Philippa of Hainault
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Philippa of Hainault

Philippa of Hainault (Middle French: Philippe de Hainaut; 24 June 1310 (or 1315)[1][2][3] - 15 August 1369) was Queen of England as the wife and political adviser of King Edward III.[4] She acted as regent in 1346,[5] when her husband was away for the Hundred Years' War.

Daughter of Count Willam of Hainaut and French Princess Joan of Valois, Philippa was engaged to Edward, Prince of Wales, in 1326.[6] Their marriage was celebrated in York Minster on 24 January 1328, some months after Edward's accession to the throne of England and Isabella of France's infamous invasion.[7] After her husband reclaimed the throne, Philippa influenced King Edward to take interest in the nation's commercial expansion, was part of the successful Battle of Neville's Cross, and often went on expeditions to Scotland and France. She won much popularity with the English people for her compassion in 1347, when she successfully persuaded the King to spare the lives of the Burghers of Calais. This popularity helped maintain peace in England throughout their long reign.[8]

Childhood

Philippa of Hainaut and her family seated under the canopy.

Philippa was born on 24 June c.1310/15, in Valenciennes, Low Countries. She was one of eight children and the second of five daughters born from William I, Count of Hainaut, and Joan of Valois, granddaughter of King Philip III of France.[9]

King Edward II decided that an alliance with Flanders would benefit England and sent Bishop Stapledon of Exeter on the Continent as an ambassador. On his journey, he crossed into the county of Hainaut to inspect the daughters of Count William of Hainaut, to determine which daughter would be the most suitable as an eventual bride for young Prince Edward. The bishop's report to the King describes one of the Count's daughters in detail. A later annotation says it describes Philippa as a child, but historian Ian Mortimer argues that it is actually an account of her older sister Margaret.[10] The description runs:

The lady whom we saw has not uncomely hair, betwixt blue-black and brown... Her face narrows between the eyes and its lower part is more narrow than her forehead. Her eyes are blackish-brown and deep. Her nose is fairly smooth and even, save that it is somewhat broad at the tip and flattened, and yet it is no snub-nose... Her lips are full, especially the lower lip... Her lower teeth project a little beyond the upper; yet this is but little seen... All her body is well set and unmaimed; and nought is amiss so far as a man may see. Moreover, she is brown of skin all over, much like her father. And she will be of the age of nine years on St. John's day next to come, as her mother said. She is neither too tall nor too short for such an age; she is of fair carriage. The damsel is well taught in all that becometh her rank and highly esteemed and well beloved by her parents and of all her meinie, in so far as we could inquire and learn the truth. In all things, she is pleasant enough, as it seems to us.[11]

Growing up in the Low Countries in the period when this region was growing into a major trading centre, Philippa was well versed in finances and diplomacy. Her older sister Margaret succeeded their brother William II, Count of Hainaut upon his death in battle. The counties of Holland and Zealand as well as of the seigniory of Frieze were devolved to Margaret after agreement between the sisters.[12]

Four years later in the summer of 1326, Queen Isabella of France arrived at the Hainaut court to seek aid from Count William in order to depose her husband from the throne. Prince Edward had accompanied his mother to Hainaut, where she arranged the betrothal to 13-year-old Philippa in exchange for assistance. As the couple were second cousins, a Papal dispensation was required;[13] and sent from Pope John XXII at Avignon in September 1327. Philippa's retinue arrived in England on December, escorted by her uncle John of Hainaut. On 23 December, she reached London where a "rousing reception was accorded her".[14]

Queen of England

Queen Philippa interceding for the Burghers of Calais by J.D. Penrose.
Half groat with portrait of King Edward III, York mint.

