Peter Stephen Paul Brook, CH, CBE (born 21 March 1925) is an English theatre and film director who has been based in France since the early 1970s. He has won multiple Tony and Emmy Awards, a Laurence Olivier Award, the Praemium Imperiale, and the Prix Italia. He has been called "our greatest living theatre director". 
Royal Shakespeare Company, Brook directed the first English language production of in 1964. It transferred to Marat/Sade Broadway in 1965 and won the Tony Award for Best Play, and Brook was named Best Director.
Brook was born in the
Turnham Green area of Chiswick, London, the second son of Simon Brook and his wife Ida (Jansen), both Lithuanian Jewish immigrants from Latvia.  The family home was at 27 Fairfax Road, Turnham Green.  His elder brother was the psychiatrist and psychotherapist  Alexis Brook (1920-2007). His first cousin was  Valentin Pluchek, chief director of the Moscow Satire Theatre. Brook was educated at  Westminster School, Gresham's School, and Magdalen College, Oxford.
Bouffes du Nord theatre, Paris
, his first production, in 1943 at the Torch Theatre in London, followed at the Chanticleer Theatre in 1945 with a revival of Dr Faustus . In 1947, he went to The Infernal Machine Stratford-upon-Avon as assistant director on and Romeo and Juliet . From 1947 to 1950, he was Director of Productions at the Love's Labour's Lost Royal Opera House in London. His work there included a highly controversial staging of Strauss's with sets by Salome Salvador Dalí, and an effective re-staging of Puccini's using sets dating from 1899. A proliferation of stage and screen work as producer and director followed. La bohème by Dark of the Moon Howard Richardson (1948-49), at the Ambassadors Theatre, London, was a much early admired production.
In 1970, with
Micheline Rozan, Brook founded the International Centre for Theatre Research, a multinational company of actors, dancers, musicians and others which travelled widely in the Middle East and Africa in the early 1970s. It has been based in Paris at the Bouffes du Nord theatre since 1974. He announced in 2008 that he would resign as artistic director of Bouffes du Nord, beginning that year a three-year handover to  Olivier Mantei and Olivier Poubelle. 
Brook has been influenced by the work of
Antonin Artaud and his ideas for his Theatre of Cruelty.
In England, Peter Brook and Charles Marowitz undertook The Theatre of Cruelty Season (1964) at the Royal Shakespeare Company, aiming to explore ways in which Artaud's ideas could be used to find new forms of expression and retrain the performer. The result was a showing of 'works in progress' made up of improvisations and sketches, one of which was the premier of Artaud's
The Spurt of Blood - Lee Jamieson, Antonin Artaud: From Theory to Practice, Greenwich Exchange, 2007
His greatest influence, however, was
Joan Littlewood. Brook described her as "the most galvanising director in mid-20th century Britain". Brook's work is also inspired by the theories of experimental theatre of Jerzy Grotowski,  Bertolt Brecht, Chris Covics and Vsevolod Meyerhold and by the works of G. I. Gurdjieff,  Edward Gordon Craig, and  Matila Ghyka. 
Brook has collaborated with a range of directors, writers and actors during his career, notable examples include actors
Paul Scofield and Glenda Jackson; designer Georges Wakhévitch, and writers Ted Hughes and William Golding. Brook first encountered Wakhévitch in London when he saw the production of Jean Cocteau's ballet Le Jeune Homme et la Mort which Wakhévitch designed. Brook declared that he "was convinced that this was the designer for whom I had been waiting". 
