Pechengsky District
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Pechengsky District
Pechengsky District

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Landscape in Pechengsky District, August 2013
Landscape in Pechengsky District, August 2013
Flag of Pechengsky District
Flag
Coat of arms of Pechengsky District
Coat of arms
Location of Pechengsky District in Murmansk Oblast
Coordinates: 69°32?N 31°12?E / 69.533°N 31.200°E / 69.533; 31.200Coordinates: 69°32?N 31°12?E / 69.533°N 31.200°E / 69.533; 31.200
CountryRussia
Federal subjectMurmansk Oblast[1]
EstablishedJuly 21, 1945[2]
Administrative centerNikel[1]
Government
 o TypeLocal government
 o BodyCouncil of Deputies[3]
Area
 o Total8,662.22 km2 (3,344.50 sq mi)
Population
 o Total38,920
 o Estimate 
(2018)[5]
37,146 (-4.6%)
 o Density4.5/km2 (12/sq mi)
 o Urban
81.6%
 o Rural
18.4%
Administrative structure
 o Administrative divisions1 Towns, 2 Urban-type settlements, 1 Territorial okrugs
 o Inhabited localities1 Cities/towns, 2 Urban-type settlements[6], 14 Rural localities
Municipal structure
 o Municipally incorporated asPechengsky Municipal District[7]
 o Municipal divisions[7]3 Urban settlements, 1 Rural settlements
Time zoneUTC+3 (MSK Edit this on Wikidata[8])
OKTMO ID47615000
Websitehttp://pechengamr.ru/

Pechengsky District (Russian: ; Finnish: Petsamo; Norwegian: Peisen; Northern Sami: Beahcán; Skolt Sami: Peäccam) is an administrative district (raion), one of the six in Murmansk Oblast, Russia.[1] As a municipal division, it is incorporated as Pechengsky Municipal District.[7] It is located in the northwest of the oblast, on the coast of the Barents Sea (by the Rybachy Peninsula, which is a part of the district) and borders Finland in the south and southwest and Norway in the west, northwest, and north. The area of the district is 8,662.22 square kilometers (3,344.50 sq mi).[3] Its administrative center is the urban locality (an urban-type settlement) of Nikel.[1] Population: ;[4];[9].[10] The population of Nikel accounts for 32.8% of the district's total population.[4]

History

Russian settlement

The area was long inhabited by the indigenous Sami people. The border between Norway and Russia was not defined in terms of land, instead the Treaty of Novgorod (1326) specified which indigenous, nomadic families had to pay their taxes to which government. In 1533, the settlement of the Pechenga Monastery was defined as part of Russia.

The settlement of Pechenga was founded as the Pechenga Monastery in 1533 at the influx of the Pechenga River into the Barents Sea, 135 kilometers (84 mi) west of modern Murmansk, by St. Tryphon, a monk from Novgorod. Inspired by the model of the Solovetsky Monastery, Tryphon wished to convert the local Skolt Sami population to Christianity and to demonstrate how faith could flourish in the most inhospitable lands.

The area was resettled by the Pomors and other Russians. The present border between Norway and Russia was settled in 1826, and the development of the area considerably accelerated in the late 19th century, when the monastery was re-established there. The harbor of Liinakhamari in Petsamo was important for the Russian economy during World War I as the Baltic Sea was blocked by the Germans.

Finnish control

In the 1920 Treaty of Tartu, Soviet Russia ceded the area of Pechenga (Petsamo Province) to Finland.[2]

Deposits of nickel were found in 1921, after Petsamo became a part of Finland. In 1934, the deposits were estimated at over five million tonnes. Mining operations were started in 1935 by Canadian and French corporations.

Construction of a road from Sodankylä through Ivalo to Liinakhamari started in 1916 and was completed in 1931. This made Petsamo a popular tourist attraction, as it was the only port by the Barents Sea reachable by automobile.

The green area was the Finnish part of the Rybachy Peninsula, formally ceded to the Soviets after the 1939-40 Winter War. The yellow area was ceded to the Soviets in the 1944 Moscow Armistice. The red area is Jäniskoski, which Finland sold to the Soviet Union in 1947.

In the Winter War of 1939-1940, the Soviet Union briefly occupied Petsamo. In the following peace agreement, the Rybachy Peninsula, with the area of 321 square kilometers (124 sq mi), was the only part of Petsamo ceded to the Soviet Union, although the Soviets had occupied all of Petsamo during the Winter War.

In 1941, during World War II, Petsamo was used by Nazi Germany as a staging area for the offensive towards Murmansk. In 1944, the Red Army occupied Petsamo again, and this time Finland had to cede it to the Soviet Union as part of the Moscow Armistice signed on September 19, 1944;[2] the total ceded area was 8,965 square kilometers (3,461 sq mi). On July 21, 1945, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union decreed the establishment of Pechengsky District with the administrative center in Nikel on the ceded territory and to include this district as a part of Murmansk Oblast.[2]

In 1947, Finland exchanged the remaining 169 square kilometers (65 sq mi) Rayakoski area, together with the Jäniskoski hydroelectric plant, for Soviet-confiscated German investments in Finland.

