-141751-6.
  8. ^ The Impact of Buddhism on Chinese Material Culture. John Kieschnick. Published 2003. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-09676-7.
  9. ^ "Nepal, China commemorate 57-year-long friendship - China News". SINA English. Retrieved 2017.
  10. ^ The Evolution of Indian Stupa Architecture in East Asia. Eric Stratton. New Delhi, Vedams, 2002, viii, ISBN 81-7936-006-7
  11. ^ The Impact of Buddhism on Chinese Material Culture. John Kieschnick. Published 2003. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-09676-7. page 83
  12. ^ The Impact of Buddhism on Chinese Material Culture. John Kieschnick. Published 2003. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-09676-7. page 84
  13. ^ Terry, T. Philip (1914). Terry's Japanese Empire. Houghton Mifflin. p. 257.
  14. ^ Chihara, Daigor? (1996). Hindu-Buddhist Architecture in Southeast Asia. BRILL. p. 28. ISBN 90-04-10512-3.
  15. ^ "Indianapolis 500 Traditions :: Indianapolis 500". web.archive.org. 1 May 2008.

References

  • The Impact of Buddhism on Chinese Material Culture. John Kieschnick. Published 2003. Princeton University Press . ISBN 0-691-09676-7.
  • A World History of Architecture. Michael W. Fazio, Marian Moffett, Lawrence Wodehouse. Published 2003. McGraw-Hill Professional. ISBN 0-07-141751-6.
  • Psycho-cosmic symbolism of the Buddhist stupa. A. B. Govinda. 1976, Emeryville, California. Dharma Publications.

External links


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Pagoda
 



 



 
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