First years

In October 1327, Philippa married Edward by proxy through the Bishop of Coventry in Valenciennes.[15] The official marriage was at York Minster on 24 January 1328, eleven months after Edward's accession to the English throne; although the de facto rulers were Queen Mother Isabella and her avaricious lover, Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March, who jointly acted as his regents. Soon after their marriage, the couple retired to live at Woodstock Palace in Oxfordshire. Unlike many of her predecessors, Philippa didn't alienate the English people by retaining her foreign retinue or bringing large numbers of foreigners to the English court. In August, her dower was fixed.[16] She became a patron of the chronicler Jean Froissart and owned several illuminated manuscripts, one of which currently is housed in the national library in Paris. Froissart began to describe her as "The most gentle Queen, most liberal, and most courteous that ever was Queen in her days."

As Isabella didn't wish to relinquish her own status, Philippa's coronation was postponed for two years. She was crowned Queen on 18 February 1330 at Westminster Abbey, when she was almost five months pregnant.[17] She gave birth to her first son, Edward, the following June. In October 1330, King Edward commenced his personal rule by staging a coup and ordering the arrest of the regents. Shortly afterward, Mortimer was executed for treason and then the Queen Mother was sent to Castle Rising in Norfolk, where she spent a number of years under house arrest but with her privileges and freedom of movement eventually restored.

Political influence

Philippa proved to be the model of a queen consort and worked tirelessly for the crown, maintaining balance between royal and familial duties admired in tumultuous times. She was widely loved and respected as Queen Consort who managed to have a successful marriage with Edward.

As the financial demands of the recent Hundred Years' War were enormous, Philippa wisely advised the King to take interest in the nation's commercial expansion as a different method of covering the expenses.[18] She established textile industry at Norwich by encouraging Flemish weavers to settle there and promoted coal industry at Tynedale.

In 1364-65, Edward III demanded the return of Hainaut and other inheritances which had been given over to the Dukes of Bavaria-Straubing in the name of Philippa, but he wasn't successful since the custom in these regions favoured male heirs.[19]

Military campaigns

Phillipa served as regent of England during the absence of her spouse in 1346. Facing a Scottish invasion, she gathered the English army, fought the Scots at the Battle of Neville's Cross near Durham, and rallied the English soldiers on horse before them prior to the battle. This event resulted in an English victory and the Scottish King David II being taken prisoner, and held captive for eleven years.[5]

Philippa accompanied her husband on expeditions to Scotland and the rest of Europe in the early campaigns of the Hundred Years War, where she won acclaim for her gentle nature and compassion. In 1347, she is remembered as the kind woman who persuaded her husband to spare the lives of the Burghers of Calais, whom he had planned to execute as an example to the townspeople following his successful siege of that port.

Death

Effigies of King Edward III and Queen Philippa of Hainaut.

On 15 August 1369, Queen Philippa died of an illness similar to edema in Windsor Castle. She was given a state funeral six months later on 9 January 1370 and was interred at Westminster Abbey. Her alabaster effigy was beautifully executed by sculptor Jean de Liège. Her tomb was placed on the northeast side of the Chapel of Edward the Confessor and on the opposite side of her husband's grandparents, Edward I and Eleanor of Castile. Eight years later, Edward III died and was buried next to Philippa. By all accounts, their forty-year marriage had been happy.[20]

The 17th-century English scholar Joshua Barnes said "Queen Philippa was a very good and charming person who exceeded most ladies for sweetness of nature and virtuous disposition." The Queen's College, Oxford was founded by her chaplain Robert de Eglesfield in her honour.

Issue

Philippa of Hainaut's arms as Queen consort[21]

Philippa and Edward had thirteen children,[22] including five sons who lived into adulthood. Three of their children died of the Black Death in 1348.[23] The rivalry of their numerous descendants would bring about the long-running and bloody dynastic wars known as the Wars of the Roses in the 15th century.