Retrocession to Russia

Following the Paris Peace Treaty, the local Skolt Sami were given the choice of staying in Soviet Russia or moving to Finland.[] Most opted to re-settle in Finland.[]

When Polyarny District was abolished on July 9, 1960, a part of its territory was transferred to Pechengsky District.[11]

On December 26, 1962, when the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR decreed the reorganisation of the Soviets of People's Deputies and the executive committees of the krais, oblasts, and districts into the industrial and agricultural soviets, Murmansk Oblast was not affected and kept one unified Oblast Soviet and the executive committee.[2] Nevertheless, on February 1, 1963, the Decree by the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR established the new structure of the districts of Murmansk Oblast, which classified Pechengsky District as rural.[2] However, this classification only lasted for less than two years.[2] The November 21, 1964 Decree by the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR restored the unified Soviets of People's Deputies and the executive committees of the krais and oblasts where the division into the urban and rural districts was introduced in 1962, and the districts of Murmansk Oblast were re-categorized as regular districts again by the January 12, 1965 Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR Decree.[2]

Economy

The district is important for its ice-free harbor, Liinakhamari, and the deposits of nickel.

References

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d Law #96-01-ZMO
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h Administrative-Territorial Division of Murmansk Oblast, pp. 54-56
  3. ^ a b c Charter of Pechengsky District
  4. ^ a b c Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "? 2010 ?.  1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. ? 2010 ? [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  5. ^ "26. ? ? 1 2018 ?". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 2019.
  6. ^ The count of urban-type settlements may include the work settlements, the resort settlements, the suburban (dacha) settlements, as well as urban-type settlements proper.
  7. ^ a b c Law #539-01-ZMO
  8. ^ " ? ?". - ? (in Russian). June 3, 2011. Retrieved 2019.
  9. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). " , ? ? ? ?, ?, , ? ? - ? ? ? ? ? ? 3  ? ?" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities--Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). ? 2002 ? [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
  10. ^ "? 1989 ?. ? ? ? , ? ? ?, , , ?, ? -?" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. ? 1989 ? [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). ? ? : [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 – via Demoscope Weekly.
  11. ^ Decree #741/18

Sources

  • ? ?.  No96-01-  6 1998 ?. « - ? ? ?», ? . No1953-01-  24 ? 2015 ?. «? ? ? ? " - ? ? ?"». : "? ?", No10, . 3, 16 1998 ?. (Murmansk Oblast Duma. Law #96-01-ZMO of January 6, 1998 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Murmansk Oblast, as amended by the Law #1953-01-ZMO of December 24, 2015 On Amending the Law of Murmansk Oblast "On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Murmansk Oblast". ).
  • ? ?.  No539-01-  2 ? 2004 ?. «? ?, ? ? ? ? ? ? ? , ? », ? . No1156-01-  23 2009 ? « ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?». ? ? ? 1  2005 ?. : "? ?", No234, . 3, 7 ? 2004 ?. (Murmansk Oblast Duma. Law #539-01-ZMO of December 2, 2004 On the Status, Names, and Composition of the Territories of the Municipal Formation of Pechengsky District and of the Municipal Formations It Comprises, as amended by the Law #1156-01-ZMO of November 23, 2009 On the Abolition of Several Inhabited Localities of Murmansk Oblast and on Amending Several Legislative Acts of Murmansk Oblast. Effective as of January 1, 2005.).
  • ? . ? No234  26 2006 ?. « ? ? ? ?», ? . ? No165  10 ? 2010 ? «? ? ? ? ?, ? ? 26.01.2006 No234, ? 10.03.2006 No246, 05.05.2006 No40, 14.11.2008 No396, 30.10.2009 No542, 18.06.2010 No67, 17.09.2010 No94». ? ? ? ? ?  1 ?&nbps;2  69. : "?", No57, . 1-6, 27 2006 ?. (Council of Deputies of the Municipal Formation of Pechengsky District. Decision #234 of January 26, 2006 Charter of the Municipal Formation of Pechengsky Municipal District of Murmansk Oblast, as amended by the Resolution #165 of December 10, 2010 On Amending the Charter of the Municipal Formation of Pechengsky District of Murmansk Oblast, Adopted by the Decision of the Council of Deputies of the Municipal Formation of Pechengsky District No. 234 of January 26, 2006, revised by No. 246 of March 10, 2006, by No. 40 of May 5, 2006, by No. 396 of November 14, 2008, by No. 542 of October 30, 2009, by No. 67 June 18, 2010, by No. 94 of September 17, 2010. Effective as of the date set forth by the provisions of items 1 and 2 of Article 69.).
  • ? ? ?. ? ?. (1995). - ? ? ? (1920-1993 .). ?. - "".
  • ? . ? No741/18  9 ? 1960 ?. « , ? ? ? ? ? ?». : " ", No25, . 371, 1960. (Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Russian SFSR. Decree #741/18 of July 9, 1960 On the Abolition of Polyarny District, the Merger of Severomorsk Town and Teribersky District Soviets, and the Renaming of Teribersky District of Murmansk Oblast. ).

External links


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