Perso-Arabic Alphabet
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Perso-Arabic Alphabet

The Persian alphabet (Persian: ‎, romanizedAlefb?-ye F?rsi) or Persian script is a writing system used for the Persian language spoken in Iran (Western Persian) and Afghanistan (Dari Persian). The Persian language spoken in Tajikistan (Tajiki Persian) is written in the Tajik alphabet, a modified version of Cyrillic alphabet since the Soviet era.

The Modern Persian script is directly derived and developed from Arabic script. After the Muslim conquest of Persia and the fall of Sasanian Empire in the 7th century, Arabic became the language of government and especially religion in Persia for two centuries.

The replacement of the Pahlavi scripts with the Persian alphabet to write the Persian language was done by the Saffarid dynasty and Samanid dynasty in 9th-century Greater Khorasan.[1][2][3] It is mostly but not exclusively right-to-left; mathematical expressions, numeric dates and numbers bearing units are embedded from left to right. The script is cursive, meaning most letters in a word connect to each other; when they are typed, contemporary word processors automatically join adjacent letter forms.

Letters

Example showing the Nasta?l?q calligraphic style's proportion rules

Below are the 32 letters of the modern Persian alphabet. Since the script is cursive, the appearance of a letter changes depending on its position: isolated, initial (joined on the left), medial (joined on both sides) and final (joined on the right) of a word.[4]

The names of the letter are mostly the ones used in Arabic except for the Persian pronunciation. The only ambiguous name is he, which is used for both ? and ?. For clarification, they are often called ?ä-ye jimi (literally "jim-like ?e" after jim, the name for the letter ? that uses the same base form) and hâ-ye do-?e?m (literally "two-eyed he", after the contextual middle letterform ), respectively.

Overview table

# Name
(in Persian)
Name
(transliterated)
DIN 31635 IPA Unicode Contextual forms
Final Medial Initial Isolated
0 ? hamze[5] ? Glottal stop[?] U+0621 N/A N/A N/A ?
U+0623 ?
U+0626 ?
U+0624 ?
1 ?alef â [?] U+0627 ?
2 be b [b] U+0628 ?
3 pe p [p] U+067E ?
4 te t [t] U+062A ?
5 s?e s? [s] U+062B ?
6 jim j [d] U+062C ?
7 ?e ? [t] U+0686 ?
8 ?e (?â-ye ?otti, ?â-ye jimi) ? [h] U+062D ?
9 xe x [x] U+062E ?
10 dâl d [d] U+062F ?
11 ?âl ? [z] U+0630 ?
12 re r [r] U+0631 ?
13 ze z [z] U+0632 ?
14 ?e ? [?] U+0698 ?
15 sin s [s] U+0633 ?
16 ?in ? [?] U+0634 ?
17 ?âd ? [s] U+0635 ?
18 zâd z [z] U+0636 ?
19 t [t] U+0637 ?
20 ? [z] U+0638 ?
21 ?ayn ? [?], [æ] U+0639 ?
22 ?ayn ? [?], [?] U+063A ?
23 fe f [f] U+0641 ?
24 q?âf q? [?], [?] U+0642 ?
25 kâf k [k] U+06A9 ?
26 gâf g [?] U+06AF ?
27 lâm l [l] U+0644 ?
28 mim m [m] U+0645 ?
29 nun n [n] U+0646 ?
30 vâv v / ? / ow / (w / aw / ? in Dari) [v], [u:], [o] (only word-finally), [ow] ([w], [aw], [o:] in Dari) U+0648 ?
31 he (h?-ye havvaz, h?-ye do-?e?m) h [h], [e] (word-finally) U+0647 ?
32 ye y / ? / á / (ay / ? in Dari) [j], [i], [?:] ([aj] / [e:] in Dari) U+06CC ?

variants

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Farsi in 16 fonts 2020-03-22 213757.png
Font:
o Noto Nastaliq Urdu
o Scheherazade
o Lateef
o Noto Naskh Arabic
o Markazi Text
o Noto Sans Arabic
o Baloo Bhaijaan
o El Messiri SemiBold
o Lemonada Medium
o Changa Medium
o Mada
o Noto Kufi Arabic
o Reem Kufi
o Lalezar
o Jomhuria
o Rakkas
The alphabet in 16 fonts: Noto Nastaliq Urdu, Scheherazade, Lateef, Noto Naskh Arabic, Markazi Text, Noto Sans Arabic, Baloo Bhaijaan, El Messiri SemiBold, Lemonada Medium, Changa Medium, Mada, Noto Kufi Arabic, Reem Kufi, Lalezar, Jomhuria, and Rakkas.