King John, Paul Shelving (designer) the Birmingham Repertory Theatre, 1945
with John Gielgud (Shakespeare Memorial Theatre) 1950 Measure for Measure
with The Winter's Tale John Gielgud (Shakespeare Memorial Theatre) 1952
with Hamlet Prince of Denmark Paul Scofield ( Hamlet), Alec Clunes ( Claudius), Diana Wynyard ( Gertrude), Mary Ure ( Ophelia), Ernest Thesiger ( Polonius), Richard Johnson ( Laertes), Michael David ( Horatio), Richard Pasco (Fortinbras) (plus 27 others) 1955
with Titus Andronicus Laurence Olivier (Shakespeare Memorial Theatre)1955 and 1958
with King Lear Paul Scofield (RSC) 1962
with A Midsummer Night's Dream John Kane ( Puck), Frances de la Tour (Helena), Ben Kingsley (Demetrius) and Patrick Stewart (Snout) 1970
(film) 1971 King Lear
, adaptation Jean-Claude Carrière, Théâtre des Bouffes du Nord 1974 Timon d'Athènes
Mésure pour mésure, Théâtre des Bouffes du Nord, 1978
Mésure pour mésure, (film) 1979
La Tempête by William Shakespeare, adaptation Jean-Claude Carrière, with Sotigui Kouyaté, Théâtre des Bouffes du Nord,1990
The Tragedy of Hamlet with Adrian Lester (Hamlet), Jeffery Kissoon (Claudius / Ghost), Natasha Parry (Gertrude), Shantala Shivalingappa (Ophelia), Bruce Myers (Polonius), Rohan Siva (Laertes / Guildenstern), Scott Handy (Horatio) Yoshi Oida (Player King / Rosencrantz) 2000
The Tragedy of Hamlet (TV film) 2002
Love is my sin, sonnets by William Shakespeare, 2009 Warum warum by Peter Brook et Marie-Hélène Estienne after Antonin Artaud, Edward Gordon Craig, Charles Dullin, Vsevolod Meyerhold, Motokiyo Zeami and William Shakespeare, 2010
In the mid-1970s,
Brook, with writer  Jean-Claude Carrière, began work on adapting the Indian epic poem the into a stage play which was first performed in 1985 Mah?bh?rata and then later into a televised mini series.
In a long article in 1985,
noted "overwhelming critical acclaim", and that the play "did nothing less than attempt to transform Hindu myth into universalized art, accessible to any culture". The New York Times However, many postcololonial scholars have challenged the claim to universalism, accusing the play of  orientalism. For instance, Gautam Dasgupta writes that, "Brook's Mahabharata falls short of the essential Indianness of the epic by staging predominantly its major incidents and failing to adequately emphasize its coterminous philosophical precepts." 
In 2015 Brook returned to the world of Mahabharata with a new
Young Vic production, in collaboration with Jean-Claude Carrière and Marie-Hélène Estienne.
In 2005 Brook directed
Tierno Bokar, based on the life of the Malian sufi of the same name. The play was adapted for the stage by Marie-Hélène Estienne from a book by Amadou Hampate Ba (translated into English as ). The book and play detail Bokar's life and message of A Spirit of Tolerance: The Inspiring Life of Tierno Bokar religious tolerance. Columbia University produced 44 related events, lectures, and workshops that were attended by over 3,200 people throughout the run of Tierno Bokar. Panel discussions focused on topics of religious tolerance and Muslim tradition in West Africa. 
In 1951, Brook married actress
Natasha Parry. They had two children: Irina, an actress and director, and Simon, a director. Parry died of a stroke in July 2015, aged 84. 
Works with RSC
Other major productions 1955 :
with Hamlet Paul Scofield 1958 :
with The Visit Alfred Lunt and Lynn Fontanne 1964 :
Marat/Sade 1968 :
with Oedipus John Gielgud and Irene Worth, adapted by Ted Hughes. National Theatre 1971 :
by Orghast Ted Hughes 1974 :
Timon d' Athènes, adaptation Jean-Claude Carrière, Théâtre des Bouffes du Nord 1975 :
by The Iks Colin Turnbull, adaptation Jean-Claude Carrière, Théâtre des Bouffes du Nord 1977 :
Ubu aux Bouffes after Alfred Jarry, Théâtre des Bouffes du Nord 1978 :
by Mesure pour mesure William Shakespeare, Théâtre des Bouffes du Nord 1979 :
( La Conférence des oiseaux ) after The Conference of the Birds Farid al-Din Attar, Festival d'Avignon, Théâtre des Bouffes du Nord 1979 :
L'Os de Mor Lam by Birago Diop, Théâtre des Bouffes du Nord 1981 :
after La Tragédie de Carmen Prosper Mérimée, Henri Meilhac and Ludovic Halévy, Viviane Beaumont Theater, Lincoln Center, New York 1981 :
by La Cerisaie Anton Chekhov, Théâtre des Bouffes du Nord 1984 :
Tchin-Tchin by François Billetdoux, mise en scène with Maurice Bénichou, with Marcello Mastroianni, Théâtre Montparnasse 1985 :