Name Birth Death Notes
Edward, the Black Prince 15 June 1330
Woodstock Palace, Oxfordshire
8 June 1376 Married his cousin Joan, Countess of Kent. Had issue (King Richard II of England).
Isabella 16 June 1332
Woodstock Palace, Oxfordshire
April 1379 or 17 June/5 October 1382 Married Enguerrand VII de Coucy, 1st Earl of Bedford. Had issue.
Joan 19 December 1333 or 28 January 1334[24]
Tower of London
1 July 1348 Betrothed to King Pedro of Castile, but died of the plague before the marriage could take place. Two of Pedro's two daughters would later marry Joan's younger brothers, John and Edmund.
William of Hatfield December 1336
Hatfield, South Yorkshire[25]
Died shortly after birth. Buried at York Minster before 10 February 1337.[26]
Lionel, 1st Duke of Clarence 29 November 1338
Antwerp
7 October 1368 Married (1) Elizabeth de Burgh, 4th Countess of Ulster. Married (2) Violante Visconti, Marchioness of Montferrat. Had issue.
John, 1st Duke of Lancaster 6 March 1340
Ghent
3 February 1399 Married (1) Blanche of Lancaster, member of the kingdom's most powerful and wealthiest family. Married (2) Infanta Constance of Castile. Married (3) his former mistress Katherine Swynford. Had issue (Henry IV of England and the Dukes of Beaufort).
Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York 5 June 1341
Kings Langley, Hertfordshire
1 August 1402 Married (1) Infanta Isabella of Castile and (2) Joan Holland (his 2nd cousin). Had issue.
Blanche
March 1342
Tower of London
Died shortly after birth. Buried at Westminster Abbey.
Mary 10 October 1344
Bishop's Waltham, Hampshire
September 1361 Married John IV, Duke of Brittany. No issue.
Margaret 20 July 1346
Windsor
1 October/25 December 1361 Married John Hastings, 2nd Earl of Pembroke. No issue.
Thomas[27] Summer 1347[27]
Windsor
September 1348 Died in infancy of the plague. Buried at King's Langley Church, Hertfordshire.
William of Windsor before 24 June 1348
Windsor
before 5 Sep 1348 Died in infancy. Buried at Westminster Abbey.
Thomas, 1st Duke of Gloucester 7 January 1355
Woodstock Palace, Oxfordshire
8/9 September 1397 Married Eleanor de Bohun, co-heiress of Humphrey de Bohun, 7th Earl of Hereford. Had issue.

In popular culture

Philippa is a character in The Accursed Kings, a series of French historical novels by Maurice Druon. She was portrayed by Françoise Burgi in the 1972 French miniseries adaptation of the series, and by Marie de Villepin in the 2005 adaptation.[28]