Letter construction

forms (i) isolated ?  ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
start ? ? ? ? ?
mid ?  
end ?
i'jam (i)
Unicode 0621 .. 0627 .. 0649 .. 06BA .. 066E .. 062D .. 0633 .. 0635 .. 0637 .. 0639 .. 06A1 .. 066F .. 066F .. 0644 .. 0645 .. 062F .. 0631 .. 0648. .. 0647 ..
1 dot below ? ? ?
Unicode FBB3. 0628 .. 062C ..
1 dot above ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Unicode FBB2. 0646 .. 062E ..  0636 .. 0638 .. 063A .. 0641 ..  0630 .. 0632 .. 
2 dots below (ii) ? ?
Unicode FBB5. 06CC ..
2 dots above ? ? ? ?
Unicode FBB4. 062A .. 0642 .. 0629 ..
3 dots below ? ? ?  
Unicode FBB9. FBB7. 067E .. 0686 .. 
3 dots above ? ? ?   ?
Unicode FBB6. 062B .. 0634 ..   0698 ..
line above ?   ?      
Unicode 203E.    06AF ..      
none ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?   ? ? ?
Unicode 0621 .. 0627 .. 0649 .. 06BA .. 062D .. 0633 .. 0635 .. 0637 .. 0639 .. 066F .. 0644 .. 0645 .. 062F .. 0631 .. 0648. .. 0647 ..
madda above ? ?          
Unicode 06E4. 0653. 0622 ..          
Hamza below ? ?            
Unicode 0655. 0625 ..          
Hamza above ? ? ? ? ?
Unicode 0674.  0654.  0623 ..  0626 .. 0624 .. 06C0 ..

^i. The i'jam diacritic characters are illustrative only, in most typesetting the combined characters in the middle of the table are used.

^ii. Farsi Y? has 2 dots below in the initial and middle positions only. The standard Arabic version ? always has 2 dots below.

Letters that do not link to a following letter

Seven letters (?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?) do not connect to the following letter, unlike the rest of the letters of the alphabet. The seven letters have the same form in isolated and initial position and a second form in medial and final position. For example, when the letter ? alef is at the beginning of a word such as injâ ("here"), the same form is used as in an isolated alef. In the case of emruz ("today"), the letter ? re takes the final form and the letter ? vâv takes the isolated form, but they are in the middle of the word, and ? also has its isolated form, but it occurs at the end of the word.

Diacritics

Persian script has adopted a subset of Arabic diacritics: zebar (fat?ah in Arabic), zir (kasrah in Arabic), and pi? /ou?/ or (?ammah in Arabic, pronounced zamme in Western Persian), tanw?ne nasb /æn/ and ?addah (gemination). Other Arabic diacritics may be seen in Arabic loanwords in Persian.

Short vowels

Of the four Arabic short vowels, the Persian language has adopted the following three. The last one, suk?n, has not been adopted.

Short vowels
(fully vocalized text)
Name
(in Persian)
Name
(transliterated)
Trans. Value
064E
?‍?

(?)
zebar/zibar a Ir. /æ/; D. /a/
0650
?‍?

(?)
zer/zir e /e/
064F
?‍?

(?)
pe?/pi? o /o/

In Iranian Persian, none of these short vowels may be the initial or final grapheme in an isolated word, although they may appear in the final position as an inflection, when the word is part of a noun group. In a word that starts with a vowel, the first grapheme is a silent alef which carries the short vowel, e.g. (omid, meaning "hope"). In a word that ends with a vowel, letters ?‎, ?‎ and ? respectively become the proxy letters for zebar, zir and pi?, e.g. (now, meaning "new") or ? (bast-e, meaning "package").

Tanvin (nunation)

Nunation (Persian: ‎, tanvin) is the addition of one of three vowel diacritics to a noun or adjective to indicate that the word ends in an alveolar nasal sound without the addition of the letter nun.

Nunation
(fully vocalized text)
Name
(in Persian)
Name
(transliterated)
Notes
064B
? ?
Tanvine nasb
064D
? Tanvine jarr Never used in the Persian language.

Taught in Islamic nations to

complement Quran education.

064C
?
Tanvine raf?

Ta?did

Symbol Name
(in Persian)
Name
(transliteration)
0651
?
ta?did

Other characters

The following are not actual letters but different orthographical shapes for letters, a ligature in the case of the lâm alef. As to ? (hamza), it has only one graphic since it is never tied to a preceding or following letter. However, it is sometimes 'seated' on a vâv, ye or alef, and in that case, the seat behaves like an ordinary vâv, ye or alef respectively. Technically, hamza is not a letter but a diacritic.