( Le Mahabharata ) The Mahabharata Festival d'Avignon 1988 :
The Cherry Orchard by Anton Chekhov, Majestic Theatre, Brooklyn 1989 :
Woza Albert! by Percy Mtawa, Mbongeni Ngema et Barney Simon 1990 :
by La Tempête William Shakespeare, adaptation Jean-Claude Carrière, with Sotigui Kouyaté, Théâtre des Bouffes du Nord 1992 :
Impressions de Pelléas after Claude Debussy, Théâtre des Bouffes du Nord 1993 :
L'Homme Qui after by The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat Oliver Sacks 1995 :
Qui est là after texts by Antonin Artaud, Bertolt Brecht, Edward Gordon Craig, Vsevolod Meyerhold, Konstantin Stanislavski and Motokiyo Zeami 1995 :
by Oh les beaux jours Samuel Beckett 1998 :
Je suis un phénomène after prodigieuse mémoire by Alexander Luria 1998 :
by Don Giovanni Mozart, création au 50ème Festival International d'Art Lyrique d'Aix-en-Provence 1999 :
Le Costume by Can Themba 2000 :
by Hamlet William Shakespeare, with Adrian Lester 2002 :
Far Away by Caryl Churchill 2002 :
La Mort de Krishna extrait du Mahabharata de Vyasa, adaptation Jean-Claude Carrière and Marie-Hélène Estienne 2003 :
Ta main dans la mienne by Carol Rocamora 2004 :
after Tierno Bokar Vie et enseignement de Tierno Bokar-Le sage de Bandiagara by Amadou Hampâté Bâ, with Sotigui Kouyaté 2004 :
after Le Grand Inquisiteur by The Brothers Karamazov Dostoyevsky 2006 :
by Sizwe Banzi est mort Athol Fugard, John Kani and Winston Ntshona, Festival d'Avignon 2008 :
Fragments after Samuel Beckett 2009 :
Love is my sin sonnets by William Shakespeare 2009 :
11 and 12 after Vie et enseignement de Tierno Bokar-Le Sage de Bandiagara by Amadou Hampâté Bâ 2010 :
Warum warum by Peter Brook et Marie-Hélène Estienne after Antonin Artaud, Edward Gordon Craig, Charles Dullin, Vsevolod Meyerhold, Motokiyo Zeami and William Shakespeare 2011 :
A Magic Flute an adaptation of the opera by The Magic Flute Mozart. Directed with Marie-Hélène Estienne, composer Franck Krawczyk to positive reviews at the  Gerald W. Lynch Theater of John Jay College. 2013 :
after Can Themba's tale. Directed with Marie-Hélène Estienne, Franck Krawczyk. The Suit 2015 :
, from The Mahabharata and Jean-Claude Carrière's play. Adapted and directed by Peter Brook and Marie-Hélène Estienne. Battlefield 2018 : "The Prisoner". Written and directed by Peter Brook and Marie-Hélène Estienne.
2019 : " Why?". Written and directed by Peter Brook and Marie-Hélène Estienne. 
Tony Award for Best Direction of a Play for , 1966 Marat/Sade 
Tony Award for Best Direction of a Play for , 1971 A Midsummer Night's Dream Freiherr von Stein Foundation Shakespeare Award, 1973
Grand Prix Dominique, 1975
Brigadier Prize, 1975, for
Timon of Athens
Society of West End Theatre Award, 1983
Emmy Award, 1984, for La tragédie de Carmen
Prix Italia, 1984
Europe Theatre Prize. 
International Emmy Award, 1990, for The Mahabharata
Praemium Imperiale, 1997
Dan David prize, 2005
The Ibsen Award for 2008, first winner of the prize of NOK2.5 mill (approximately £200,000).  Critics' Circle Award for Distinguished Service to the Arts 2008
Commander of the Order of the British Empire, 1965 Induction into the
American Theater Hall of Fame, 1983  Honorary
DLitt, University of Birmingham, 1990
Honorary Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford, 1991 Honorary
DLitt, University of Strathclyde, 1990 Honorary
DLitt, University of Oxford, 1994 Officier de l'Ordre de la
Légion d'honneur (France), 1995
Companion of Honour, 1998 (He previously declined a knighthood.) Commandeur de la Légion d'honneur (France), 2013
In 2011, he was awarded the
President's Medal by the British Academy.  Princess of Asturias Award in Arts, 2019 
Brook, Peter (1968). . Penguin (2008). The Empty Space
Brook, Peter (1988). The Shifting Point. UK: Methuen Drama. ISBN . 0-413-61280-5
Brook, Peter (1991). Le Diable c'est l'ennui.
Brook, Peter (1993). There Are No Secrets. Methuen Drama.
Brook, Peter (1995). . The Open Door
Brook, Peter (1998). . Threads of Time: Recollections
Brook, Peter (1999). Evoking Shakespeare. Nick Hern Books (2nd Ed 2002). Brook, Peter (23 April 2013). The Quality of Mercy: Reflections on Shakespeare. Nick Hern Books. ISBN . 978-1848422612
Taylor, Paul (5 September 2008). "Peter Brook: The director who wrote the book". The Independent . Retrieved 2015.
