Philip I of France
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Philip I of France

Philip I
Filip seal1.jpg
Philip's effigy on his seal
King of the Franks
Co-reign
Solo-reign
23 May 1059 - 4 August 1060;
4 August 1060 - 29 July 1108
Coronation23 May 1059
PredecessorHenry I
SuccessorLouis VI
Bornc. 1052
Champagne-et-Fontaine
Died29 July 1108(1108-07-29) (aged 55-56)
Melun
Burial
SpouseBertha of Holland
Bertrade de Montfort
IssueConstance, Princess of Antioch
Louis VI of France
Philip, Count of Mantes
Fleury, Seigneur of Nangis
Cecile, Princess of Galilee
HouseCapet
FatherHenry I of France
MotherAnne of Kiev
ReligionRoman Catholicism

Philip I (c.1052 - 29 July 1108), called the Amorous,[1] was King of the Franks from 1060 to 1108. His reign, like that of most of the early Capetians, was extraordinarily long for the time. The monarchy began a modest recovery from the low it reached in the reign of his father and he added to the royal demesne the Vexin[2] and Bourges.

Biography

Philip was born 23 May 1052 at Champagne-et-Fontaine, the son of Henry I and his wife Anne of Kiev.[3] Unusually for the time in Western Europe, his name was of Greek origin, being bestowed upon him by his mother. Although he was crowned king at the age of seven,[4] until age fourteen (1066) his mother acted as regent, the first queen of France ever to do so. Baldwin V of Flanders also acted as co-regent.[2]

Following the death of Baldwin VI of Flanders, Robert the Frisian seized Flanders. Baldwin's wife, Richilda requested aid from Philip, who was defeated by Robert at the battle of Cassel in 1071.[2]

Philip first married Bertha in 1072.[5] Although the marriage produced the necessary heir, Philip fell in love with Bertrade de Montfort, the wife of Fulk IV, Count of Anjou. He repudiated Bertha (claiming she was too fat) and married Bertrade on 15 May 1092.[6] In 1094, he was excommunicated by Hugh of Die, for the first time;[6] after a long silence, Pope Urban II repeated the excommunication at the Council of Clermont in November 1095.[7] Several times the ban was lifted as Philip promised to part with Bertrade, but he always returned to her, but in 1104 Philip made a public penance and must have kept his involvement with Bertrade discreet.[8] In France, the king was opposed by Bishop Ivo of Chartres, a famous jurist.[9]

Philip appointed Alberic first Constable of France in 1060. A great part of his reign, like his father's, was spent putting down revolts by his power-hungry vassals. In 1077, he made peace with William the Conqueror, who gave up attempting the conquest of Brittany.[10] In 1082, Philip I expanded his demesne with the annexation of the Vexin, in reprisal against Robert Curthose's attack on William's heir, William Rufus. Then in 1100, he took control of Bourges.[11]

2nd type denier under Philip I

It was at the aforementioned Council of Clermont that the First Crusade was launched. Philip at first did not personally support it because of his conflict with Urban II. Philip's brother Hugh of Vermandois, however, was a major participant.

Philip died in the castle of Melun and was buried per his request at the monastery of Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire[12] - and not in St Denis among his forefathers. He was succeeded by his son, Louis VI, whose succession was, however, not uncontested. According to Abbot Suger:

... King Philip daily grew feebler. For after he had abducted the Countess of Anjou, he could achieve nothing worthy of the royal dignity; consumed by desire for the lady he had seized, he gave himself up entirely to the satisfaction of his passion. So he lost interest in the affairs of state and, relaxing too much, took no care for his body, well-made and handsome though it was. The only thing that maintained the strength of the state was the fear and love felt for his son and successor. When he was almost sixty, he ceased to be king, breathing his last breath at the castle of Melun-sur-Seine, in the presence of the [future king] Louis... They carried the body in a great procession to the noble monastery of St-Benoît-sur-Loire, where King Philip wished to be buried; there are those who say they heard from his own mouth that he deliberately chose not to be buried among his royal ancestors in the church of St. Denis because he had not treated that church as well as they had, and because among those of so many noble kings, his own tomb would not have counted for much.

Coronation

In a context of weakening of the royal power[13], the current king Henri I decided to crown his son. It's an anticipation coronation. Philippe is only 7.

Thanks to religious writings, we know that the coronation took place on May 23 1059, on the Pentecost day. The coronation happened during the Mass, so the religious extent is important during this ceremony. Indeed, it took place at the Cathedral of Reims. It's a question of strengthen the king power and made him as a one of God's elect. The power of the king rests on a spiritual foundation so he offsets his weak power on politics power.[14]

The archbishop of Reims handles the coronation of Philippe I. Some bishops of the north of the kingdom are there (where the established power is very respected). There are also laypersons. Among them, great lords like the Duke of Aquitaine or some ambassadors of the Count of Flanders or of the Duke of Anjou. However, there are no representatives of the Duke of Normandy (William the Conqueror) because he is an enemy of the French king. During his consecration, Philippe has to read a text called "the profession". So he is commit to do quite a few things that the French king must fulfill. For example, he has to defend the Church as a whole and also be careful to keep the justice fair for the people.[15]

Philippe received the anointing. He received also power objects named "Regalia". After his coronation, the new king is acclaimed because the laypersons are in favor of his father, Henri I.

