Permanent residency is a person's resident status in a country of which they are not citizens. This is usually for a permanent period; a person with such status is known as a permanent resident. In the United States, such a person is officially referred to as a Lawful Permanent Resident (LPR).
Permanent residency itself is distinct from right of abode, which waives immigration control for such persons. Persons having permanent residency still require immigration control if they do not have right of abode. However, a right of abode automatically grants people permanent residency. This status also gives work permit in most cases.
Not every country allows permanent residency. Rights and application may vary widely.
All European Union countries have a facility for someone to become a permanent resident, as EU legislation allows an EU national who moves to another EU country to attain permanent resident status after residing there for five years. The European Union also sets out permanent residency rights for long-term resident third country nationals under directive (2003/109/EC). A novel approach was the granting of rights across the national borders of states adhering to the directive.
Other countries have varying forms of such residency and relationships with other countries with regards to permanent residency.
The regions that have some type of permanent resident status include:
A "golden visa" is a permanent residency visa issued to individuals who invest, often through the purchase of property, a certain sum of money into the issuing county. Dating back to the 1980s, golden visas became much more popular and available in the 21st century. Golden visas require investments of anywhere from $100,000 in Dominica up to £2,000,000 in the U.K. The most common method for obtaining a golden visa is through the purchase of real estate with a minimum value. Some countries such as Malta and Cyprus also offer "golden passports" (citizenship) to individuals if they invest a certain sum.
Depending on the country, permanent residents usually have the same rights as citizens except for the following:
Permanent residents may be required to fulfil specific residence obligations to maintain their status. In some cases, permanent residency may be conditional on a certain type of employment or maintenance of a business.
Many countries have compulsory military service for citizens. Some countries, such as Singapore, extend this to permanent residents. However, in Singapore, most first generation permanent residents are exempted, and only their sons are held liable for NS.
In a similar approach, the United States has Selective Service, a compulsory registration for military service, which is required of all male citizens and permanent residents ages 18 to 26; this requirement theoretically applies even to those residing in the country illegally. Applications for citizenship may be denied or otherwise impeded if the applicant cannot prove having complied with this requirement.
Permanent residents may be required to reside in the country offering them residence for a given minimum length of time (as in Australia and Canada). Permanent residents may lose their status if they stay outside their host country for more than a specified period of time (as in the United States).
Permanent residents have the same obligations as citizens regarding taxes.
Permanent residents may lose their status if they fail to comply with residency or other obligations imposed on them. For example:
Usually permanent residents may apply for citizenship by naturalization after a period of permanent residency (typically five years) in the country concerned. Dual citizenship may or may not be permitted.
In many nations an application for naturalization can be denied on character grounds, sometimes allowing people to reside in the country (as non-domiciled) but not become citizens. In the United States the residency requirements for citizenship are normally five years, even though permanent residents who have been married to a US citizen for three years or more may apply in three years. Those who have served in the armed forces may qualify for an expedited process allowing citizenship after only one year, or even without any residence requirement.
Since the 1990s, in addition to golden visas some countries have begun to offer golden passports to foreign nationals who invest (often through the purchase of property) a certain sum into the issuing country's economy. The issuing of EU passports by Malta and Cyprus has sparked controversy but is expected to produced billions of euros in revenue for the issuing countries.
Full permanent residence rights are granted automatically between the following:
In some cases (e.g., the member states of the European Union) citizens of participating countries can live and work at will in each other's states, but don't have a status fully equivalent to that of a permanent resident. In particular, under the Trans-Tasman Travel Arrangement, Australia and New Zealand grant each other's citizens the right to reside permanently and work in each country; however, the rights and entitlements of New Zealanders living in Australia under this arrangement (the so-called Special Category Visa) are somewhat short of those of Australian permanent residents, in particular with respect to unemployment benefits and similar benefits.
People who are granted permanent residency in a country are usually issued some sort of documentary evidence as legal proof of this status. In the past, many countries merely stamped the person's passport indicating that the holder was admitted as a permanent resident or that he/she was exempt from immigration control and permitted to work without restriction. Other countries would issue a photo ID card, place a visa sticker or certificate of residence in the person's passport, or issue a letter to confirm their permanent resident status.
In Australia and New Zealand, a printout of permanent residence visa or resident visa is stuck to a page of the permanent resident's passport. (On 1 September 2015, Australia ceased issuing visa labels to holders of Australian visas.) 
In Canada, permanent residents are issued a photo ID card known as Permanent Resident Card.
In Costa Rica, permanent residents are issued a photo ID card commonly referred to as a "cedula".
In the countries of the European Union, residency permits are a photo ID card following a common EU design.
In Germany, resident permits (Aufenthaltstitel) have been issued as photo ID cards following a common EU design since 1 September 2011. Prior to that date, residence permits were stickers (similar to visas) which were affixed to the resident's passport.
In Ghana, permanent residents are issued an Indefinite Residence permit which is in the form of a sticker attached into the resident's passport.
In Hong Kong, permanent residents are issued a Hong Kong Permanent Identity Card.
In Japan and South Korea, all resident foreigners are issued a residence card, and for permanent residents this status is indicated.
In Lithuania, permanent residents are issued a photo ID (Leidimas gyventi) following a common EU design.
In Macau, permanent residents are issued a Macao Permanent Resident Identity Card (Bilhete de Identidade de Residente Permanente).
In Malaysia, permanent residents are issued with a MyPR card similar to the MyKad issued to Malaysian citizens, the difference being the colour (red instead of blue) and additional information stating the cardholder's country of origin.
In Singapore, permanent residents are issued a blue identity card with their photograph, thumb print and other personal particulars similar to citizen's pink identity card
In Slovakia, permanent residents are issued a red photo ID.
In South Africa, permanent residents who have their passport endorsed, are issued a certificate and a standard national green identity book showing "NON S.A. CITIZEN".
In Switzerland, permanent residents are issued either a biometric ID card in accordance with Schengen regulations if they are non EU/EFTA national, or a paper permit in a yellow-coloured plastic wallet if they are an EU/EFTA national.
In Taiwan, permanent residents are issued a blue photo ID card (APRC). A separate open work permit can also be issued to permanent residents allowing them to accept employment in any non-governmental positions for which they are qualified.