Aronson, Arnold (25 May 2005). "Peter Brook: A Biography". The New York Times.
^ a b
Michael Kustow (17 October 2013). . A&C Black. pp. 5-7. Peter Brook: A Biography ISBN 978-1-4088-5228-6 . Retrieved 2015.
Wittenberg, Isca (27 September 2007). "Obituary: Alexis Brook". The Guardian . Retrieved 2015.
"Category Archives: Memorial Plaques to Theater Artists". russianlandmarks . Retrieved 2015.
^ Chambers, Colin
The Continuum Companion To Twentieth Century Theatre (Continuum, 2002, ISBN 0-8264-4959-X) p. 384
Chrisafis, Angelique (17 December 2008). "Interview: Peter Brook says a long goodbye to his Paris theatre". London: Guardian . Retrieved 2008.
Brook, Peter (1968). . [New York] Discus Books. The Empty Space
Nicolescu, Basarab; Williams, David (1997). "Peter Brook and Traditional Thought". Contemporary Theatre Review. Overseas Publishers Association. 7: 11-23. doi: 10.1080/10486809708568441.
"Pas de deux" by Michael Holroyd, The Guardian, Saturday 7 March 2009
^ Gibbons, Fiachra
"The prayers of Peter Brook", The Guardian, 17 January 2010.
Brook, Peter. Threads of Time: A Memoir. ISBN . 0413733009 , 53
Morgenstern, Joe (17 April 1988). "Jean-Claude Pierre; the Mahabharata, the great history of mankind - interview about the stage adaptation". New York Times . Retrieved 2007.
Carriere, Jean-Claude (September 1989). "Jean-Claude Carriere; the Mahabharata, the great history of mankind - interview about the stage adaptation". UNESCO Courier . Retrieved 2007.
Margaret Croyden (25 August 1985). "Peter Brook transforms an Indian epic for the stage". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331 . Retrieved 2015.
Dasgupta, Gautam (1991). " "The Mahabharata: Peter Brook's Orientalism "". In Marranca, Bonnie; Gautam, Dasgupta (eds.). Interculturalism and Performance: Writings from PAJ. New York: PAJ Publications. p. 81.
Columbia University, "Record of Events", tiernobokar.columbia.edu; accessed 19 June 2015.
"Natasha Parry obituary". Guardian. 26 July 2015.
Tommasini, Anthony (7 July 2011). "A Streamlined 'Magic Flute,' Reimagined by Peter Brook". The New York Times.
^ Green, Jesse (26 September 2019). "
Review: Peter Brook Asks the Ultimate Question in 'Why?'". New York Times. Retrieved 14 October 2019.
"Tony Awards" . Retrieved 2008.
II Europe Theatre Prize / Reasons Europe Theatre Prize
"British director wins the Ibsen Prize". Norway.org. Archived from the original on 7 February 2009 . Retrieved 2008.
"Theater Hall of Fame Gets 10 New Members". New York Times. 10 May 1983.
"The British Academy President's Medal". British Academy . Retrieved 2017.
Acta del Jurado
Jamieson, Lee, Antonin Artaud: From Theory to Practice (Greenwich Exchange: London, 2007) Contains practical exercises on Artaud drawn from Brook's Theatre of Cruelty Season at the RSC; ISBN 978-1-871551-98-3 Freeman, John, 'The Greatest Shows on Earth: World Theatre from Peter Brook to the Sydney Olympics'. Libri: Oxford;
ISBN 978-1-90747-154-4 Heilpern, John,
Conference of the Birds: The Story of Peter Brook in Africa, Faber, 1977; ISBN 0-571-10372-3 Hunt, Albert and Geoffrey Reeves.
Peter Brook (Directors in Perspective). Cambridge University Press. (1995) Kustow, Michael.
Peter Brook: A Biography. Bloomsbury. (2005) Moffitt, Dale,
Between Two Silences: Talking with Peter Brook (1999) Todd, Andrew and Jean-Guy Lecat,
The Open Circle: Peter Brook's Theatre Environments (2003) Trewin, J. C.
Peter Brook: A Biography. (1971) Trowbridge, Simon.
The Company: A Biographical Dictionary of the Royal Shakespeare Company. Oxford: Editions Albert Creed, 2010; ISBN 978-0-9559830-2-3. Zohar, Ouriel, Meetings with Peter Brook, Zohar, Tel-Aviv 176 p. (1990) (in Hebrew)