On the his father death, he became the sole king in 1060. Baldwin V, the count of Flanders, exercised the regency.[16]

Issue

Philip's children with Bertha were:

  1. Constance (1078 - 14 September 1126), married Hugh I of Champagne before 1097[17] and then, after her divorce, to Bohemund I of Antioch in 1106.[18]
  2. Louis VI of France (1 December 1081 - 1 August 1137).[18]
  3. Henry (1083 - died young).

Philip's children with Bertrade were:

  1. Philip, Count of Mantes (1093 - fl. 1123),[19] married Elizabeth, daughter of Guy III of Montlhéry[20]
  2. Fleury, Seigneur of Nangis (1095 - July 1119)[21]
  3. Cecile (1097 - 1145), married Tancred, Prince of Galilee[22] and then, after his death, to Pons of Tripoli.[23]

Ancestry

References

  1. ^ McDougall 2017, p. 154.
  2. ^ a b c Hallam 1980, p. 50-51.
  3. ^ Bradbury 2007, p. 111.
  4. ^ Strickland 2016, p. 342.
  5. ^ Bradbury 2007, p. 114.
  6. ^ a b Bradbury 2007, p. 119.
  7. ^ Somerville 2011, p. 118.
  8. ^ d'Avray 2014, p. 47.
  9. ^ Rolker 2009, p. 16.
  10. ^ Petit-Dutaillis 1936, p. 81.
  11. ^ Shepherd 2003, p. 13.
  12. ^ Brown 1990, p. 807.
  13. ^ Mayor of the Palace
  14. ^ Jackson, Richard A. (2000). Ordinaes coronationis Franciae. Philadelphie: University of Pennsylvania Press. pp. p.233-236. ISBN 9780812232639.CS1 maint: extra text (link)
  15. ^ "Anonyme :PROCÈS-VERBAL DU SACRE DE PHILIPPE Ier, A RHEIMS, LE 23 MAI 1059". remacle.org. Retrieved 2020.
  16. ^ "Louis VI | king of France". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2020.
  17. ^ Paul 2012, p. 38.
  18. ^ a b Huscroft 2016, p. xi.
  19. ^ Power 2004, p. 85.
  20. ^ Bradbury 2007, p. 131.
  21. ^ McDougall 2017, p. 155.
  22. ^ McDougall 2017, p. 159.
  23. ^ Hodgson 2007, p. 217.

Sources

  • d'Avray, David, ed. (2014). "Philip I of France and Bertrade". Dissolving Royal Marriages: A Documentary History, 860-1600. Cambridge University Press.
  • Bradbury, Jim (2007). The Capetians: The History of a Dynasty. Bloomsbury Publishing.
  • Brown, Elizabeth A. R. (1990). "Authority, the Family, and the Dead in Late Medieval France". French Historical Studies. 16 (4 Autumn).
  • Hallam, Elizabeth (1980). Capetian France: 987-1328. Longman Group Ltd.
  • Hodgson, Natasha R. (2007). Women, Crusading and the Holy Land in Historical Narrative. The Boydell Press.
  • Huscroft, Richard (2016). Tales from the Long Twelfth Century: The Rise and Fall of the Angevin Empire. Yale University Press.
  • McDougall, Sara (2017). Royal Bastards: The Birth of Illegitimacy, 800-1230. Oxford University Press.
  • Paul, Nicholas L. (2012). To Follow in Their Footsteps: The Crusades and Family Memory in the High Middle Ages. Cornell University Press.
  • Petit-Dutaillis, C. (1936). The Feudal Monarchy in France and England:From the 10th to the 13th Century. Translated by Hunt, E.D. Routledge.
  • Power, Daniel (2004). The Norman Frontier in the Twelfth and Early Thirteenth Centuries. Cambridge University Press.
  • Rolker, Christof (2009). Canon Law and the Letters of Ivo of Chartres. Cambridge University Press.
  • Shepherd, Jonathan (2003). "The 'muddy-road' of Odo Arpin from Bourges to La Charitie-sur-Loire". In Edbury, Peter; Phillips, Jonathan (eds.). The Experience of Crusading. Vol. 1. Cambridge University Press.
  • Somerville, Robert (2011). Pope Urban II's Council of Piacenza. Oxford University Press.
  • Strickland, Matthew (2016). Henry the Young King, 1155-1183. Yale University Press.
  • Jackson, Richard A. (2000). Ordines coronationis Franciae. University of Pennsylvania Press.
Philip I of France
Born: 23 May 1052 Died: 29 July 1108
Preceded by
Henry I
King of the Franks
4 August 1060 - 29 July 1108
Succeeded by
Louis VI

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