Ancestry

Notes

  1. ^ St. John, Lisa Benz (2012). Three Medieval Queens: Queenship and the Crown in Fourteenth-Century England. New York: Palgrave MacMillan. p. 4. doi:10.1057/9781137094322. ISBN 978-1-349-29483-1.
  2. ^ David Williamson, Debrett's Kings and Queens of Britain, p.81, Webb and Bower Publishers, Ltd., London, 1986
  3. ^ W. M. Ormrod, Edward III, (Yale University Press, 2012), [1]
  4. ^ Strickland, Agnes, Lives of the queens of England from the Norman conquest, Vol.2, (George Barrie and Sons, 1902), 222.
  5. ^ a b Strickland, Agnes. Lives of the Queens of England: From the Norman Conquest
  6. ^ Geoffroy G. Sury, Guillaume Ier (d'Avesnes) comte de Hainaut et sa fille Philippe, in " Bayern Straubing Hennegau : la Maison de Bavière en Hainaut, XIVe - XVe s. ", Edit. Geoffroy G. Sury, Bruxelles, 2010 (2e éd.), p. 55 : - Un parchemin daté du 27 August 1326 à Mons, au sceau brisé, énonce qu'Edouard, duc de Guyenne (futur Edouard III roi d'Angleterre), fils aîné du roi Edouard (II) d'Angleterre, s'engage à prendre pour épouse, endéans les deux ans, Philippa, fille du comte Guillaume (Ier) de Hainaut, etc. In, G. Wymans, " Inventaire analytique du chartrier de la Trésorerie des comtes de Hainaut ", aux A. E. Mons, n° d'ordre (cote) 574, Editions A.G.R., Bruxelles, 1985, p. 128.
  7. ^ Un parchemin daté du 15 August 1328 à Northampton, au sceau disparu, énonce qu'Edouard (III), roi d'Angleterre, confirme la fixation du douaire de son épouse Philippa de Hainaut. In, G. Wymans, " Inventaire analytique du chartrier de la Trésorerie des comtes de Hainaut ", aux A.E. Mons, n° d'ordre (cote) 596, Editions A.G.R., Bruxelles, 1985, p. 132.
  8. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica, retrieved 10 March 2010
  9. ^ Leese, Thelma Anna, Blood royal: issue of the kings and queens of medieval England, 1066-1399, (Heritage Books Inc., 2007), 140.
  10. ^ Mortimer, Ian, The Perfect King: The Life of Edward III, Father of the English Nation, Vintage 2008, p.34.
  11. ^ The original document is written in Norman French. This is the translation derived from The Register of Walter de Stapledon, Bishop of Exeter, 1307-1326, ed. F. C. Hingeston-Randolph (London, 1892), p.169. It is used in several books of the 1950s-60s, including G. G. Coulton, Medieval Panorama: The English Scene from Conquest to Reformation, Meridian Books, New York, 1955, p.644.; W. O. Hassal, How They Lived: An Anthology of Original Accounts Written before 1485, Blackwell, Oxford, 1962, p.95. However, Michael Prestwich's 2005 summary translates the description of the hair as "between blonde and brown" (the original is "entre bloy et brun"); Plantagenet England, 1225-1360 Clarendon, Oxford, 2005, p.215
  12. ^ Geoffroy G. Sury, Bayern Straubing Hennegau: la Maison de Bavière en Hainaut, XIVe - XVe s., Edit. Geoffroy G. Sury, Bruxelles, © 2010 (2e éd.), p. 66 : - Un chirographe sur parchemin daté du 17 October 1346 à Ypres (Ieper), dont le sceau est détruit, énonce un accord conclu entre l'impératrice Marguerite II comtesse de Hainaut (épouse de Louis IV de Bavière, empereur germanique) etc., et sa soeur Philippe (Philippa de Hainaut), reine d'Angleterre (épouse du roi Edouard III) touchant la succession de leur défunt frère, Guillaume II comte de Hainaut, etc. Philippa, renonçant à ses prétentions sur le Hainaut, la Hollande, la Zélande et la Frise. In, G. Wymans, « Inventaire analytique du chartrier de la Trésorerie des comtes de Hainaut », aux A.E. Mons, n° d'ordre (cote) 869, Editions A.G.R., Bruxelles, 1985, p. 190.; - Un parchemin daté du 7/09/1346 à Francfort (Frankfurt am Main), dont le sceau est détruit, énonce que Louis IV de Bavière empereur du St.