Name Pronunciation IPA Unicode Final Medial Initial Stand-alone Notes
alef madde â [?] U+0622 -- ? ? The final form is very rare and is freely replaced with ordinary alef.
he ye -eye or -eyeh [eje] U+06C0 -- -- ? Validity of this form depends on region and dialect. Some may use the three-letter combination instead.
l?m alef l? [l?] U+0644 (l?m) and U+0627 (alef) -- --
ka?ida U+0640 -- ? -- -- This is the medial character which connects other characters

Although at first glance, they may seem similar, there are many differences in the way the different languages use the alphabets. For example, similar words are written differently in Persian and Arabic, as they are used differently.

Novel letters

The Persian alphabet has four extra letters that are not in the Arabic alphabet: , , (ch in chair), (s in measure).

Sound Shape Unicode name Unicode code point
? pe U+067E
(ch) ? ?e U+0686
(zh) ? ?e U+0698
? gâf U+06AF

Deviations from the Arabic script

Persian uses the Eastern Arabic numerals, but the shapes of the digits 'four' (?), 'five' (?), and 'six' (?) are different from the shapes used in Arabic. All the digits also have different codepoints in Unicode:[6]

Name Persian Unicode Arabic Unicode
0 ? U+06F0 ? U+0660
1 ? U+06F1 ? U+0661
2 ? U+06F2 ? U+0662
3 ? U+06F3 ? U+0663
4 ? U+06F4 ? U+0664
5 ? U+06F5 ? U+0665
6 ? U+06F6 ? U+0666
7 ? U+06F7 ? U+0667
8 ? U+06F8 ? U+0668
9 ? U+06F9 ? U+0669
ye ? U+06CC ? U+064A
k?f ? U+06A9 ? U+0643

Word boundaries

Typically, words are separated from each other by a space. Certain morphemes (such as the plural ending '-hâ'), however, are written without a space. On a computer, they are separated from the word using the zero-width non-joiner.

Cyrillic Persian alphabet in Tajikistan

As part of the "russification" of Central Asia, the Cyrillic script was introduced in the late 1930s.[7][8][9][10][11] The alphabet remained Cyrillic until the end of the 1980s with the disintegration of the Soviet Union. In 1989, with the growth in Tajik nationalism, a law was enacted declaring Tajik the state language. In addition, the law officially equated Tajik with Persian, placing the word Farsi (the endonym for the Persian language) after Tajik. The law also called for a gradual reintroduction of the Perso-Arabic alphabet.[12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23]

The Persian alphabet was introduced into education and public life, although the banning of the Islamic Renaissance Party in 1993 slowed adoption. In 1999, the word Farsi was removed from the state-language law, reverting the name to simply Tajik.[1] As of 2004 the de facto standard in use is the Tajik Cyrillic alphabet,[2] and as of 1996 only a very small part of the population can read the Persian alphabet.[3]

See also

References

  1. ^ Ira M. Lapidus (2012). Islamic Societies to the Nineteenth Century: A Global History. Cambridge University Press. pp. 256-. ISBN 978-0-521-51441-5.
  2. ^ Ira M. Lapidus (2002). A History of Islamic Societies. Cambridge University Press. pp. 127-. ISBN 978-0-521-77933-3.
  3. ^ Persian (F?rs? / ), omniglot
  4. ^ " ". Academy of Persian Language and Literature. Archived from the original on 2017-09-07. Retrieved .
  5. ^ "" (PDF). Persianacademy.ir. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-09-24. Retrieved .
  6. ^ "Unicode Characters in the 'Number, Decimal Digit' Category".
  7. ^ ed. Hämmerle 2008, p. 76.
  8. ^ Cavendish 2006, p. 656.
  9. ^ Landau & Kellner-Heinkele 2001, p. 125.
  10. ^ ed. Buyers 2003, p. 132.
  11. ^ Borjian 2005.
  12. ^ ed. Ehteshami 2002, p. 219.
  13. ^ ed. Malik 1996, p. 274.
  14. ^ Banuazizi & Weiner 1994, p. 33.
  15. ^ Westerlund & Svanberg 1999, p. 186.
  16. ^ ed. Gillespie & Henry 1995, p. 172.
  17. ^ Badan 2001, p. 137.
  18. ^ Winrow 1995, p. 47.
  19. ^ Parsons 1993, p. 8.
  20. ^ RFE/RL, inc, RFE/RL Research Institute 1990, p. 22.
  21. ^ Middle East Institute (Washington, D.C.) 1990, p. 10.
  22. ^ Ochsenwald & Fisher 2010, p. 416.
  23. ^ Gall 2009, p. 785.

External links


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