In the waters of Penza Oblast, there are about 50 species of fish. The largest body of water - the Sursko reservoir - is home to around 30 species. Commercial species include bream, silver bream, pikeperch, ide, and catfish. In the rivers and smalls pond dwell roach, perch, carp, and pike. The most valuable fish to be found in the natural waters is the sterlet.
The regional center of Penza was built in 1663 as a Russian fortress on the border of the Wild Fields, although evidence of the presence of more ancient settlements has been found in the modern city.
Penza Province was established within Kazan Governorate in 1718. It became a separate Penza Governorate on September 15, 1780, which existed until March 5, 1797, when it was dissolved and merged into Saratov Governorate. Penza Governorate was re-established on September 9, 1801 and existed until 1928. Between 1928 and 1937, the territory of the former governorate underwent a number of administrative transformations, ending up as a part of Tambov Oblast in 1937. On February 4, 1939, modern Penza Oblast was established by splitting it out of Tambov Oblast. In March 1939, the Penza Oblast Committee of the CPSU was formed, the first secretary of the committee being Alexander Kabanov.
During the Soviet period, the high authority in the oblast was shared among three persons: The first secretary of the Penza CPSU Committee (who in reality had the biggest authority), the chairman of the oblast Soviet (legislative power), and the Chairman of the oblast Executive Committee (executive power). Since 1991, CPSU lost all the power, and the head of the Oblast administration, and eventually the governor was appointed/elected alongside elected regional parliament.
The Charter of Penza Oblast is the fundamental law of the region. The Legislative Assembly of Penza Oblast is the province's standing legislative (representative) body. The Legislative Assembly exercises its authority by passing laws, resolutions, and other legal acts and by supervising the implementation and observance of the laws and other legal acts passed by it. The highest executive body is the Oblast Government, which includes territorial executive bodies such as district administrations, committees, and commissions that facilitate development and run the day to day matters of the province. The Oblast administration supports the activities of the Governor who is the highest official and acts as guarantor of the observance of the oblast Charter in accordance with the Constitution of Russia.
Additionally, 43,283 people were registered from administrative databases, and could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group.
According to a 2012 survey, 62.9% of the population of Penza Oblast adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 2% are unaffiliated generic Christians, 1% are Orthodox Christian believers without belonging to churches or members of non-Russian Orthodox churches, and 7% are Muslims. In addition, 15% of the population declares to be "spiritual but not religious", 9% is atheist, and 3.1% follows other religions or did not give an answer to the question.
^ ? . ? No849 13 2000 ?. «? ? ? ? ? ». ? ? ? 13 2000 ?. : " ? ", No. 20, . 2112, 15 2000 ?. (President of the Russian Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000.).
^ ? . No 024-95 27 ? 1995 ?. « ? ? . 2. ? », ? . No5/2001 ?. (Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ).
^"? 1989 ?. ? ? ? , ? ? ?, , , ?, ? -?" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. ? 1989 ? [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). ? ? : [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 – via Demoscope Weekly.
? ?. No828- 28 ? 2005 ?. «? ? ?», ? . No1507- 2 2008 ?. «? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? " ? ? ? "». ? ? ? ? ? (26 ? 2005 ?.). : "? ? ", No16, ?. 108, 15 ? 2005 ?. (Legislative Assembly of Penza Oblast. Law #828-ZPO of June 28, 2005 On the Anthem of Penza Oblast, as amended by the Law #1507-ZPO of April 2, 2008 On Amending Various Legislative Acts of Penza Oblast Due to the Adoption of the Law of Penza Oblast "Administrative Infractions Code of Penza Oblast". Effective as of the day which is ten days after the official publication (July 26, 2005).).
? ?. 10 1996 ?. « ? ?», ? . No2824- 1 ? 2015 ?. «? ? 39 ? ?». ? ? ? ? (13 1996 ?.). : "? ", No133-134, 13 1996 ?. (Legislative Assembly of Penza Oblast. September 10, 1996 Charter of Penza Oblast, as amended by the Law #2824-ZPO of December 1, 2015 On Amending Article 39 of the Charter of Penza Oblast. Effective as of the day of the official publication (September 13, 1996).).