-Empire Romain Germanique s'engage pour lui-même et ses héritiers, et au nom de son épouse, l'impératrice Marguerite, à ne jamais céder, diviser ni engager les comtés de Hainaut, de Hollande, de Zélande et de la seigneurie de Frise, qui appartiennent à la dite Marguerite (Marguerite II (d'Avesnes) comtesse de Hainaut) et à ses héritiers, sauf les droits de ses soeurs, et, après le décès de cette dernière, à leur deuxième fils, Guillaume (futur Guillaume III comte de Hainaut) duc (I) de Bavière, et, celui-ci décédé, à Albert (futur Albert Ier comte de Hainaut), duc (I) de Bavière, leur troisième fils. In, G. Wymans, « Inventaire analytique du chartrier de la Trésorerie des comtes de Hainaut », aux A.E. Mons, n° d'ordre (cote) 868, Editions A.G.R., Bruxelles, 1985, p. 190. (Or. sur pch.; dét. (Frankfurt am Main, 7/09/1346.); - Un autre parchemin daté du 8/09/1346 à Geertruidenberg, d'après une traduction latine de l'allemand datée du 16 March 1347 (date nouv. st.), énonce que Marguerite II comtesse de Hainaut (épouse de Louis IV de Bavière, empereur germanique) etc., commet son fils Guillaume (futur Guillaume III comte de Hainaut) au gouvernement des comtés de Hainaut, de Hollande, de Zélande, et de la seigneurie de Frise durant son absence. In, G. Wymans, « Inventaire analytique du chartrier de la Trésorerie des comtes de Hainaut », aux A.E. Mons, n° d'ordre (cote) 868, Editions A.G.R., Bruxelles, 1985, p. 190.
  13. ^ David Williamson, Debrett's Kings and Queens of Britain, p.81
  14. ^ Thomas B. Costain, The Three Edwards, p.249, Doubleday and Company, Garden City, New York, 1958
  15. ^ Sury Geoffroy G., "Guillaume Ier (d'Avesnes) comte de Hainaut et sa fille Philippe", in, Bayern Straubing Hennegau : la Maison de Bavière en Hainaut, XIVe - XVe s., Edit. Geoffroy G. Sury, Bruxelles, 2010 (2e éd.), p. 55 : - Un parchemin daté du 30 August 1327 à Avignon, à un sceau, énonce que le pape Jean (XXII) accorde les dispenses nécessaires pour le mariage du roi Edouard (III) d'Angleterre et de Philippa, fille du comte Guillaume (Ier) de Hainaut, etc., sa parente au troisième degré. In, G. Wymans, " Inventaire analytique du chartrier de la Trésorerie des comtes de Hainaut ", aux A.E. Mons, n° d'ordre (cote) 583, Editions A.G.R., Bruxelles, 1985, p. 130.; - Un parchemin daté du 8/10/1327 à Nottingham, au sceau disparu, énonce qu'Edouard (III), roi d'Angleterre, donne procuration à R., évêque de Coventry, pour épouser en son nom, Philippa, fille du comte Guillaume (Ier) de Hainaut, etc., et régler la constitution de son douaire. In, G. Wymans, " Inventaire analytique du chartrier de la Trésorerie des comtes de Hainaut ", aux A.E. Mons, n° d'ordre (cote) 587, Editions A.G.R., Bruxelles, 1985, p. 131.
  16. ^ Un parchemin daté du 15 August 1328 à Northampton, au sceau disparu, énonce qu'Edouard (III), roi d'Angleterre, confirme la fixation du douaire de son épouse Philippa de Hainaut. In, G. Wymans, " Inventaire analytique du chartrier de la Trésorerie des comtes de Hainaut ", aux A.E. Mons, n° d'ordre (cote) 596, Editions A.G.R., Bruxelles, 1985, p. 132.
  17. ^ Vale 2010.
  18. ^ Costain, p.242
  19. ^ Geoffroy G. Sury, Bayern Straubing Hennegau, XIV - XVe s.: la Maison de Bavière en Hainaut, Edit. Geoffroy G. Sury, Bruxelles, © 2010 (2e éd.), p. 128: - Les 12-18 mai 1364, Albert de Bavière, bail et gouverneur des comtés de Hainaut, etc., sollicita les Etats généraux de Hainaut, de Hollande, de Zélande et de Frise, de donner leurs avis sur les prétentions du roi Edouard (III) d'Angleterre, du chef de son épouse Philippa de Hainaut, à la succession des dits pays de Hainaut, de Hollande, de Zélande et de Frise. Ces quatre Etats déclarèrent que la coutume de ceux-ci réservait cette succession aux hoirs mâles, par primogéniture, et s'opposait au dénombrement desdits pays. In, G. Wymans, « Inventaire analytique du chartrier de la Trésorerie des comtes de Hainaut », aux A.E. Mons, n° d'ordre (cote) 1052, Editions A.G.R., Bruxelles, 1985, p. 223. (Or. sur pch.; 8 sc. ébréchés et brisés, 16 sc. disp.); - Réponse opposée, (en 1364) après consultation des Etats des pays concernés, par le duc de Bavière (Albert Ier), bail et gouverneur des comtés de Hainaut, etc., aux prétentions du roi Edouard III d'Angleterre évoquées précédemment. In, G. Wymans, « Inventaire analytique du chartrier de la Trésorerie des comtes de Hainaut », aux A.E. Mons, n° d'ordre (cote) 1053, Editions A.G.R., Bruxelles, 1985, p. 224. (Minute sur parchemin, (Sans date (mai 1364.); - A Westminster, le 6 décembre 1365, le roi Edouard (III) d'Angleterre accorde un sauf-conduit au duc Albert de Bavière et à 120 suivants pour venir traiter à la Cour d'Angleterre du différend relatif au douaire de la reine Philippa (de Hainaut), son épouse, à la condition qu'il soit accompagné de membres des Etats de Hainaut, de Hollande, de Zélande, et de Frise, et muni de lettres de pleins pouvoirs délivrés par ces mêmes Etats pour parvenir à un accord définitif. In, G. Wymans, « Inventaire analytique du chartrier de la Trésorerie des comtes de Hainaut », aux A.E. Mons, n° d'ordre (cote) 1061, Editions A.G.R., Bruxelles, 1985, p. 225. (Or. sur pch.; sc. disp.)
  20. ^ Vale, Juliet (23 September 2010). "Philippa of Hainault". Dictionary of National Biography. Archived from the original on 2 June 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  21. ^ Boutell, Charles (1863). "A Manual of Heraldry, Historical and Popular". London: Winsor & Newton: 276. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  22. ^ Cawley, Charles (August 2012), England, Kings (1066-1603), Medieval Lands database, Foundation for Medieval Genealogy,[self-published source][better source needed]
  23. ^ "Philippa of Hainault". www.englishmonarchs.co.uk. Retrieved 2018.
  24. ^ The Perfect King: The Life of Edward III Father of the English Nation, Ian Mortimer, Vintage Books London, 2006
  25. ^ 'Gesta Edwardi de Carnarvon auctore cononici Bridlingtoniensi, cum continuatione ad A.D. 1377', Chronicles of the Reigns of Edward I and II, ed. W Stubbs, 2 vols. (RS, London, 1882-3), Vol. 63, ii, pp. 128-9.
  26. ^ 'Register of William Melton, Archbishop of York 1317-1340', ed. R.M. Hill, Canterbury and York Society, Vol 70 (1977), p.109 No.370
  27. ^ a b Cawley, Charles. "Medieval Lands Project: Kings of England, 1066-1603". Foundation for Medieval Genealogy. Retrieved 2012.
  28. ^ "Les Rois maudits: Casting de la saison 1" (in French). AlloCiné. 2005. Archived from the original on 19 December 2014. Retrieved 2015.
  29. ^ Selby, Walford Dakin; Harwood, H. W. Forsyth; Murray, Keith W. (1895). The genealogist. London: George Bell & Sons. p. 228.

Sources

  • Arnold, Margot. Queen Consorts of England: The Power Behind the Throne. New York: Facts On File, 1993.
  • Ashley, Mike (2002). British Kings & Queens. Carroll & Graf. ISBN 0-7867-1104-3. pages 185 & 186.
  • Salmonson, Jessica Amanda. (1991) The Encyclopedia of Amazons. Paragon House. page 212. ISBN 1-55778-420-5
  • Sury, Geoffroy G., Bayern Straubing Hennegau: la Maison de Bavière en Hainaut, XIVe - XVe s., (2nd Ed.), Geoffroy G. Sury, Edit., Brussels, 2010. pp. 55, 66 & 128.
  • Vale, Juliet (2010) [2004]. "Philippa [Philippa of Hainault] (1310×15?-1369)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/22110.(Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  • Weir, Alison (1999). Britain's Royal Family: A Complete Genealogy. London: Bodley Head. ISBN 0-7126-7448-9. page 92.

See also

English royalty
Vacant
Title last held by
Isabella of France
Queen consort of England
Lady of Ireland

24 January 1328 - 15 August 1369
Vacant
Title next held by
Anne of Bohemia


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